Multiple choice question for engineering
1. Which is the largest lake in the world?
a) Lake Superior
b) Dal Lake
c) Caspian Sea
d) Wular Lake
Answer: c [Reason:] The famous Dal Lake and the Wular Lake are only 16 and 30 square kilometres in area respectively, whereas, the Caspian Sea, considered as the largest lake on the Earth, has an area 4,36,000 square kilometres.
2. Lakes can be free from salt because of the presence of
a) Evaporating agents
b) Salts are absent
c) Presence of a regular outlet from the lake
d) Enclosed area
Answer: c [Reason:] The lakes in which water is almost free from salts are called fresh water lakes. This becomes possible because of presence of a regular outlet from the lake.
3. Wular lake in Kashmir receives water from which river?
Answer: d [Reason:] The Wular Lake of Kashmir is a fresh water; it receives river Jhelum at one end which drains out from the other end near Baramullah.
4. Which is the largest fresh water lake in the world?
a) Lake Superior
b) Dal Lake
c) Caspian Sea
d) Wular Lake
Answer: a [Reason:] Lake Superior is crescent shaped and is considered as the largest fresh-water lake, area wise (82,477 km2), whereas lake Baikul is considered as the deepest fresh-water lake with greatest volume (23,000 km2) of water in it.
5. Which of the following is not cause for saline lake presence of an outlet?
a) High content of salts
b) Absence of an outlet
c) Excessive rate of evaporation
d) Presence of an outlet
Answer: d [Reason:] Water of such lakes is characterized with high content of salts. This becomes possible due to absence of an outlet and/or an excessive rate of evaporation, which leads to heavy concentration of salts in the lake water.
6. Caspian sea is which type of lake?
a) Large lake
b) Fresh-water lake
c) Saline lake
d) Stream lake
Answer: c [Reason:] The biggest lake, the Caspian Sea, is a lake belonging saline type. In other cases, the salinity of the lake is easily attributed to the dry climate, which causes precipitation of salts that form layers along the bottom and banks of the lakes.
7. Pick the lake not belonging to salt water type?
a) Lake Geneva
b) Lake Urmia
c) Salt lake
d) Lake Chad
Answer: a [Reason:] Lake Geneva is a fresh water lake, whereas the rest are saline lakes.
8. Basins formed due to faulting, folding are called
a) Volcanic basins
b) Tectonic basins
c) Glacial basins
d) Ground water basins
Answer: b [Reason:] Many basins are formed due to faulting, folding and other crustal movements. Such basins aptly called Tectonic basins. Depression of a central block in between two parallel faults, graben is an ideal site for a lake.
9. Tectonic lake basins are of what nature?
c) Very short-lived
Answer: d [Reason:] Tectonic lake basins are commonly rectangular in outline and semi-permanent in nature.
10. What is the outline of volcanic basins commonly?
Answer: b [Reason:] Craters of extinct volcanoes are excellent depressions to serve as lake basins. Volcano created basins are commonly circular in outline.
11. The Dal and Wular lakes are
a) Volcanic basins
b) Glacial basins
c) Fluviatile basins
d) Groundwater basins
Answer: c [Reason:] The well-known Dal and Wular Lakes of Kashmir are believed to be detached and modified meander loops of the Jhelum. Similar lakes are also found in the delta of the Mississippi River.
12. The doline type of lakes are carved out of which rocks?
Answer: c [Reason:] The doline type of lakes are simple circular depressions carved out of limestone by solution action. The Deep Lake of Florida is an example.
1. The depth up to which the mantle is said to exist is ________
a) 2000 km
b) 1500 km
c) 2900 km
d) 1800 km
Answer: c [Reason:] The second layer, Mantle, lies beneath the crust and this zone starting from the lower boundary of the crust continues up to a depth of 2,900 km.
2. The thickness of the 2 layers of the upper mantle is approximately said to be
a) 400 and 600 km
b) 300 and 500 km
c) 450 and 800 km
d) 300 and 400 km
Answer: a [Reason:] The upper mantle is further divided into two layers of 400 and 600 km thickness respectively.
3. The exact nature of the mantle is completely understood. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] It is said that the exact nature of the mantle is as yet incompletely understood.
4. Which of the following is not true about Asthenosphere?
a) It is present in the upper mantle
b) It is in solid state
c) It is the source of volcanic activity
d) It is in plastic rather than solid state
Answer: b [Reason:] It is in solid state is not true and the remaining options are true and they are characteristics of the asthenosphere. In Greek, “asthenes” means without strength and hence the name.
5. Who was the first person to tell about the Core?
a) Graham Bell
b) Albert Einstein
c) Isaac Newton
d) R.D. Oldham
Answer: d [Reason:] The existence of the core was suggested by R.D. Oldham in 1906 and subsequently confirmed by other seismologists.
6. The depth at which the core layer starts and ends respectively is ____________
a) 2900 and 6371 km
b) 2000 and 5371 km
c) 2500 and 4771 km
d) 2000 and 5000 km
Answer: a [Reason:] The mantle extends up to the depth of 2900 km and from that depth it is the core that is said to be present and the radius of the Earth is 6371 km and hence the core is said to extend till 6371 km.
