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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Selection of excavation method depends on
a) Type of rocks
b) Nature of rocks and ground
c) Texture of rocks and ground
d) Weather conditions of the place

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Choice of the right method will, therefore, be possible only when the nature of the rocks and the ground all along the alignment is fully known. This is one of the most important aim and object of geological investigations.

2. Which outline is preferred for weak rocks with unequal lateral pressure?
a) D-shaped
b) Horse-shoe shaped
c) Circular
d) Rectangular shaped

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In self-supporting and strong rocks, either, D-shape or horse-shoe shape may be conveniently adopted but these shapes would be practically unsuitable in soft ground or even in weak rocks with unequal lateral pressure. In those cases circular outline may be the first choice.

3. Lithology does not affect which parameter?
a) Type of tunnel
b) Method of tunnelling
c) Strength and extent of lining
d) Cost of the project

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Information regarding mineralogical composition, textures and structures of the rocks through which the proposed tunnel is to pass is of great importance in deciding: the method of tunnelling, the strength and extent of lining and, thus the cost of the project.

4. What occurs due to falling of big rock blocks or sides due to release of stresses during tunnelling?
a) Rock fall
b) Rock bursts
c) Blockage
d) Water rush

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Rock bursts which occur due to falling of big rock blocks from roofs or sides due to release of stresses or falling of rock block along fractures already existing in these rocks often cause many accidents.

5. Pick the rock considered as soft rocks for tunnelling.
a) Granite
b) Gabbro
c) Basalt
d) Shale

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Rocks considered as hard and crystalline are granites, syenites, gabbros, basalts and all the related igneous rocks, sandstones, limestones, dolomites, quartzites etc. However the soft rocks include, shales, friable and poorly compacted sandstones, chalk and porous varieties of limestones and dolomites, slates and phyllites with high degree of cleavage.

6. Which type of rocks require double lining, i.e., temporary and permanent lining?
a) Hard rocks
b) Crystalline rocks
c) Soft rocks
d) Non-crystalline rocks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In most cases, the soft rocks are not self-supporting. Hence, temporary and permanent lining becomes necessary that would involve extra cost and additional time.

7. Which type of strata is rare in occurrence?
a) Vertical strata
b) Horizontal strata
c) Inclined strata
d) Jointed strata

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Horizontal strata are rare in occurrence for longer tunnels. If they are countered for small tunnels or short lengths of long tunnels, horizontally layered rocks might be considered quite favourable.

8. Layers dipping at angles up to 45° may be called
a) Moderately inclined strata
b) Steeply inclined strata
c) Half inclined strata
d) Semi-inclined strata

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The layers that dipping at angles up to 45° may be said as moderately inclined strata. The tunnel axis may be running parallel to the dip direction, at right angles to the dip direction or inclined to both dip and strike direction.

9. When can the rocks act as natural arch?
a) Tunnel axis parallel to dip direction
b) Tunnel axis normal to dip direction
c) Tunnel axis inclined to dip direction
d) Tunnel axis parallel to strike direction

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When the tunnel axis may be running parallel to the dip direction, the layers offer uniformly distributed load on the excavation. The arch action is said to happen, where the rocks at roof act as natural arches transferring the load onto sides.

10. In synclinal condition, low pressure areas are found at
a) Core
b) Crust
c) Mantle
d) Outline

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In anticlinal folds, loads of rocks at the crust are transferred by arch action to a great extent to the limbs which may be highly strained. These conditions are reversed in synclinal folds. In such cases, rocks of core regions are greatly strained.

11. Which of the following is not included under preliminary survey?
a) Knowing the general topography of the area
b) Knowing the lithology of the area
c) Knowing the structural condition of the rocks
d) Driving the pilot tunnels

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The preliminary surveys include: Knowing the general topography, the lithology, hydrological conditions in the area and structural condition of the rocks. Driving pilot tunnels, bore-hole drilling are considered under detailed surveys.

12. Folded rocks are often best storehouses of which of water?
a) Juvenile water
b) Magmatic water
c) Artesian water
d) Connate water

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Folded rocks are often best storehouses for artesian water and also ideal as aquifers. When encountered during tunnelling unexpectedly, these could create uncontrollable situations.

