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Q1: Which of the following is not a type of non-probability sampling

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Answer: Stratified random sampling

Q2: Snowball sampling can help the researcher to

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Answer: All of the above

Q3: Which of the following is not a characteristic of quota sampling

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Answer: The random selection of units makes it possible to calculate the standard error

Q4: The findings from a study of training and skill development among employees of a company can be generalised to the population of

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Answer: All employees of that company

Q5: The term ‘data processing error’ refers to

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Answer: faulty techniques of coding and managing data.

Q6: An advantage of self-completion questionnaires over structured interviews is that

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Answer: they are quicker and cheaper to administer.

Q7: Which of the following is a disadvantage of self-completion questionnaires

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Answer: The researcher cannot ask many open-ended questions.

Q8: How can the response rate to self-completion questionnaires be improved

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Answer: All of the above

Q9: Why is it generally more appropriate to provide fixed choice answers horizontally, rather than vertically

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Answer: It makes the layout of the questionnaire more clear and unambiguous.

Q10: When using a Likert scale with a long list of items, it is usually better to

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Answer: arrange the answers horizontally, in abbreviated form.

Q11: When might a participant-driven diary be a viable tool

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Answer: When research participants can observe and record their own behaviour

Q12: Corti (1993) makes a distinction between two types of researcher-driven diary

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Answer: Structured and free-text diaries

Q13: The ‘time-use’ diary can provide quantitative data about

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Answer: the amount of time respondents spend on certain activities every day.

Q14: One advantage of using structured diaries in quantitative research is that

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Answer: There is little danger of attrition of the respondents, as they tend to be highly motivated.

Q15: In order to post-code answers to open questions, it is necessary to

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Answer: categorise unstructured material and assign a code number to each category.

Q16: Which of the following is a disadvantage of using closed questions in a survey

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Answer: They prevent respondents from giving spontaneous, unexpected answers.

Q17: Informant factual questions are those that

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Answer: ask people about the characteristics of a social setting or entity that they know well.

Q18: Which of the following is a key premise when designing your questionnaire

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Answer: Remember your research questions

Q19: You should avoid using double-barrelled questions in a survey because

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Answer: they confuse respondents by asking about two different things.

Q20: Leading questions should also be avoided as

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Answer: they suggest a certain answer and so may bias the results.

Q21: A vignette question is one that asks respondents to think about

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Answer: a scenario involving imaginary characters in a realistic situation.

Q22: Piloting a questionnaire is a worthwhile exercise because it will

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Answer: identify and amend any problems in the question wording, order and format.

Q23: Which of the following is an issue usually associated with survey research

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Answer: The problem of omission

Q24: A key advantage of structured observation over survey research is that

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Answer: it allows you to observe people’s behaviour directly.

Q25: What is an observation schedule

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Answer: A set of explicit rules for assigning behaviour to categories.

Q26: Mintzberg conducted a study of what managers do in their day-to-day work. What type of observational behaviour is this

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Answer: Incidents

Q27: Which of the following is not a type of sampling used in structured observation

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Answer: Emotional sampling

Q28: What is intra-observer consistency

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Answer: the degree of consistency of the application of the observation schedule over time

Q29: What is meant by the term “reactive effect”

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Answer: If people know they are being observed, they may change their behaviour.

Q30: What did Salancik mean by “field stimulations”

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Answer: Researchers can intervene in and manipulate a setting to observe the effects.

Q31: One of the criticisms often levelled at structured observation is that

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Answer: it does not allow us to understand the meanings behind behaviour.

Q32: Quantitative content analysis is an approach that aims to

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Answer: objectively and systematically measure the content of a text.

Q33: Which of the following could be subjected to a textual content analysis

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Answer: All of the above

Q34: Why did Harris look at newspapers from Australia, the UK, the USA, and China for his study on courage

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Answer: To take into account any cultural variation in the way that courage was perceived in the business community.

Q35: Which of the following is not an example of a ‘unit of analysis’

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Answer: Validity

Q36: Why might a researcher want to count the frequency of certain words or phrases in a text

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Answer: To identify particular interpretative frameworks for the study

Q37: The role of a coding manual in a study is to

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Answer: provide researchers with instructions about how to code the data.

Q38: The data from each row in a coding schedule can be entered into a quantitative analysis computer program called

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Answer: SPSS

Q39: One of the potential pitfalls in devising a coding scheme is that

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Answer: the categories may not be mutually exclusive.

Q40: Which of the following is an advantage of content analysis

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Answer: It is flexible and is not resource dependent.

Q41: If coders differed in their interpretations of the categories in the schedule, this would be termed

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Answer: Inter-coder reliability

Q42: The term “secondary analysis” refers to the activity of

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Answer: analysing existing data that has been collected by another person or organization.

Q43: Why might secondary analysis be especially useful as a method for students

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Answer: It saves time and money.

Q44: Which of the following is a disadvantage of secondary analysis

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Answer: It does not immerse the researcher in the field of study.

Q45: The large samples used in national surveys enable new researchers to

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Answer: Conduct subgroup analysis

Q46: Which of the following is an advantage of using secondary analysis

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Answer: It allows students to access data which would be expensive and time consuming to collect.

Q47: What is a disadvantage of secondary sources

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Answer: Those involved in will not have been involved in the collection of data.

Q48: What is one of the advantages that official statistics have over structured interview data

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Answer: They allow the researcher to identify social trends over time.

Q49: Which of the following is a potential limitation of secondary analysis

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Answer: Absence of key variables.

Q50: What is the “ecological fallacy”

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Answer: The error of making inferences about individual behaviour from aggregate data.

Q51: Why has the secondary analysis of official statistics been seen as an “unobtrusive” method

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Answer: The researcher is removed from the social settings that they are investigating.