7. Which of the following is true about the inner core?
a) It is believed to be a semi solid body
b) It is believed to be a solid body
c) It is believed to be a liquid body
d) It is believed to be a gaseous body.
Answer: b [Reason:] The inner core with a thickness of around 1790 km is believed to be a solid body.
8. The density of the Earth in the core immediately after the mantle is _______
a) 8 g/cc
b) 7.6 g/cc
c) 9.9 g/cc
d) 8.7 g/cc
Answer: c [Reason:] At the base of the mantle, density is inferred as 5.7 g/cc that jumps to 9.9 g/cc at the top of the core.
9. The layer which does not transmit the S-waves is _______
a) Outer core
d) Inner core
Answer: a [Reason:] The outer core behaves more like a liquid because the S-waves from the earthquake shocks reaching this zone are not transmitted through this zone at all.
10. There is a hypothesis that the inner core is made up chiefly of iron and nickel. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] As regards the chemical composition of the inner core, the hypothesis that it is made up chiefly of iron and nickel elements has found support from many accounts.
11. The density of the Earth at its centre is said to be
a) 9.9 g/cc
b) 8.8 g/cc
c) 13 g/cc
d) 12.7 g/cc
Answer: c [Reason:] The value of density reaches 12.7 g/cc at the boundary of the inner core and becomes 13 g/cc at the centre of the Earth.
12. The layer which is said to support the slow moving tectonic plates is
c) Mohorovic sphere
d) Core layer
Answer: a [Reason:] The Asthenosphere is believed to be located entirely in the upper mantle and supports the slowly moving tectonic plates.
13. What is the thickness of the inner core?
a) 790 km
b) 1790 km
c) 2790 km
d) 3790 km
Answer: b [Reason:] The inner core, is believed to be in solid metallic state and is said have thickness of about 1790 km.
14. The layer which is believed to be the source of volcanic activity is
a) Inner core
b) Outer core
d) Mohorovicic layer
Answer: c [Reason:] The asthenosphere is believed to be the source of much volcanic activity and many other processes. It is is said be to located completely in the upper mantle.
1. Colour changing phenomenon which involves oxidation is
Answer: a [Reason:] Tarnish nay be described as a phenomenon of change of original colours of mineral to some secondary colours at its surface due its oxidation at the surface.
2. Lustre doesn’t depend on
a) Refractive index mineral
b) Absorption of mineral
b) Transmittance of mineral
d) Nature of reflecting surface
Answer: c [Reason:] Lustre depends on: refractive index of the mineral, absorption capacity of the mineral and nature of reflecting surface.
3. State true or false. Lustre is dependent on colour.
Answer: b [Reason:] Lustre is entirely independent of colour of the mineral. A deeply coloured mineral may be lustreless and vice-versa.
4. High density, high refractive index is characteristic of
a) Non-metallic minerals
b) Metallic minerals
c) Semi-metallic minerals
d) Metalloid minerals
Answer: b [Reason:] Metallic lustres are characteristics of high density, high refractive index and opaque minerals like galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite.
5. Type of shine or lustre associated with lustre of diamond is
Answer: a [Reason:] Adamantine is the other name for shine of diamonds. Very brilliant; the best example is diamond.
6. Streak is an important diagnostic property of
a) Non-coloured minerals
b) Coloured minerals
c) Metallic minerals
d) Non-metallic minerals
Answer: b [Reason:] Streak is an important diagnostic property of many coloured minerals. Simply defined as the colour of the finely powdered mineral as obtained by scratching or rubbing the mineral over rough unglazed porcelain plate.
7. Which mineral gives streak?
a) Coloured and translucent
b) Colourless and opaque
c) Coloured and opaque
d) Coloured and transparent
Answer: c [Reason:] Colourless and transparent minerals will always give a colourless streak that has no significance. The coloured and opaque minerals, especially of ore groups, give typically characteristic streaks quite different from other similarly looking minerals.
8. The mineral which is almost black but gives brown streak is
Answer: d [Reason:] Chromite and magnetite resemble closely in their other physical properties: both are almost black. These may be at once distinguished by their streaks: brown for chromite and black for magnetite.
9. Hardness of a mineral depends upon
a) Chemical composition
b) Atomic constitution
c) Chemical composition and atomic constitution
d) Physical makeup
Answer: c [Reason:] Hardness may be defined as the resistance, which a mineral offers to an external deformation action such as scratching, abrasion, rubbing or indentation. Hardness of a mineral depends on its chemical composition and atomic constitution.
10. The scale of hardness is
Answer: b [Reason:] It was in 1822 that Austrian mineralogist F.Mohs proposed a relative, broadly quantitative “scale of hardness” of minerals assigning values between 1 and 10.
11. Minerals of equal hardness do no scratch each other. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] It must be remembered that minerals of equal hardness scratch each other. The best example is that, diamond cuts diamonds.
1. What is the term used to express the process responsible for all the changes that take place in an original rock under the influence of changes?
