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Q1: Many merger discussions break down, or are abandoned. Which of these is not a reason why

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Answer: The bid is deemed hostile, leading to aggressive defense.

Q2: Research into diversification, and acquisition, can be divided into 4 schools. Which of the following is not one of the schools

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Answer: Environmental

Q3: Within a diverse conglomerate, Goold et al (1994) argues that there exists what

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Answer: The arena

Q4: According to Ernst and Young, the nature of the post acquisition challenge depends on the type of acquisition. Which of the following is not one of the four types

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Answer: Mutual acquisition

Q5: Which two companies agreed to develop a new business jointly

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Answer: Sony and Apple

Q6: What does Chandler (1990) emphasize, as important factors, in operating internationally or globally

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Answer: Economies of scale and economies of scope

Q7: Which of these is not a market entry mode

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Answer: Importing

Q8: Which of these is not a motive for internationalization (Ghauri, 2000)

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Answer: Spread risks

Q9: Which of these is a pull factor in the decision to internationalize

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Answer: Competitive pressures

Q10: Which of these is a push factor in the decision to internationalize

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Answer: Marketing advantage

Q11: In a global context, a company with a wide geographical scope, and a broad product range, is which of the following

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Answer: Global/diversified

Q12: In a global context, a company with a narrow geographical scope, and a narrow product range, is which of the following

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Answer: National/focused

Q13: Which of the following is not seen as a reason for the success of Infosys

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Answer: Strong location decisions

Q14: Which one of the following was not noted by Morgan and Katsikeas (1997) as a barrier, explaining why business owners are discouraged from participating in international business.

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Answer: Lack of opportunities

Q15: Which of these was not noted by Little (1988), as a constraint on marketing products and services internationally

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Answer: Cost base issues

Q16: What is the nature of the direct entry approach

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Answer: It centres on finding and appointing in-country representatives, usually in the form of agents

Q17: Which of the following, according to Morgan and Katsikeas (1997), is not a barrier that explains why business owners are discouraged from participating in international business

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Answer: All these are barriers —An insufficient pool of resources can create strategic obstacles A firm’s cost base, and margin, can lead to operational and logistical obstacles A lack of fit, between a firm’s strategy and its environment, may result in limited knowledge of market opportunities, creating informational obstacles A firm may be unable to maintain necessary interactions with key parties, because of limited resources leading to process-based obstacles

Q18: If a business is blinkered, technology shy, and ‘impoverished’, what does this signal

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Answer: Weak strategic leadership

Q19: Altman (1968) devised which score, which predicts potential corporation failure

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Answer: The Z-score

Q20: Divestment is what kind of strategy

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Answer: An asset-reduction strategy

Q21: When a company is experiencing an economic recession, this is a good time to do what

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Answer: Invest

Q22: Turnaround strategies involve changes at what level of strategy

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Answer: Competitive

Q23: Acquisitions often fail to deliver the successes that were predicted prior to acquisition. What is the main reason for this failure

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Answer: Poor strategic leadership

Q24: To turn the problems of the Burton Group around what strategy was applied

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Answer: Diversification and divestment

Q25: Sustained survival implies

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Answer: That a turnaround is achieved, but there is little further growth

Q26: Which of these is not an issue in selecting a business as a divestment candidate

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Answer: The size of the business

Q27: Which of these is not noted, by Harrigan (1980), as an indicator of the appropriateness of a strategy during decline

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Answer: A focus on cost leadership

Q28: Which of the following is not one of the reasons behind Amstrad’s decline in 1988

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Answer: Used low cost suppliers in Far East

Q29: Which of the following is an aspect of implementation that can be changed, indirectly if necessary

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Answer: Quality

Q30: A small company, with power concentrated in the hands of one central figure, tends to be what

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Answer: Centralized and informal

Q31: Which one of the following types of organizations would benefit from a matrix structure

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Answer: Small, sophisticated service companies

Q32: According to Lorsch and Allen (1972), which two requirements must the design of a structure accommodate

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Answer: The need to differentiate the various groups in an organization, and integrate their respective contributions

Q33: Which of these is not a reason for why employees resist the implementation of strategic changes

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Answer: Lack of necessary strategic resources

Q34: Which of these is not a main determinant of centralization/decentralization

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Answer: Demographical considerations (e.g., age; ethnicity etc)

Q35: Which of these is not an identified form of organizational structure

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Answer: Intrapreneurial

Q36: For which are holding company structures most useful

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Answer: For companies pursuing restructuring strategies

Q37: Which of these are characteristic of matrix structures

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Answer: Decentralization and co-ordination

Q38: What is likely to be the effect of a logical corporate strategy, but poor strategy implementation.

