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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Horsts and grabens are believed to occur due to
a) Lateral compression
b) Shear compression
c) Lateral tension
d) Bending

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The origin of horsts and grabens is believed to be due to lateral tension in the crust in most cases.

2. Faults involving extensive blocks and resulting in horsts and grabens are called
a) Extensive faults
b) Block faults
c) H-B faults
d) Vertical faults

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Faults involving extensive blocks and resulting in horsts and grabens are often called as block faults and the process as block faulting.

3. Faults in which the fault plane is vertical and the resulting movement is vertical is
a) Vertical faults
b) Straight faults
c) Reverse faults
d) Enecholon faults

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Faults in which the fault plane is vertical or nearly so and the resulting movement of blocks is also in a vertical direction are termed as vertical faults. It is customary to group vertical faults along with normal faults while discussing their origin.

4. In which fault the hanging wall appears to have moved up with respect to the foot wall?
a) Normal fault
b) Reverse fault
c) Hinge fault
d) Radial fault

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Reverse fault is such a type of fault in which the hanging wall appears to have moved up with respect to the foot wall.

5. The fault in which the fault plane is generally inclined between 45° and horizontal is
a) Reverse fault
b) Normal fault
c) Strike-slip fault
d) Enechelon fault

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In reverse faults, the fault plane is generally inclined between horizontal and 45 degrees although reverse faults with steeply inclined fault surfaces have been also encountered.

6. What does the reverse fault cause to the crust of the Earth?
a) Extension of the crust
b) Strengthening of the crust
c) Weakening of the crust
d) Shortening of the crust

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] By virtue of their inclination and direction of movement, reverse faulting involves shortening of the crust of the crust of the Earth (compared with normal faults).

7. Thrust faults belong to which variety of faults?
a) Normal faults
b) Reverse faults
c) Strike-slip faults
d) Hinge faults

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Thrust faults are, broadly speaking, such varieties of reverse faults in which the hanging wall has moved up relative to the foot wall.

8. What is the fault angle of the thrust faults?
a) More than 45°
b) Less than 45°
c) Lesser than 60°
d) More than 90°

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Thrust faults are the types of reverse faults in which the hanging wall has moved up relative to the foot wall and the faults dip at angles below 45 degrees. Faults dipping above 45 degrees with hanging wall having gone up are then called as reverse faults.

9. The type of thrust in which the hanging wall seems to have been actively and actually displaced with respect to a passive foot wall is called
a) Under thrust
b) Over thrust
c) Upper thrust
d) Intermediate thrust

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Thrusts are further distinguished into two sub-types: The over thrusts and the under thrusts. In the over thrusts, the hanging wall seems to have been actively and actually displaced with respect to a passive foot wall.

10. Which mountain range presents example of thrust faults?
a) The Alps
b) The Andes
c) The Rockies
d) The Himalaya

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The Himalayan Mountains in the Indian sub-continent present numerous examples of thrust faults developed all along its extension from northwest to southeast.

11. What is the term used for blocks or rocks that have been translated to great distances?
a) Thrusts
b) Imbricate structures
c) Nappes
d) Enecholon

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Nappes is the term used for extensive blocks of rocks that have been translated to great distances, often ranging to several kilometres, along a thrust plane.

12. The term which studied under faults but also is associated with folding is
a) Nappes
b) Thrusts
c) Radial fault
d) Graben

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The large-scale movement of nappes may be attributed to a major thrusting or a recumbent folding followed by thrust faulting.

Set 2

1. Heave is _______
a) Horizontal component of dip separation
b) Vertical component of dip separation
c) Normal horizontal displacement measured
d) Signifying separation between two beds

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heave is the horizontal component of dip separation measured in a direction perpendicular to the strike of the fault in a vertical plane.

2. What signifies actual separation between two beds?
a) Throw
b) Offset
c) Heave
d) Stratigraphic throw

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Stratigraphic throw signifies actual separation between two beds with known stratigraphical position in a sequence of rocks that are now brought into contact by faulting.

3. What is the term related to slickensides and used to express angular relationship?
a) Rake
b) Tweak
c) Slick
d) Offset

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Rake is a term related to slickensides in faults. It is used to express the angular relationship of slickensides or some other line with the fault plane.

4. Pick the term which is not a crushed material.
a) Gouge
b) Fault breccia
c) Kaolynite
d) Mylonite

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rubbing and mutual shearing of blocks during faulting, especially in brittle rocks, often produces typical crushed materials from the involved blocks that are useful indicators of faulting in that region. The most common and important products are: Gouge, Fault breccia and Mylonite.

5. What is also called as Micro breccia?
a) Gouge
b) Mylonite
c) Kaolynite
d) Shale

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Mylonite is also called as micro-breccia and is similar to fault breccia but contains very fine-grained broken particles from the involved rocks that get thoroughly cemented and compacted.

6. The finely pulverized, clay-like powdered rock material is
a) Gouge
b) Fault breccia
c) Mylonite
d) Illite

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Gouge is finely pulverized, clay-like powdered rock material, which occurs at or near the base of the faulted zones.

