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Q1: If an advertisement shows the interior of a train with comfortable seats and plenty of space yet a customer boards a train only to find a lack of space and hard seating. This is an example of

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Answer: GAP 4-the gap between service delivery and external communications.

Q2: The train operator understands customer desire for a comfortable seat but fails to specify how many should be provided relative to the anticipated number of travellers on each route. This is an example of

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Answer: GAP 2-the gap between management perception and service-quality specification.

Q3: Which of the following is best understood as a period of time during which a customer interacts directly with a service

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Answer: Service encounters.

Q4: ___occur where there is no prior history of exchange and no future exchanges are expected between a buyer and seller

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Answer: Market exchanges

Q5: An approach that encompasses a wide range of relationships, not just with customers, but also those that organizations develop with suppliers, regulators, government, competitors, employees, and others, this is referred to as

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Answer: Relationship marketing.

Q6: The relationship marketing concept was considered to consist of two main elements

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Answer: customer attraction and customer retention.

Q7: Which of the following is not a main stage in a customer relationship lifecycle

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Answer: Customer satisfaction.

Q8: Sellers encourage buyers to purchase increased quantities, to try other products, to engage with other added-value services, and to vary delivery times and quantities. These activities occur in

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Answer: Customer development phase.

Q9: This is a true form of loyalty and is driven by personal identification with real or perceived values and benefits. This is referred to as

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Answer: emotional loyalty.

Q10: It has been claimed that the three major outcomes from the development of relationship trust are satisfaction,___, and continuity (Pavlou, 2002)

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Answer: reduced perceived risk

Q11: The purchase of goods or services for use by an organization in producing other goods and services or to support the daily operations of the organization or for resale is called

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Answer: business-to-business marketing.

Q12: B2B marketing is fundamentally different from consumer goods or services marketing because

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Answer: organizational buyers do not consume the products or services themselves.

Q13: Which of the following is not a characteristic of business markets

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Answer: The high level of promotion.

Q14: The development and maintenance of___between buying and selling organizations is pivotal to success

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Answer: relationships

Q15: Three broad types of B2B organizations are identified

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Answer: Commercial, government and institutional organizations.

Q16: When one company re-labels a product, and incorporates it within a different product, in order to sell it under their own brand name and offering its own warranty, support and licensing, what is this referred to as

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Answer: Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

Q17: These goods and services are ‘consumables’ as they are necessary to keep production processes and the organization running. They are known as

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Answer: Supply goods.

Q18: Organizations that purchase goods and services that are then consumed as part of their production and manufacturing processes are referred to as

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Answer: Users.

Q19: The development of___techniques has enabled organizations to concentrate on their core processes and to outsource all other activities

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Answer: lean management

Q20: Organizational buying behaviour is about

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Answer: the functions and processes, strategy, and the network of relationships.

Q21: A unique purchase situation in the business market that requires considerable effort on the decision maker’s part is called

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Answer: a new-task buy.

Q22: Examples of business market items that would usually be purchased as a straight re-buy are

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Answer: paper clips and pencils.

Q23: Which of the following is not a membership of an organization’s decision-making unit

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Answer: Contractors.

Q24: In a business buying centre situation, the people who use the product once it has been acquired and who will also evaluate its performance are called

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Answer: Users.

Q25: The function performed by the gatekeeper in the company decision-making unit is to

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Answer: control the information that all members of the decision making unit will review.

Q26: When demand for a product is___, an increase or decrease in the price of a product will not significantly affect demand for the product

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Answer: inelastic

Q27: The purchasing strategy that refers to a buyer’s efficiency orientation where the main purchasing goal is to seek the lowest price for the product is known as

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Answer: the price minimizer.

Q28: The___purchasing strategy refers to network relationships that function predictably and precisely

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Answer: clockwiser

Q29: The term___has become the established term to refer to those customers who are considered to be strategically important

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Answer: key account

Q30: ___can be distinguished as an independent type of organisation. They provide services to all other organisations and can be found in many sectors

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Answer: Professional service firms

Q31: Comparing non-profit organizations to for-profit organizations, which of the following statements is not correct

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Answer: The mission statement of non-profit organizations usually revolve around being the best in a particular sector.

Q32: Which of the following is not a key characteristic of not-for-profit organizations

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Answer: Revenue orientation.

Q33: Which of the following is not an example of non-profit marketing

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Answer: Event marketing.

Q34: H&M, the Swedish fashion retailer, has partnered with WaterAid to launch the H&M for Water collection for the Summer 2013 range, modeled by global superstar, Beyonc, with 25% of sales from the H&M for Water collection donated to H&M for WaterAid. This marketing activity is referred to as

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Answer: Cause-related marketing.

Q35: A Fairtrade scheme is an example of a___

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Answer: Social enterprise.

Q36: What are the three main forces that a marketing manager needs to consider when marketing a governmental agency

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Answer: Social, economic and political.

Q37: Which of the following is not one of the key features of propaganda

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Answer: Research defined concept of audience wants.

Q38: Which of the following is not one of the reasons why non-profit organizations frequently do not value their beneficiary customers

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Answer: They have extensive research programme to identify customers’ needs.

