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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Quantization is the method used for conversion?
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The conversion involves quantization of the input, is it necessarily introduces a small amount of error. Furthermore, instead of continuously performing the conversion, an ADC does the conversion periodically, sampling the input.

2. ENOB stands for_________
a) Effective no of bits
b) Effective no of bytes
c) Efficient no of bits
d) Efficient no of bytes

Answer: a [Reason:] The dynamic range of an ADC is often summarized in terms ofits effective no of bits(ENOB), the number of bits of each measure it returns that are on average not noise. An ideal ADC has an ENOB equal to its resolution.

3. Perfect resolution is possible when?
a) sampling rate greater than trice the bandwidth of the signal
b) sampling rate greater than twice the bandwidth of the signal
c) sampling rate less than twice the bandwidth of the signal
d) sampling rate less than trice the bandwidth of the signal

Answer: b [Reason:] If an ADC operates at the sampling rate greater than twice the bandwidth of the signal, then perfect reconstruction is possible given an ideal ADC and neglecting quantization error.

4. Resolution is expressed in __________
a) Bytes
b) Bits
c) Word
d) Nibble

Answer: b [Reason:] The values are usually stored electronically in binary form, so the resolution is usually expressed in bits.

5. The discrete levels available are_________
a) Sides
b) Edges
c) Levels
d) Bytes

Answer: c [Reason:] The number of discrete values available, or levels, is assumed to be power of two.

6. Resolution is expressed in terms of_________
a) Milli volts
b) Ampere
c) Milli ampere
d) Volts

Answer: d [Reason:] Resolution can also be defined electrically, and expressed in volts. The minimum change in voltage required to guarantee a change in the output code level is called least significant bit.

7. The rate of new values is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The analog signal is continuous I time and it is necessary to convert this to a flow of digital values. It is therefore required to define the rate at which new digital values are sampled from the analog signal. The rate of new values is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency of the converter.

8. How many common ways are there for implementing an ADC?
a) 2 ways
b) 5 ways
c) 8 ways
d) 10 ways

Answer: d [Reason:] The most common ways for implementing ADC are direct conversion, successive approximation, ramp compare, Wilkinson, integrating, delta encoded, pipelined, sigma delta, time interleaved, intermediate FM stage, other types.

9. Other name for data conversion is ________
b) Wilkinson
c) Sigma delta
d) Ramp compare

Answer: a [Reason:] A direct conversion ADC or flash ADC has a bank of comparators sampling the input signal in parallel, each firing for their decoded voltage range.

10. Which ADC narrows the range?
b) Wilkinson
c) Sigma delta
d) Successive approximation

Answer: d [Reason:] A successive approximation ADC uses a comparator to successively narrow a range that contains the input voltage.

11. Clock jitters is caused by __________
a) Sampling rate
b) Spectrum
c) Phase noise
d) Sampling frequency

Answer: c [Reason:] Clock jitter is caused by phase noise. Phase noise is the frequency domain representation of rapid, short term, random fluctuations in the phase of a waveform, caused by time domain instabilities.

12. The analog signal is __________ in __________
a) Continuous, frequency
b) Continuous, time
c) Discrete, frequency
d) Discrete, time

Answer: b [Reason:] The analog signal is continuous in time and it is necessary to convert this to a flow of digital values.

13. Sample and hold circuit is a _______ circuit.
a) Analog device
b) Digital device
c) Both analog and digital
d) Neither analog nor digital

Answer: a [Reason:] An input circuit called a sample and hold performs task, most cases by using a capacitor to store the analog voltage at the input, and using an electronic switch or gate to disconnect the capacitor from the input.

14. Nyquist rate is defined as ___________
a) twice the lowest frequency
b) trice the highest frequency
c) twice the highest frequency
d) trice the lowest frequecy

Answer: c [Reason:] Nyqist rate, defined as twice the highest frequency of interest, then all frequencies in the signal can be reconstructed.

15. To avoid aliasing we use a __________ filter.
a) Digital filter
b) Aliasing filter
c) Analog filter
d) Anti-aliasing filter

Answer: d [Reason:] To avoid aliasing, the input to an ADC must br low pass filtered to remove frequencies above half the sampling rate. This filter is called an anti-aliasing filter.

## Set 2

1. Which protocol is used to link all the devices in the IoT?
a) TCP/IP
b) Network
c) UDP
d) HTTP

Answer: a [Reason:] The internet of Thing is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet Protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.

2. ________ enables seamless integration of LoWPAN devices with internet leveraging.
a) IETF 6LoWPAN
b) IEFT CoAP
c) RFID/NFC
d) IEEE 802.15.4.LoWPAN

Answer: a [Reason:] IETF 6LoWPAN enables seamless integration of LoWPAN devices with internet leveraging IPv6 large address space and appln. Layer protocol reuse.