7. The evidence of slickensides is easily observed in old faults. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The evidence of slickensides may be expected only on the recently faulted surfaces because in the old faults such an evidence is more likely to be removed by subsequent weathering.

8. Identify the type of slip from the figure below.
engineering-geology-interview-questions-answers-fault-terminology-03-q8
a) Strike slip
b) Dip slip
c) Oblique slip
d) Throw slip

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The displacement has essentially taken place along the dip of the fault. Hence the figure represents dip slip.

9. Identify the part labelled as “A” in the figure below.
engineering-geology-interview-questions-answers-fault-terminology-03-q9
a) Throw
b) Slickensides
c) Heave
d) Offset

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The part “A” is clearly bearing the evidence of frictional rubbing against each other suffered by them during the process of displacement due to faulting. Hence it is showing slickensides.

10. Gouge and fault breccia are both in finely powdered form. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Gouge is the finely powdered form but faulted breccia is not. Faulted breccia is crushed angular, fragmentary material produced during faulting, especially when the rocks are brittle and hard.

11. Identify the region marked as “OP2”.

a) Slip
b) Throw
c) Heave
d) Strike

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Heave is the horizontal component of dip separation measured in a direction perpendicular to the strike of the fault in a vertical plane.

Set 3

1. Which rock is lifted up during the folding due to intrusions?
a) Overlying metamorphic rocks
b) Overlying igneous rocks
c) Overlying sedimentary rocks
d) Overlying petroleum rocks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In magmatic intrusions, highly viscous magma may be forced up gradually and with considerable force so that sedimentary host rocks overlying are lifted up to provide the space for the rising magma.

2. The process of folding which is considered to be non-tectonic is
a) Differential compression
b) Tangential compression
c) Intrusions
d) Tangential tension

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Folding due to differential compression is totally dependent on the load from above and are attributed to superficial causes. These are, therefore, non-tectonic folds.

3. What is the indirect cause for warping or folding?
a) Homogenous strata
b) Non-homogenous strata
c) Inclined strata
d) Curved strata

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] If the strata in question is not homogenous, the bending may not be uniform in character and results in warping or folding of different types.

4. What is the reason for rock bursts?
a) Change in attitude of rocks
b) Shattering of rocks
c) Intense precipitation
d) Strained nature

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All the stresses that have acted on the rocks during their folding are generally absorbed by these rocks by undergoing strain. Enough stored energy is released as soon as the excavations are made and this leads to rock bursts.

5. What is affected when the layers of undesirable nature are encountered?
a) Project cost
b) Time schedule
c) Safety of the project
d) All the three are affected

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Same layers may be repeated along an alignment or one or more encountered layers are of undesirable nature, the project cost may be affected as also the time schedule and safety of the project.

6. Axial zones are the places of maximum concentration of stresses. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Folding is the response of the rocks to the stresses induced during the process. These stresses are often strong enough to break or shatter the rocks, especially in the axial zones, which are the places of maximum concentration of these forces.

7. Shattering makes the rocks
a) Non-porous
b) Impervious
c) Stronger
d) Pervious

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Shattering effect is of utmost importance because shattered rocks become: weak in strength parameters of all types; porous and pervious in character.

8. The axial regions have to be avoided and there is no alternative method to utilize the place. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Axial regions should be thoroughly studied and avoided if possible. If it is not possible to avoid them, these areas must be subjected to suitable processes of rock treatment for developing in them desired qualities of strength and imperviousness.

9. The process of folding which mainly causes uparching is
a) Folding due to differential compression
b) Folding due to tangential shearing
c) Folding due to intrusions
d) Folding due to differential tension

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Intrusion of magma or even rock salt bodies from beneath has been found to be the cause of uparching of the overlying strata.

10. What is the cause for downward bending?
a) Differential compression
b) Differential shearing
c) Intrusions
d) Flowage folding

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Strata that are being compacted under load in a basin of sedimentation develop, with passage of time, downward bending especially in the zones of maximum loading.

11. Which rock might undergo flowage folding?
a) Siltstone
b) Sandstone
c) Gypsum
d) Limestone

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Flowage folding is the principal process of folding in incompetent or weaker, plastic type of rocks such as clays, shales, gypsum and rock salt etc.

12. At what angle is the primary lateral compressive force said to act in tangential compression?
a) 60° to the trend of the folds
b) 90° to the trend of the folds
c) 30° to the trend of the folds
d) 45° to the trend of the folds

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In general, the primary lateral compressive force is believed to act at right angles to the trend of the folds.

Set 4

1. Hardness of human nail varies between
a) 0.5 to 1.5
b) 3 to 4
c) 1.5 to 2.5
d) 2.5 to 3.5

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Some common materials have been assigned hardness values according to Mohs scale and may prove useful in determination of hardness of an unknown mineral quickly. Hardness of human finger nail varies between 1.5 and 2.5.

2. Hardness is which kind of property?
a) Isotropic
b) Anisotropic
c) Homogenous
d) Non-homogenous

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hardness is an anisotropic property; a mineral may show different values in different directions.