Q39: The matrix used to analyze stakeholders for non-profit organizations is based on two variables: the level of interest and___

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Answer: the level of power

Q40: The 2012 US Presidential Election is a good example of the use of___as a tool to generate campaign finance and grassroots support

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Answer: internet use

Q41: Which of the following is important in pressure group campaigning

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Answer: Publicity.

Q42: Which of the following is not a fundraising activity, which is commonly adopted by charities

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Answer: Party event.

Q43: Donations that charitable organizations receive from wealthy philanthropists are referred to as___

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Answer: major gifts

Q44: According to the Stakeholder Power/Interest Matrix, Group A represents those with___and___; these are key stakeholders that need to be continuously engaged

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Answer: high in interest and high in power

Q45: Costa Coffee, one of the major coffee chains in the UK, has set up the Costa Foundation, which is funded through different mechanisms, such as store fund raising activities and annual contribution from Costa. Its aim is to provide access to education for children of coffee-growing communities. This is a good example of___

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Answer: cause-related marketing

Q46: The ‘Full Stop!’ campaign launched in 1999 by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC), to stop cruelty to children, is a powerful example of the use of___in its fundraising

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Answer: emotional appeal

Q47: A___is a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximise profit for shareholders and owners

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Answer: social enterprise

Q48: Government health departments encourage people to quit smoking by running a smoking control campaign supported through mass media. This is an example of

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Answer: Social marketing campaign.

Q49: Political parties use marketing to provide citizens and voters with information on current and potential political programmes for running the nation. Which of the following is not the aim of political campaign run by political parties

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Answer: Increase of population.

Q50: Volunteers attend shopping malls or other areas of high potential donor footfall and solicit donations directly, usually for frequent giving through direct debit schemes (i.e. automatic monthly cash transfers from one’s bank account). This is referred as

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Answer: Face-to-face donor recruitment.

Q51: Marketing that moves away from a transaction-based effort to a conversation (i.e. two-way dialogue) and can be described as a situation or mechanism through which marketers and a customer (e.g. stakeholders) interact usually in real-time is known as

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Answer: Interactive marketing.

Q52: Which of the following is not a type of digital marketing activity

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Answer: Print advert.

Q53: ___is a form of marketing communications that uses the internet for the purpose of advertising-delivering marketing messages to increase website traffic (i.e. click-through) and encourage product trial, purchase, and repeat purchase activity (i.e. conversion)

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Answer: Internet marketing

Q54: In the first 10 years, the web was heavily used as a static publishing and/or retailing (transactional) channel. This was known as

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Answer: Web 1.0.

Q55: The development of digital media and the rise of Web 2.0 (i.e. the social web) technology saw a further evolution in marketing away from a hierarchical one-sided mass communication model. Web 2.0 used more participatory technologies, (e.g. social channels and online communities), rather than just information or transactional channels. What is the focus of this social web

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Answer: User.

Q56: A form of marketing communications that uses Internet-based resources for the purpose of advertising, delivering messages to drive traffic to a website (‘click-through rate’) and also encourage trial, purchase, or repeat-purchase activity is called

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Answer: Internet advertising.

Q57: An advertising model used in which advertisers pay their host only when their sponsored ad or link is clicked, is called

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Answer: Pay Per Click (PPC).

Q58: A method of marketing by electronic mail wherein the recipient of the message has consented to receive it is called

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Answer: Permission-based email marketing.

Q59: ___is a form of digital marketing that describes the use of the social web and social media (e.g. social networks, online communities, blogs or wikis) or any online collaborative technology for marketing activities, be it sales, public relations, research, distribution or customer service

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Answer: Social Media Marketing (SMM)

Q60: Four elements that distinguish mobile marketing from traditional mass marketing are: scope of audience, type and format of messages,___, and response tracking

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Answer: location-based targeting

Q61: Websites translated for wireless devices to access and download content and to display adverts are known as

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Answer: WAP sites

Q62: This refers to branded software applications for mobile devices that consumers use to access added-value information, customer service and/or entertainment where and when they want it

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Answer: Apps.

Q63: This is the process of marketing accomplished or facilitated through the application of electronic devices, appliances, tools, techniques, technologies and or systems

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Answer: Electronic marketing.

Q64: Which of the following is not an issue that marketers need to consider when using digital resources for marketing activities

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Answer: Disclosure.

Q65: Which of the following is not one of major considerations when using internet advertising to increase brand awareness and encourage click-through to a target site

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Answer: Interactivity.

Q66: Which of the following refers to unsolicited electronic messages

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Answer: Spam.

Q67: A database of information that is maintained by human editors and lists websites by category and subcategory with categorization is known as

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Answer: A search directory.

Q68: This attempts to improve rankings for relevant keywords in search results by improving a website’s structure and content

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Answer: SEO.

Q69: The next iteration of the web, which will be characterized by the web becoming artificially intelligent, thereby recognizing links and relationships between data sources, allowing the prediction of audience response and greater audience targeting. This is referred to as

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Answer: Web 3.0.