3. ________ enables open application layer for constrained nodes.
a) IETF 6LoWPAN
b) IEFT CoAP
c) RFID/NFC
d) IEEE 802.15.4.LoWPAN

Answer: b [Reason:] IETF CoAP – open application layer specification for constrained nodes supporting HTTP and Web integration.

4. ________ tags, devices, smart phones useful in identification.
a) IETF 6LoWPAN
b) IEFT CoAP
c) RFID/NFC
d) IEEE 802.15.4.LoWPAN

Answer: c [Reason:] RFID/NFC – tags, devices, smart phones useful in product / object identification and gathering associated information.

5. ________ supports low energy radio operation.
a) IETF 6LoWPAN
b) IEFT CoAP
c) RFID/NFC
d) Bluetooth

Answer: d [Reason:] Bluetooth SMART devices support low energy radio operations like, heart rate monitors, blood glucose monitors suitable for health care and fitness etc.

6. ________ specification defining the PHY and MAC layer of low power devices.
a)IETF 6LoWPAN
b)IEFT CoAP
c)RFID/NFC
d)IEEE 802.15.4.LoWPAN

Answer: d [Reason:] IEEE 802.15.4.LoWPAN – specification defining the PHY and MAC layer of low power devices supporting 250 Kb[s data rate, small packet size 127 bytes.

b) Fragmentation
c) Layer 2 forwarding
d) Header compression, Fragmentation, and Layer 2 forwarding

8. ________ is an application layer protocol for resource constrained devices.
a) CoAP
b) HMTP
c) MQTT
d) TCP/IP

Answer: a [Reason:] CoAP is an application layer protocol (IETF draft) for resource constrained devices. Adheres to the Restful approach for managing the resources and support mapping to HTTP.

9. Adheres to ________ approach for managing resources and support mapping to HTTP.
a) RETful
b) IoT
c) Restful
d) RESTful

Answer: d [Reason:] CoAP is an application layer protocol (IETF draft) for resource constrained devices. Adheres to RESTful approach for managing resources and support mapping to HTTP.

10. ________ resources are identified by Uniform Resource Identifiers.
a) CoAP
b) HMTP
c) MQTT
d) TCP/IP

Answer: a [Reason:] CoAP is an application layer protocol (IETF draft) for resource constrained devices. Adheres to Restful approach for managing resources and support mapping to HTTP. CoAP resources are identified by Uniform Resource Identifiers.

11. Which protocol interacts asynchronously over UDP?
a) HMTP
b) CoAP
c) MQTT
d) TCP/IP

Answer: b [Reason:] CoAP is an application layer protocol (IETF draft) for resource constrained devices.It is Asynchronous message interactions over UDP, Request/Response semantics CoAP resources are identified by Uniform Resource Identifiers.

12. CoAP messages are short.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] CoAP messages are short – 4 bytes header followed by options (Typically, 10-20 bytes header).

13. How many messages types are there in CoAP?
a) 2
b) 5
c) 3
d) 4

Answer: d [Reason:] Four message types are: Confirmable Non confirmable Acknowledgments Reset.

14. Number of methods in CoAP?
a) 2
b) 5
c) 4
d) 3

Answer: c [Reason:] Four CoAP methods: GET POST PUT DELETE.

15. WSN stands for __________
a) Wired Sensor Network
b) Wireless Sensor Network
c) Wired Service Network
d) Wireless Service Network

Answer: b [Reason:] WSN – Wireless Sensor Network comprises of motes running a WSN application and a light weight CoAP server.

## Set 3

1. What Bigdata collects?
a) Human generated data
b) Sensor data
c) Machine generated data
d) Device data

Answer: a [Reason:] Bigdata analyses large amounts of mostly human generated data to support longer duration.

2. What IoT collects?
a) Human generated data
b) Sensor data
c) Machine generated data
d) Device data

Answer: c [Reason:] IoT is aggregating and compressing massive amounts of low latency/ low duration/high volume machine generated data coming from a wide variety of sensor to support real time use cases such as operational.

3. Which requires data stream management?
a) Bigdata
b) IoT
c) Bigdata & IoT
d) Device data

Answer: b [Reason:] In order for one to claim that they can deliver IoT analytic solutions requires big data, but IoT analytics must also include: Stream data management and Edge analytics.

4. Which requires Edge analytics?
a) Bigdata
b) IoT
c) Bigdata & IoT
d) Device data

Answer: b [Reason:] In order for one to claim that they can deliver IoT analytic solutions requires big data, but IoT analytics must also include : Stream data management and Edge analytics.