3. How does hardness vary with decomposition?
a) Increases with decomposition
b) Decreases with decomposition
c) Does not change
d) Either decreases or increases

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hardness decreases on decomposition of a mineral due to atmospheric attack on the surface. Hence, it must be checked on unweathered and unaltered surfaces.

4. Hardness is a relative property. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hardness is a relative property. If talc has H=1 and Quartz H=7, it does not indicate quartz is seven times harder than talc.

5. The tendency of a crystallized mineral to break along certain directions yielding more or less smooth, plane surfaces is
a) Tenacity
b) Hardness
c) Cleavage
d) Fracture

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Cleavage is defined as the tendency of a crystallized mineral to break along certain directions yielding more or less smooth, plane surfaces. In other words, cleavage are the planes easiest fractures, and are essentially indicative of directions of least cohesion.

6. Cleavage is described in terms of
a) Number of direction
b) Degree of perfect splitting
c) Degree of cracking
d) Degree of perfect splitting and number of direction

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cleavage is described both in terms of number of directions in which it is observed on a mineral and also in terms of degree of perfect splitting.

7. The type of cleavage due to the mineral can be split very easily is
a) Eminent cleavage
b) Distinct cleavage
c) Basal cleavage
d) Cubic cleavage

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In terms of perfection, the cleavage is described as: eminent, perfect, good, distinct and indistinct in that order. In eminent cleavage, the mineral can be split very easily yielding extremely smooth surfaces, e.g., in mica.

8. Mineral which shows parting is
a) Orthoclase
b) Calcite
c) Mica
d) Corundum

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Parting is a property of minerals by virtue of which it can be split easily along certain secondary planes. Best example of parting can be seen in corundum where cleavage may be absent but parting may be very prominent.

9. Pick the wrong statement about fracture.
a) It is the broken surface of a mineral along direction of cleavage
b) It is the broken surface of a mineral in a direction other than that of cleavage
c) In some cases it becomes a characteristic property of a mineral
d) Even and uneven are examples of fractures

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The appearance of the broken surface of a mineral in a direction other than that of cleavage is generally expressed by the term fracture. In some cases fracture becomes a characteristic property of a mineral.

10. The term which means, rough woody fracture is
a) Uneven
b) Conchoidal
c) Splintry
d) Hackly

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] When the mineral breaks with a rough woody fracture resulting in rough projection at the surface it is known as sprintly fracture. Example, Kyanite.

11. The behaviour of a mineral towards the forces that tend to destroy it is called
a) Hardness
b) Resistance
c) Tenacity
d) Crystal degree

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The behaviour of a mineral towards the forces that tend to break, bend, cut or crush it is described by the term tenacity.

Set 5

1. The elastic waves generated at the focus are seismic waves. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] During each earthquake, elastic waves are generated at the focus. These waves are called seismic waves and they travel in all directions with their characteristic velocities.

2. What are the surface waves called as?
a) P-waves
b) S-waves
c) Long waves
d) Transverse waves

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The L-waves are also called long waves, or surface waves because their journey is confined mainly to the near surface layers of the Earth.

3. Further classification of L-waves is done into how many types?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The L-waves are comparatively sluggish and recorded only after the arrival of the P and S-waves. In character, the surface waves are of two main types- Rayleigh and love waves.

4. Type of L-wave in which the particle is of a complex nature is
a) Love waves
b) Shock waves
c) Rayleigh waves
d) Transverse waves

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rayleigh waves are the waves in which the displacement of the particle is of a complex nature, partly being in the direction of propagation and partly at right angles to it.

5. Type of L-wave in which the particle is in the direction of propagation is
a) Love waves
b) Shock waves
c) Rayleigh waves
d) Transverse waves

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Love waves are the waves in which the displacement of the particle is practically horizontal, that is, in the direction of propagation. The love waves tend to create shearing ruptures.

6. Which waves travel faster in non-layered homogeneous structure?
a) Love waves
b) Shock waves
c) Rayleigh waves
d) Transverse waves

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The velocity of surface waves is controlled by the frequency of waves and the structure of the ground. In the homogeneous non-layered structures, Rayleigh waves travel fast and form the prominent L-waves.

7. The magnitude of quake is based on what aspect of the wave?
a) Amplitude
b) Frequency
c) Time period
d) Intensity

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Magnitude is the term expressing the rating of an earthquake on the basis of amplitude of seismic waves recorded as seismograms.

8. Ritcher magnitude is the log to 10th base of maximum seismic amplitude recorded at what distance from epicenter?
a) 10 km
b) 50 km
c) 100 km
d) 200 km

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Ritcher magnitude is the logarithm to the base 10 of the maximum seismic wave amplitude recorded on a seismograph at a distance of 100 km from the epicenter of a particular earthquake.

9. The term expressing qualitative effect of earthquake is
a) Amplitude
b) Frequency
c) Time period
d) Intensity

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Intensity is another term expressing rating of an earthquake, though broadly in a qualitative manner, on the basis of its effects on living and non-living things of the region visited by it.