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Q1: The use of M&M’s candy as a replacement for chocolate chips in baked goods is an example of

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Answer: market modification.

Q2: The use of OB MOD can potentially curtail organizational citizenship behaviors

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Answer: Correct – True

Q3: The use of technology designed to make the sales function more effective and efficient is called

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Answer: sales force computerization

Q4: The validity of an instrument is refers to the consistency of the results given

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q5: The values and norms of a nation have a profound impact on the culture of each and every organization operating or headquartered within it

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Answer: Correct – True

Q6: The variable about which the prediction is made is called a

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Answer: criterion variable

Q7: The variable about which the prediction is made is called the predictor variable

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q8: The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment is called the

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Answer: independent variable

Q9: The variable that is predicted in a prediction study is the

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Answer: criterion variable

Q10: The variable that is used to make the prediction is called

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Answer: predictior variable

Q11: The variable that is used to make the prediction is called the criterion variable

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q12: The Vroom and Yetton Model instructs leaders to choose among alternative decision styles (e.g. autocratic, consultative) on the basis of their answers to a series of questions including which of the following

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Answer: Does the leader have the information needed to make a good decision

Q13: The way managers treat their employees and the extent to which they provide explanations for their decisions influence employees’ perceptions of procedural justice

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Answer: Correct – True

Q14: There are five basic transportation modes. They are air carrier, motor carrier, and

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Answer: pipelines, railways and water carriers

Q15: There are really only two ways to collect observation-based primary data for a marketing study

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Answer: watching, mechanically or in person

Q16: There are several reasons to do a content analysis including: to obtain descriptive information of one kind or another, to test hypotheses, to check other research findings, and/or analyze observational and interview data

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Answer: Correct – True

Q17: There are three situational characteristics used in Fiedler’s Contingency Leadership model for determining whether a situation is favorable, moderately favorable, or unfavorable for leadership. The characteristics EXCLUDE the following

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Answer: Whether the leader tends to use initiating structure or consideration.

Q18: There are three types of causal-comparative research (exploration of effects, exploration of causes, exploration of consequences)

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Answer: Correct – True

Q19: There are two major types of surveys that can be conducted: cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal surveys

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Answer: Correct – True

Q20: There are two types of values: work values and social values

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q21: These variables are those that are created by the researcher. These are typically found in experimental studies

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Answer: manipulated

Q22: These variables are those that the researcher chooses to study in order to assess their possible effects on one or more other variables

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Answer: independent

Q23: The___is an integrated demand-based classification framework that classifies both goods and services according to how they are principally used

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Answer: NAPCS

Q24: The___is the level at which business unit managers set the direction for their products and markets to exploit value-creating opportunities

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Answer: business unit level

Q25: The___is where top management directs overall strategy for the entire organization

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Answer: corporate level

Q26: The___stage of the product life cycle is characterized by rapid increases in sales

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Answer: growth

Q27: The___stage of the product life cycle occurs when a product is first introduced to its intended target market

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Answer: introduction

Q28: This alternative perspective on moral philosophy focuses on “the greatest good for the greatest number of people.”

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Answer: Utilitarianism

Q29: This federal agency has the major responsibility for establishing the guidelines for research involving human subjects

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Answer: Health and Human Services

Q30: This is an example of a “cyberservice”

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Answer: on-line matchmaking services

Q31: This pricing objective, intended for use during a firm’s financially hard times, involves attracting more customers with lower prices to gain market share. The objective is called

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Answer: survival objective

Q32: This study selects different samples from the same population whose members do not change over the course of the study

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Answer: cohort study

Q33: This survey collects information from a sample that has been drawn from a predetermined population, and the information is collected at just one point in time

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Answer: cross-sectional survey

Q34: This trade association’s code of ethics is one of the most explicit in the industry

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Answer: Canadian Marketing Association

Q35: This type of content refers to the obvious, surface content the words, pictures, and images that are directly accessible to the naked eye or ear

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Answer: manifest

Q36: This type of measurement scale involves the use of numbers to represent equal distances from a known zero point

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Answer: ratio

Q37: This type of research is intended to be carried out by any professional, in any type of school, to investigate a problem. The findings are limited in their generalizability

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Answer: action research

Q38: This type of research is intended to determine the cause for or the consequences of differences between groups of people

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Answer: causal-comparative

Q39: This variable depends upon what is done to it by the independent variable

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Answer: dependent

Q40: Those individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others are

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Answer: Opinion leaders

Q41: Threat of maturation is possible whenever all instruments are administered to each subject at a specified location but the location is different for different subjects

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q42: Threats to the internal validity of survey research include location, instrumentation, instrument decay, and mortality

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Answer: Correct – True

Q43: Three commonly used methods of controlling marketing programs are

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Answer: sales analysis, profitability analysis, and marketing audits

Q44: Three cost concepts are important in pricing decisions: total cost, variable cost, and

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Answer: fixed cost

Q45: Three techniques that were developed to help groups make good decisions that promote high levels of performance and positive attitudes and avoid some of the disadvantages are the following: brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and the Delphi technique

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Answer: Correct – True

Q46: Three weak designs that are occasionally used in experimental research are the one-shot case study design, the one-group pretest-posttest design, and the static-group design

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Answer: Correct – True

Q47: To encourage buyers to stock inventory earlier than their normal demand would require, manufacturers often use___discounts

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Answer: Seasonal

Q48: To encourage customers to buy larger quantities of a product, firms offer a special discount commonly known as a

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Answer: quantity discount

Q49: To encourage retailers to pay their bills quickly, manufacturers offer a special discount

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Answer: cash discount

Q50: To fully understand the power structure of an organization, a manager needs only to analyze the source of expert power