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Answer: Structural and stylistic flaws.

Q39: Which of these is not a valid reason, in support of focused strategies

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Answer: Competence consolidation.

Q40: Which, of the following, is not a strategic criteria for deciding which firms to retain in the organizational core

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Answer: Longevity.

Q41: Which of these is not an activity associated with restructuring

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Answer: Hoarding new businesses.

Q42: Corporate resource allocation may be different, depending on the speed of growth of the organization. Which of the following is inappropriate when facing rapid growth

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Answer: Past allocations and budgets.

Q43: Which of the following is not an aspect, of the definition, of the term budgets

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Answer: A strategic plan outlining means to utilize budget, make sales, and generate profits.

Q44: How many steps are there in effective risk management

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Answer: 2

Q45: Which of these is not one part of the advice offered, by Regester and Larkin (1997), for crisis management

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Answer: Communicate information gradually

Q46: What are designed to guide managers in the pursuit, and achievement, of strategies and objectives

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Answer: Policies

Q47: Which of the following is not one of Pearce and Robinson’s (1985) 3 types of budget

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Answer: Product budget

Q48: Strategy effectiveness, and competitive success, are dependent on which of the following groups of competencies

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Answer: Content, change, learning

Q49: Which of the following competencies relates to functionality

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Answer: Developing and introducing new processes, for cost savings and speedier decision-making

Q50: Doing things right, and doing the right things, are also known as

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Answer: Efficiency and effectiveness

Q51: Which, of the following elements of strategy, affect the process of strategy creation and implementation

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Answer: Strategic paradoxes

Q52: Miles and Snow (1994) identify four main reasons for failure. Which of the following is one of those reasons

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Answer: Poor judgement leading to poor, inappropriate strategic decisions

Q53: How does Checkland (1981) describe an organization

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Answer: Systems that comprise a collection of people, who are trying to act with purpose

Q54: How might an organization spot, create, and exploit new opportunities ahead of its rivals

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Answer: Through managers in the various businesses working together, sharing information and capabilities, helping each other, and creating synergy.

Q55: Which of the following is not a competence, recognized by Richardson and Thompson (1994)

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Answer: Managing paradoxes

Q56: Which of the following is not a recognized performance outcome for an organization

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Answer: High level of service

Q57: If an organization is to survive, which of the following is most essential

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Answer: Meeting stakeholder needs and expectation

Q58: The internationalization of a retail concept may occur

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Answer: without an international organization directly transferring a concept through a physical presence in a market.

Q59: Which of the following is correct? International retailing is the meeting of consumers’ needs in international markets by

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Answer: international retail organizations.

Q60: Which of the following is a major contribution to workplace stress

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Answer: Social isolation

Q61: Portfolio working is working which is

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Answer: Not attached to a single employer and contract of employment

Q62: Why has the power of managers to act unilaterally in work organizations in the UK been reduced? Is it due to

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Answer: UK and European legislation

Q63: What changes have evolved from inward foreign investment in the UK

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Answer: The harmonization of terms and conditions of employment

Q64: What did the Hawthorne experiments discover

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Answer: That people need to belong to a ‘social group’

Q65: What is the meaning of ‘toxicity’? Is it

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Answer: Emotional pain

Q66: Post modernist ideas have impacted on our understanding of the role of rationality in workplaces by recognizing

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Answer: More than one type of rationality prevails in work organizations

Q67: According to Cloke and Goldsmith the biggest change to the history of management is

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Answer: Decline in hierarchy and bureaucracy

Q68: A philosophy of management

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Answer: Is more than a single ingredient

Q69: Treating employees as people or as an economic resource is

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Answer: A Question of balance which will be affected by the context of each organization

Q70: The creation of personnel as a specialist function dealing with people issues from the latter part of the twentieth century has been responsible in part for

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Answer: Disenfranchising line managers in dealing with key aspects of people management.

Q71: The origins of Personnel Management was an outcome of

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Answer: The work of nineteenth century social reformers and Quaker employers

Q72: Scientific management contributed to the development of a more rational approach to management by developing which characteristics

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Answer: The planning and organization of work based on scientific principles such as time and motion studies

Q73: One final development influencing the practice of Personnel Management in the 1960s was

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Answer: Growing importance of training

Q74: A distinction can be made between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ types of HRM. Soft HRM can be characterized by

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Answer: A mutual commitment of employees and employers to the goals of the organization

Q75: The resource based view of the firm is one that believes the key human resources are

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Answer: Used to create new capabilities that help achieve organizational success

Q76: SHRM is also about strategic choice, which refers to

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Answer: The processes and decisions that shape the organization’s philosophy towards its employees.