Q70: This operates algorithmically or using a mixture of algorithmic and human input to collect, index, store and retrieve information on the web (e.g. web pages, images, information and other types of files). It makes the information available to users in a manageable and meaningful way in response to a search query. This is referred to as

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Answer: A search engine.

Q71: Although companies are increasingly recognizing the negative impacts they have on society, many are also increasingly trying to contribute positively to societal development through___

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Answer: Corporate social responsibility programmes.

Q72: The concept of___accepts the limitations of marketing philosophy, acknowledging the need to impose regulatory constraints on the market mechanism in economic development (van Dam and Apeldoorn, 1996), particularly the impact of marketing activity on the environment

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Answer: Sustainable marketing

Q73: The concepts of the three Es of sustainability are

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Answer: Ecological, Equitable and Economic.

Q74: An ethical approach which recognizes that a manager ought to act in his or her own best interests and that an action is right if it benefits the manager undertaking that action is called

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Answer: Managerial egoism.

Q75: Marketing ethics can be divided into normative and___branches

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Answer: descriptive

Q76: Sustainable marketing can also be characterized as the ‘third age’ of___

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Answer: green marketing

Q77: A central theme of corporate social responsibility is defined as___

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Answer: corporations have some responsibility to wider society that goes beyond the pursuit of profit

Q78: ___is concerned with how marketers go about the management process of identifying, anticipating, and satisfying customer requirements profitably

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Answer: Marketing ethics

Q79: Professional marketing organizations typically have a___which requires members to behave and act in a professional manner

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Answer: code of professional practice

Q80: The model of marketing decision-making is stressing the importance of considering what is the right thing to do (___norms) and what are the right intended outcomes for us to follow (___norms)

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Answer: deontological; teleological

Q81: Companies collude over production quotas, companies abuse their monopoly status, and companies overcharge or exploit their supply chain partners. These are examples of ethical breaches in

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Answer: Distribution management.

Q82: Which of the following is not one of the rationales for developing CSR initiatives

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Answer: Corporations’ impacts limit to only marketplace transactions.

Q83: This is a form of ethical approach by which the rightness or wrongness of an action or decision is not judged to be exclusively based on the consequences of that action or decision

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Answer: Deontological ethics.

Q84: This involves the setting of different prices for different groups of people

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Answer: Price discrimination.

Q85: This occurs when a company charges more than governments perceive is fair for their offerings

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Answer: Price gouging.

Q86: The international organization with a mission to stamp out bribery and corrupt practices around the world is called

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Answer: Transparency International.

Q87: This is an ethical approach, which suggests that an action is right if, and only if, it conforms to the principle of utility. Thus utility: pleasure, happiness or welfare, is maximised or pain or unhappiness minimized, more than any alternative

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Answer: Utilitarianism.

Q88: This branch of ethics stresses the importance of developing virtuous principles, with ‘right’ character, and the pursuit of a virtuous life

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Answer: Virtue ethics.

Q89: This perspective suggests that marketing impacts negatively on society. The perspective calls for us to (re)evaluate marketing activities, categories and frameworks, to improve them, so that marketing operates in a desirable manner within society. This is referred to as

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Answer: Critical marketing.

Q90: This is the science of signs and how they convey meaning in their representation

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Answer: Semiotics.

Q91: In postmodernity, it is recognized that we are individuals with multiple or multiphrenic (from ‘multi’ meaning many and ‘phrenia’ meaning mind) personalities without commitment to a single lifestyle, acting in different ways in different circumstances, at different times, with different people, in different cultures. This is referred to as

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Answer: Fragmentation of markets.

Q92: A copy without an original developed through successive evolutionary image-phase-changes comprising different stages of (mis)representation is called

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Answer: Simulacrum.

Q93: Marketers need to rethink how we go about segmenting our markets, as markets are fragmenting, about how our consumers choose offerings, because they are irrational as well as rational beings, and being careful not to characterize them as being of one type as we display different selves in purchasing and consumption. This approach is referred to as

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Answer: Postmodernist perspective.

Q94: Beliefs in capitalist economic progress, the importance of scientific advancement, the idea of an objective reality, and the independent subject (or man as an unbiased rational observer) are referred to as

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Answer: Metanarratives.

Q95: In postmodern times, manufacturers have to shift marketing emphasis to___

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Answer: what consumers desire

Q96: Value for the consumer is materialized in the prescribed benefits of the bundle of product attributes offered to the consumer and, from value inherent in this bundle, customer satisfaction is obtained. This is the idea of

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Answer: Modern marketing.

Q97: This is to place items beside each other, with connotations of contrast. For example, good and evil or nice and nasty

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Answer: Juxtaposition.

Q98: This perspective proposes that society is increasingly overly dominated by consumption, thereby fetishising it (i.e. placing supreme importance on it). This is referred to as

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Answer: Commodity Fetishism

Q99: The postmodern consumption era is defined and characterized by

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Answer: the fragmentation and trivialization of our values, images, and symbols.

Q100: This is a form of textual analysis used to uncover hidden or ‘absent’ meanings by breaking the text down into privileged themes

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Answer: Deconstruction.