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q51: To implement a TQM program, managers must be willing to decentralize decision making, empower employees, and become facilitators rather than supervisors

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Answer: Correct – True

Q52: To increase the likelihood that groups of subjects will be equivalent, pairs of subjects may be matched on certain variables. The members of the matched groups are then randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups

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Answer: Correct – True

Q53: To meet the challenge of ensuring that a group’s actual performance equals its potential performance, managers

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Answer: Must try to eliminate as many process losses as

Q54: To obtain evidence of concurrent validity a researcher will have to

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Answer: gather instrument data and criterion data at nearly the same time

Q55: To obtain evidence of predictive validity a researcher will have to

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Answer: allow a time interval to elapse between administration of the instrument and obtaining the criterion scores

Q56: To some degree, persons within the same___exhibit common attitudes, lifestyles, and buying behaviours

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Answer: Social class

Q57: To some organizations, being socially responsible means performing any action, as long as it is legal

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Answer: Correct – True

Q58: Total revenue is defined as

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Answer: TR=PxQ

Q59: Toyota created the Scion brand in the U.S. to appeal to which group

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Answer: Generation Y or the Net Generation

Q60: Transformational leaders influence their followers through developmental consideration, which concerns the behavior through which a leader provides support and encouragement to followers and gives them opportunities to develop and grow on the job by acquiring new skills and capabilities. It also includes the leader’s concern for the follower’s well being

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Answer: Correct – True

Q61: Transformational leaders influence their followers, as noted in the text, through the following: being charismatic, intellectually stimulating their followers, and engaging in leader reward and punishment behavior

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q62: Triangulation is a means of checking

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Answer: validity

Q63: Two countries least likely to engage in bribery are

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Answer: Finland and Iceland

Q64: Two disadvantages to group decision-making are the potential for groupthink and the financial resources required to make a group decision

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q65: Two displays for analyzing the relationship between two categorical variables are chi square and pie charts

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q66: Two major advantages of content analysis research are that it is unobtrusive and it is comparatively easy to conduct

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Answer: Correct – True

Q67: Two major means of data collection in ethnographic research are

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Answer: participant observation and interviewing

Q68: Two of the most common forms of publicity are

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Answer: news release and news conference

Q69: Two ways to decrease the probability of undesired behaviors in an organization are

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Answer: Extinction and punishment

Q70: Ultimately,___are responsible for ethical and socially responsible behaviour

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Answer: consumers and marketers

Q71: Uncertainty is an aspect of stress and refers to one’s perceived ability to handle an opportunity or threat effectively

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Answer: Correct – True

Q72: Units, such as manufacturers, retailers, or government agencies, that buy goods and services for their own use or for resale are known as

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Answer: organizational buyers

Q73: Use of emerging coding categories requires

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Answer: in-depth familiarity with content

Q74: Using price as a measure of the quality of a product and setting price high is

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Answer: prestige pricing

Q75: Using the counterbalanced design, which of the following threats to internal validity is most likely to occur

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Answer: implementation

Q76: Using the factorial without randomization design, instrument decay is the threat to internal validity least likely to occur

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Answer: Correct – True

Q77: Using the factorial without randomization design, which of the following threats to internal validity is least likely to occur

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Answer: instrument decay

Q78: Using the matching-only pre-posttest control group design, which of the following threats to internal validity is most likely to occur

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Answer: location

Q79: Using the one-group pre-posttest design, which of the following threats to internal validity is controlled

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Answer: subject characteristics

Q80: Using the one-group pretest-posttest design, the threat of mortality cannot be determined

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Answer: Correct – True

Q81: Using the randomized Solomon four-group design, which of the following threats to internal validity is most likely to occur

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Answer: implementation

Q82: Using the static-group comparison design, which of the following threats to internal validity is most likely to occur

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Answer: subject characteristics

Q83: Using the time-series design, which of the following threats to internal validity is least likely to occur

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Answer: subject characteristics

Q84: Usually the first section of a research proposal or report will contain the purpose of the study

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Answer: Correct – True

Q85: Utility is defined as

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Answer: the benefits or customer value received by users of the product.

Q86: Valence is especially relevant in a tight labor market

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Answer: Correct – True

Q87: Validity can be checked by comparing data obtained from manifest content to that obtained from latent content

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Answer: Correct – True

Q88: Value consciousness is the concern of obtaining the best___for the best price

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Answer: Quality, features and performance

Q89: Value for shareholders of a firm is measured by

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Answer: stock performance and profitability

Q90: Value-based planning combines marketing planning ideas and financial planning techniques to evaluate how much a division or SBU contributes to

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Answer: the price of a company’s stock (or shareholder wealth)

Q91: Values and norms work in a subtle, indirect fashion and have very little actual effect on behavior

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q92: Verbal persuasion is a determinant of self-control

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q93: Vicarious learning occurs when

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Answer: One person (the learner) learns a behavior by observing another person (the model) perform the behavior.

Q94: Warranties that are written statement of liabilities that are called

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Answer: express warranties

Q95: Washers and stoves would normally use

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Answer: selective distribution

Q96: Wendy’s segmentation strategy changed from a “shotgun” approach to a

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Answer: rifle approach

Q97: What are one-way mass merchandisers such as Sears Canada and The Bay can “trade up” in their stores

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Answer: Add a designer clothes section.

Q98: What are the commonly used ways to clarify unclear terms in a research question

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Answer: constitutive definitions, definitions by example, and operational definitions

Q99: What are the three main types of evidence on validity that a researcher might collect

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Answer: content-related, criterion-related on, construct-related

Q100: What are the three types of organizational buyers discussed in the text

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Answer: Industrial, reseller, and government