Q52: What is the difference between interval/ratio and ordinal variables

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Answer: The distance between categories is equal across the range of interval/ratio data.

Q53: What is the difference between a bar chart and a histogram

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Answer: There are no gaps between the bars on a histogram.

Q54: What does the term ‘outlier’ mean

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Answer: An extreme value at either end of a distribution

Q55: What is the function of a contingency table, in the context of bivariate analysis

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Answer: It summarizes the frequencies of two variables so that they can be compared.

Q56: If there were a perfect positive correlation between two interval/ratio variables, the Pearson’s r test would give a correlation coefficient of

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Answer: 1

Q57: What is the name of the test that is used to assess the relationship between two ordinal variables

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Answer: Spearman’s rho

Q58: When might it be appropriate to conduct a multivariate analysis test

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Answer: All of the above

Q59: What is meant by a “spurious” relationship between two variables

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Answer: A relationship that appears to be true because each variable is related to a third one.

Q60: A test of statistical significance indicates how confident the researcher is about

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Answer: generalising their findings from the sample to the population.

Q61: Setting the p level at 0.01 increases the chances of making a

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Answer: Type II error

Q62: What is the advantage of using SPSS over calculating statistics by hand

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Answer: All of the above

Q63: In SPSS, what is the “Data Viewer”

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Answer: A spreadsheet into which data can be entered.

Q64: How is a variable name different from a variable label

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Answer: It is shorter and less detailed.

Q65: What does the operation “Recode Into Different Variables” do to the data

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Answer: Redistributes a range of values into a new set of categories and creates a new variable.

Q66: How would you use the drop-down menus in SPSS to generate a frequency table

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Answer: Click on: Analyze; Descriptive Statistics; Frequencies

Q67: Why might you tell SPSS to represent the “slices” of a pie chart in different patterns

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Answer: If you do not have a colour printer, it makes the differences between slices clearer.

Q68: When cross-tabulating two variables, it is conventional to

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Answer: represent the dependent variable in rows and the independent variable in columns.

Q69: In which sub-dialog box can the Chi Square test be found

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Answer: Crosstabs: Statistics

Q70: To generate a Spearman’s rho test, which set of instructions should you give SPSS

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Answer: Analyze; Correlate; Bivariate; [select variables]; Spearman; OK

Q71: How would you print a bar chart that you have just produced in SPSS

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Answer: In Output Viewer, click File, Print, select the bar chart and click OK

Q72: Which of the following is a method that is commonly used in qualitative research

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Answer: Ethnography

Q73: According to Gubrium and Holstein (1997), what are the four traditions of qualitative research

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Answer: Naturalism, ethnomethodology, emotionalism and postmodernism.

Q74: A sensitizing concept is one that

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Answer: provides general guidance for more flexible research.

Q75: Which of the following is not a component of Guba and Lincoln’s criterion, “trustworthiness”

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Answer: Measurability

Q76: Respondent validation is the process by which

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Answer: researchers ask their participants to comment on an account of the findings.

Q77: Why do qualitative researchers like to give detailed descriptions of social settings

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Answer: To provide a contextual understanding of social behaviour.

Q78: The flexibility and limited structure of qualitative research designs is an advantage because

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Answer: All of the above

Q79: Which of the following is not a criticism of qualitative research

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Answer: The approach is too rigid and inflexible.

Q80: Which of the following is not a contrast between quantitative and qualitative research

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Answer: Interpretivist vs. Feminist

Q81: Why has qualitative research been seen to have an affinity with feminism

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Answer: It allows women’s voices to be heard.

Q82: What is purposive sampling

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Answer: A non-probability form of sampling

Q83: What are examples of purposive sampling

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Answer: Theoretical and snowballing

Q84: What is theoretical saturation

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Answer: It is when you carry on sampling theoretically until a category has been saturated with data.

Q85: Snowball sampling is

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Answer: All of the below

Q86: According to Onwuegbuzie and Collins (2007), ‘Sample size should be not be so small to make it hard to achieve’ what three objectives

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Answer: Data saturation, theoretical saturation, or informational redundancy.

Q87: Why is an ethnographic study unlikely to use a probability sample

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Answer: All of the above

Q88: What is generic purposive sampling

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Answer: When the researcher establishes criteria concerning the kinds of cases needed to address the research questions, identifies appropriate cases, and then samples from those cases that have been identified.

Q89: Can more than one sampling approach be used

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Answer: Yes

Q90: In addition to people, what else can we sample as researchers

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Answer: Context and Time

Q91: Which of the following are purposive sampling approaches

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Answer: All of the above

Q92: Which of the following is a component of ethnographic research

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Answer: All of the above

Q93: What is a key disadvantage of using the covert role in ethnography

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Answer: It is difficult to take notes without arousing suspicion.

Q94: Which of the following will not help you to negotiate access to a closed/non-public setting

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Answer: Adopting a dominant role with the group’s activities without introducing yourself.

Q95: What is a gatekeeper

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Answer: A senior member of the organization who helps the ethnographer gain access to relevant people/events.

Q96: Which of the following is the role adopted by an ethnographer who joins in with the group’s activities but admits to being a researcher

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Answer: Participant-as-observer

Q97: What is going native

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Answer: It is where the researcher becomes immersed in the world they are studying and lose their perspective as a researcher.

Q98: What of the following is an advantage to adopting a covert role in an ethnography

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Answer: There is no problem of access

Q99: What is the difference between “scratch notes” and “full field notes”

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Answer: Scratch notes are just key words and phrases, rather than lengthy descriptions.

Q100: Why does Stacey argue against the idea of a feminist ethnography

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Answer: Because she thinks that the fieldwork relationship is inherently unequal.