Answer: c [Reason:] Metamorphism is the term used to express the process responsible for all the changes that take place in an original rock under the influence of changes in the surrounding conditions of temperature, pressure and chemically active fluids.
2. The factor not affecting metamorphism is
a) Wind conditions
d) Chemically active fluids
Answer: a [Reason:] The factors affecting the metamorphism of the rocks are temperature, pressure and chemically fluids. Wind conditions do not affect the metamorphism in any way.
3. Factors are also called
a) Primary aspects
b) Agents of metamorphism
c) Agents of changes
d) Tertiary aspects
Answer: b [Reason:] Metamorphic changes in the rocks are primarily the result of three main factors that are also sometimes called agents of metamorphism: heat, pressure and chemically active fluids.
4. The temperature up to which minerals in rocks are stable is
a) 100° C
b) 50° C
c) 500° C
d) 200° C
Answer: d [Reason:] Rocks are made up of minerals that are normally stable at temperature below 200° C. However, when the temperature around these rocks changes due to one reason or the other, the mineral composition of the rocks undergoes some changes.
5. Any given rock at some depth below the surface is subjected to pressure from how many sources?
Answer: b [Reason:] Any given rock at some depth below the surface is subjected to pressure from two sources: first, load of the overlying burden and second, from crustal movements.
6. What is the pressure exerted during the crustal movements called?
a) Indirect pressure
b) Directed pressure
c) Secondary pressure
d) Primary pressure
Answer: b [Reason:] The pressure from orogenic activity is generally lateral or horizontal and is commonly termed as directed pressure.
7. What is the direction of pressure exertion in load metamorphism?
d) Horizontal or inclined
Answer: a [Reason:] The load of the overlying burden acts generally exerts pressure in a vertical direction and the process of change in the structure of the rock is often referred as load metamorphism.
8. Pore fluids play important role metamorphism. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] Presence or absence of chemically active fluids within the body of the rocks (the pore fluids) or around them plays very important role in the process of all types of metamorphism.
9. Water in which form is considered as single most important agent?
d) Solid and liquid
Answer: c [Reason:] Water in the form of steam is considered the single most important agent. The water may be present in the minerals as water of crystallization or simply as pore fluid or it may be supplied externally by magmatic bodies.
10. Which rocks show severe degree of metamorphism?
a) Situated near the plate boundaries
b) Situated inside the boundaries
c) Situated at the centre of the plates
d) Irrespective of the place, the degree is same everywhere
Answer: a [Reason:] Rocks situated near the plate boundaries or within the geosynclinal belts are especially prone to directed pressure and often show severest degree of metamorphic changes.
11. Metamorphism can also happen about 850° C. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] It is believed that most metamorphic changes induced by the heat factor take place between 300°-850° C, some components of rock may actually start melting and hence rocks formed from their resolidification shall be included in the category of igneous rocks.
1. Which mineral is also used in chemical industry for manufacture of chromates?
Answer: b [Reason:] Chromite is a strategic mineral finding applications in metallurgy of alloy steels, as a source of metal chromium and as a refractory material. It is used in chemical industry for manufacture of chromates.
2. The bauxite in India occurs primarily as
Answer: a [Reason:] The bauxite in India occurs primarily as gibbsite Al2O3 , its percentage carrying between 40-60 percent and containing silica, iron oxides and titania as important accessory constituents.
3. The best grade chromite in India occurs in which state?
Answer: c [Reason:] The best grade chromite in India occurs in Orissa. Other states where chromite reserves have been found are: Karnataka, Bihar, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh.
4. Chromite is mostly of which origin?
d) Any origin
Answer: a [Reason:] Chromite deposits are mostly of igneous origin being associated with highly basic and ultrabasic rocks like periodotites and dunites.
5. State where copper is not mined
a) Jammu and Kashmir
Answer: a [Reason:] In India, copper is being mined from the states of Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh. Copper ores are also extracted in small volume in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Sikkim.
6. Where is the Singhbhum copper belt located?
b) Madhya Pradesh
Answer: d [Reason:] The Singhbhum copper belt of Bihar is made up of epidiorite and quartz-chloride-schist as country rock in which chalcopyrite is the main copper sulphide and quartz, chlorite, biotite and apatite are the gangue minerals. The belt extends for about 15 km.
7. Hutti gold mines are located in which state of India?
b) Madhya Pradesh
Answer: a [Reason:] The Hutti Gold Mines are also located in Karnataka state in Raichur district where the gold lodes occur along fractures within chlorite schists and greenstones in a highly irregular manner.
8. India is one of the chief producers of which of the following ores?
Answer: c [Reason:] India is one of the chief producers of manganese ores in the world occupying 5th to 7th position and competing with Commonwealth of Independent States, South Africa and Brazil. There are three main ore minerals of manganese.
9. Which is the most common ore of lead?
Answer: b [Reason:] The most common ore of lead is Galena-PbS. Similarly, the most common ore of zinc is also a sulphide, Sphalerite.
10. The place in India where Tungsten is extracted is
Answer: d [Reason:] India produces only small quantities of tungsten in Rajasthan. The source mineral is Wolfram which occurs in Rewat in Degana area.