Q77: Do HR activities have an effect on employee and managerial behaviour

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Answer: Yes, but these effects can be negative as well as positive.

Q78: The view that employees are critical to organizational success is now generally accepted. Does this mean that

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Answer: Managing the human resource has become even more important because it is the one resource most difficult to replicate.

Q79: The most common activities performed by HR, which are often outsourced, are

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Answer: Occupational health, payroll, pensions and training

Q80: The continuing search by HR for an identity and status represents, for some, an enduring paradox that, until resolved or explained will limit HR’s contribution to organizational objectives. A paradox can be understood as

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Answer: Something which seems difficult to understand and explain

Q81: Moony (2001) argues that the cost of carrying out HR activities is often found to be inversely related to their value. This occurs when

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Answer: There is a lack of strategic control and accountability over what HR does

Q82: The strategic importance of an organization’s people to their long term success has become a central tenet of what has become known as SHRM. This importance is based on

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Answer: The unique and non replicable nature of human capabilities

Q83: Being strategic, from the perspective of an HR department, is often the way to be taken seriously and offered a ‘seat at the top table.’ But what does being strategic really mean

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Answer: Having an impact on the things that are most important to the organization’s corporate goals and objectives

Q84: According to Michael Porter, it is important to distinguish between operational effectiveness and strategic positioning. The former means performing similar activities better than competitors, whilst the latter involves

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Answer: Performing different activities from competitor organizations or performing similar activities in different ways

Q85: Hammond (2005) offers a stinging critique of HR based on what he claims is 20 years of ‘hopeful rhetoric about becoming ‘strategic partners.” He argues that HR people are for the most part are neither strategic nor leaders. This is because

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Answer: They are consumed by their own importance and rhetoric and are convinced that managers can’t see what an important job they are doing

Q86: Minzberg is a major contributor to the literature on strategy and strategic management and is someone who recognizes that the word strategy can mean different things to different people. Which of the following conceptualizations is not associated with his work

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Answer: Strategy as agreement on the ‘best way’ to operate

Q87: Hamel and Prahalad (1990, 1993, 1994) present an analysis of strategy that goes beyond the more conventional concepts of fit, integration and the effective allocation of resources. They talk about the importance of organizations ‘leveraging’ its resources. In the context of human resources, leveraging means

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Answer: Increasing the value they add and their productivity by finding new and more effective ways of using people

Q88: Gary Hamel (2009) is another strategy ‘guru’ who has influenced the thinking and practice of numerous executives. His emphasis in particular on organizations taking a dynamic and forward looking approach to the way they function suggests that simply doing the same things better is not necessarily the way forward. He suggests that organizations in looking into the future need to be

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Answer: More adaptable, innovative and engaging places to work

Q89: The importance of integration to organizations has long been a feature of the literature on strategy. As far as HR is concerned the search for vertical and horizontal integration is a key driver in the attempt to become ‘more strategic’. Horizontal integration means

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Answer: That different activities and initiatives need to mutually supportive and designed in a holistic way

Q90: International activity is

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Answer: servicing customers in nondomestic markets.

Q91: International retailing is

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Answer: the management of retail operations in markets that are different from each other in their regulation, economic development, social conditions, cultural environment, and retail structures.

Q92: The internationalization of retailing is

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Answer: the transfer of retail management technology or the establishment of international trading relationships that bring to a retail organization a level of international integration that establishes the retailer within the international environment in such a way as to transcend regulatory, economic, social, cultural, and retail structural boundaries.

Q93: David Ricardo recognized that there were advantages in specialization

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Answer: even when absolute advantage did not exist.

Q94: Which of the following is correct? Linder (1961) identified a fundamental difference in the trade of

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Answer: Primary and manufactured products

Q95: Vernon (1966) identified the importance of

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Answer: the market of origin in determining the characteristics of the product.

Q96: The eclectic paradigm proposes that international production is contingent on three sets of advantages

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Answer: Ownership Advantages, Locational Advantages, and Internalization Advantages

Q97: The stages theory of the firm is sometimes known as

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Answer: The Uppsala Model

Q98: How many categories of international retailers did Hollander (1970) suggest

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Answer: Five

Q99: Treadgold observed (1988) that

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Answer: high cost entry strategies allow retailers to retain high control over their non-domestic operation while low cost entry strategies will demand the loss of some control.

Q100: What were the three fundamental strategies identified by Salmon and Tordjman (1989)

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Answer: Global, multinational, and investment
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