5. The IoT operates at ___________ scale.
a) Machine
b) Human
c) Device
d) Sensor

Answer: a [Reason:] The IoT operates at machine scale, by dealing with machine to machine generated data. This machine generated data creates discrete observations at very high signal rates.

6. One way to see observations addressing IoT analytics is?
a) 4-Tier Analytics
b) 2-Tier Analytics
c) 1-Tier Analytics
d) 3-Tier Analytics

Answer: d [Reason:] One way that we see observation addressing the IoT analytics needs is via a 3-Tier Analytics.

7. Which tier Performs individual wind turbine real time performance?
a) 3-Tier Analytics
b) 2-Tier Analytics
c) 1-Tier Analytics
d) 4-Tier Analytics

Answer: c [Reason:] Tier-1 performs individual wind turbine real time performance analytics and optimization.

8. Which tier performs predicts maintenance?
a) 3-Tier Analytics
b) 2-Tier Analytics
c) 1-Tier Analytics
d) 4-Tier Analytics

Answer: b [Reason:] Tier 2 optimizes performance and predicts maintenance needs across the wind turbines in the same wind farm.

9. Which tier is data lake enabled core analytics platform?
a) 4-Tier Analytics
b) 2-Tier Analytics
c) 1-Tier Analytics
d) 3-Tier Analytics

Answer: d [Reason:] Tier-3 is the data lake enabled core analytics platform. The tier 3 core analytics platform includes analytics engines, data sets and data management services that enable access to the data.

10. For supporting real time edge analytics, we need to provide detailed data.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] To support real time edge analytics, we need to provide detailed data that can flag observations of concern, but then doesn’t overwhelm the ability to get meaningful data back to the core for more broad based strategic analysis.

## Set 4

1. MVS stands for ________
a) Microsoft Visual Studio
b) Memory Visual Studio
c) Microsoft Virtual Studio
d) Memory Virtual Studio

Answer: a [Reason:] In the mid-1990, a number of powerful commercial development environment were available; Microsoft Visual Studio was becoming a more general purpose tools platform.

2. IBM landscape contains ________ worlds.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 4
d) 5

Answer: b [Reason:] This landscape actually contained two worlds: one centered on tools that enabled Microsoft’s direction on runtime execution support, the other focused on a more open industry approach centered on the java platform.

3. IBM Software Group began creating a development tool that eventually known as ________
a) Code Blocks
b) BlueJ
c) Android Studio
d) Eclipse

Answer: d [Reason:] IBM Software Group began creating a development tool that eventually known as Eclipse. We first built a new Java IDE with resources from Object Technology International labs, along with he broader platform to go with it.

4. Vibrant ecosystem of third parties would be critical for achieving broad adoption of eclipse.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Vibrant ecosystem of third parties would be critical for achieving broad adoption of eclipse. But business partners were initially reluctant ti invest in our platforms.

5. The consortium’s operating principles assured that open source community would control ________
a) Code
b) Consortium
c) Both code, consortium
d) Neither code nor consortium

Answer: c [Reason:] The consortium’s operating principles assured that open source community would control the code and the commercial consortium would drive “marketing” and commercial relations.

6. Tools that you develop can plug into the workbench using well defined hooks called ________
a) SDK
b) Extension Point
c) JDK
d) GNU

Answer: b [Reason:] The eclipse platform uses the model of a common workbench to integrate the tools from the end user’s point of view. Tools that you develop can plug into the workbench using well defined hooks called Extension Point.

7. The eclipse platform defines pen architecture.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The eclipse platform defines pen architecture so that each plug-in development team can focus on their area of expertise.

8. Repository experts build ________ and the usability experts build ________
a) Back end, End user
b) Front end and End user
c) Back user, Front user
d) Back end , Front end

Answer: d [Reason:] Repository experts build back ends and the usability experts build end user tools. If the platform is designed well, significant new features and levels of integration can be added without impact to other tools.

9. The platform itself is built in layers of plug-ins.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The platform itself is built in layers of plug-ins, each one defining extension points of lower level plug-ins, and turn defining their own extension points for further customization.

10. The ________ is responsible for defining a structure for plug-ins.
a) Editors
b) Standard Widget Toolkit
c) Runtime
d) JFace UI

Answer: c [Reason:] The eclipse runtime defines the plug-ins on which all other plug-ins depends. The runtime is responsible for defining a structure for plug-ins and the implementation detail behind them.

11. The workbench UI is ________
a) Plug-in
b) IDE
c) GNU
d) Codebase

Answer: a [Reason:] The workbench UI is contributed by one such plug-in. When you start up the workbench, you are not starting up a single Java program, You are activating a platform runtime.

12. The ________ is a cockpit for navigating all the functionality provided by plug-ins.
a) IDE
b) Workbench
c) GNU
d) Codebase

Answer: b [Reason:] The workbench is a cockpit for navigating all the functionality provided by plug-ins. By using the workbench, we can navigate resources and we can view and edit the content and properties.

13. The workbench is just a frame.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The workbench is just a frame that can present various visual parts. These parts fall into two major categories: Views Editors.

14. ________ allow the user to edit something in the workbench.
a) View
b) Workbench
c) Codebase
d) Editor

Answer: d [Reason:] Editors allow the users to edit something in the workbench. Editors are document-centrist, much like a file system editor.

15. ________ provide about some objects that the user is working with in the workbench.
a) Editor
b) View
c) Workbench
d) Codebase

Answer: b [Reason:] View provide information about some object that the user is working with in the workbench. Views often change their content as the user selects different objects in the workbench.

## Set 5

1. _________ allows us to control electronic components
a) RETful API
b) RESTful API
c) HTTP
d) MQTT

Answer: a [Reason:] RETful API that allows us to control electronic components connected to our Intel Galileo Gen 2 board through HTTP requests.

2. MQTT stands for _____________
a) MQ Telemetry Things
b) MQ Transport Telemetry
c) MQ Transport Things
d) MQ Telemetry Transport

Answer: d [Reason:] MQTT known as MQ Telemetry Transport protocol. MQTT is a lightweight protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP protocol.

3. MQTT is better than HTTP for sending and receiving data.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] We want to send and receive data in real time through internet and RESTful API is not the most appropriate option to do this. Instead, we will work on MQTT which is lighter than HTTP.

4. MQTT is _________ protocol.
a) Machine to Machine
b) Internet of Things
c) Machine to Machine and Internet of Things
d) Machine Things

Answer: c [Reason:] The MQTT protocol is a machine to machine and Internet of thing connectivity protocol.

5. Which protocol is lightweight?
a) MQTT
b) HTTP
c) CoAP
d) SPI

Answer: a [Reason:] MQTT is a lightweight protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP protocol and works with publish subscribe mechanism.

6. PubNub publishes and subscribes _________ in order to send and receive messages.
a) Network
b) Account
c) Portal
d) Keys

Answer: d [Reason:] It is necessary to generate our PubNub publishes and subscribes keys in order to send and receive messages in the network.

7. By clicking which key the PubNub will display public, subscribe, and secret keys.
a) Pane
b) Demo Keyset
c) Portal
d) Network

Answer: b [Reason:] Click on Demo keyset pane and PubNub will display public, subscribe, and secret keys. We must copy and paste each of these keys to use them in our code that will publish messages and subscribe to them.

8. The messageChannel class declares the _________ class attribute that defines the key string.
a) command_key
b) command-key
c) commandkey
d) Key_command

Answer: a [Reason:] The messageChannel class declares the command_key class attribute that defines the key string that defines what the code will understand as the command.

9. _________ method saves the received arguments in three attributes.
a) __Init
b) Init__
c) __Init__
d) _init_

Answer: c [Reason:] __Init__ method saves the received arguments in three attributes with the same names.

10. _________ and _________ saves the publish and subscribe keys that we have generated with the PubNub Admin portal.
a) public_key and subscribe_key
b) Public-key and subscribe-key
c) publickey and subscribekey
d) Key_public and key_subscribe

Answer: a [Reason:] Then, the constructor declares two local variables: public_key and subscribe_key. These local variables save the public and subscribe keys that we had generated with the PubNub Admin portal.

11. _________ specifies the function that will be called when there is a new message received from the channel.
a) Reconnect
b) Error
c) Connect
d) Callback

Answer: d [Reason:] The call to this message specifies many methods declared in the MessageChannel class Callback: specifies the function that will be called when there is a new message received from the channel.

12. _________ specifies the function that will be called on an error event.
a) Callback
b) Error
c) Connect
d) Reconnect

Answer: b [Reason:] The call to this message specifies many methods declared in the MessageChannel class Error: specifies the function that will be called on an error event.

13. _________ Specifies the function that will be called when a successful connection with the PubNub cloud.
a) Callback
b) Error
c) Connect
d) Reconnect

Answer: c [Reason:] The call to this message specifies many methods declared in the MessageChannel class Connect: specifies the function that will be called when a successful connection with the PubNub cloud.

14. _________ specifies the function that will be called when a successful re-connection is completed.
a) Callback
b) Error
c) Connect
d) Reconnect