13. Which type of geological structure can be rectified by grouting?
a) Joints
b) Folds
c) Faults
d) Inclined strata

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In many cases problems created by jointing in rocks due to jointing can be grouting. In other cases, lining of the tunnel in the fractured zones might have to be applied.

14. The pressure of tunnel axis below the water table is preferable. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The tunnel axis might be located below the water table. Such a situation should be avoided as far as possible.

Set 2

1. What is the shape of valley usually preferred for a reservoir?
a) U-shaped
b) V-shaped
c) Flat lands or plains
d) U or V-shaped

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The valley could be a U-shaped glacial valley, or a V-shaped river valley or a broader synclinal valley. Flatlands and plains cannot make convenient places for reservoirs.

2. During which condition, permeability of rocks have to be given more importance?
a) When general water is much above the top reservoir level
b) When general water table is much below the minimum water level
c) When general water table and top water level of the proposed reservoir are almost same
d) When general water table is slightly above the top reservoir level

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] When the general water table is much below the minimum water level in the reservoir, permeability of the rocks along the base and the flanks is taken into consideration.

3. Which is the ideal condition for a reservoir?
a) When general water is much above the top reservoir level
b) When general water table is much below the minimum water level
c) When general water table and top water level of the proposed reservoir are almost same
d) When general water table is slightly above the top reservoir level

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The general water table of the area and the top water level of the proposed reservoir are almost the same. This is an ideal situation ensuring a no loss no gain condition but generally not available on a large scale.

4. Heavy load of sediments to reservoirs would reduce
a) Flow of water in that area
b) Effective storage
c) Total life of reservoir
d) Total life and effective storage of reservoir

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The run off and slope wash would contribute heavy load of sediments to the reservoir after every rain. This would obviously decrease the effective storage capacity of the reservoir on one hand and its total life on the other hand.

5. Which among the following need not be given prime importance during geological investigation?
a) Groundwater conditions
b) Wind conditions
c) Structural constitution
d) Trend and rate of weathering

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Since reservoirs are essentially water storage basins, the area should possess such geological characteristics that favour holding of water in the basin so created. Such characters are: topographic suitability, ground water conditions, permeability and structural stability and also trend and rate of weathering.

6. Removal of silt is usually
a) Time consuming
b) Energy consuming
c) Money consuming
d) Time, energy and money consuming

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Removal of silt or methods of sedimentation control may be so much time and energy and money consuming that the economy of the project is sometimes threatened. These facts prove the complicated nature of the problem.

7. The major problem in a reservoir over time which may affect the storage capacity is
a) Leakage
b) Silting
c) Reduction in rainfall
d) Weathering of side slopes

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sedimentation of reservoirs with the passage of time is the most important problem to solve in reservoir design. Uncontrolled sedimentation will lead to the indirect failure of the project by gradually reducing the storage capacity.

8. Pick a method to control silting.
a) By grouting
b) By reducing water level
c) Construction of check dams
d) By constructing lining on the rock foundation

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Important methods of treatment include better reservoir designs, installation of check dams at the inlet points and water-shed improvement by forestation on an extensive and intensive scale.

9. De-silting methods are very expensive. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Removal of silt after fixed intervals by dredging and similar methods are also practised in many cases. All these are, however, very costly methods and any one or more of them are adopted in combination after careful analysis of cost benefit ratio.

10. Flatlands and planes can make convenient places for reservoirs. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The valley could be a U-shaped glacial valley, or V-shaped river valley or a broad synclinal valley. Flatlands and plains cannot make convenient places for reservoirs.

Set 3

1. Which of the following about weathering is not true?
a) It is a natural process
b) Mechanical disintegration is involved
c) Chemical decomposition is involved
d) It is a rapid process

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Weathering is defined as, a natural process of in-situ mechanical disintegration and or chemical decomposition of the rocks of the crust of the Earth by certain physical and chemical agencies of the atmosphere. It is a very slow process.

2. The process that is not considered under mechanical weathering is _______
a) Carbonation
b) Temperature variation
c) Unloading
d) Insolation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Carbonation is a chemical weathering process whereas the rest viz., temperature variation, unloading, insolation are processes of mechanical weathering.

3. What is the change in volume when water freezes?
a) 10% decrease
b) 20% increase
c) 20% decrease
d) 10% increase

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] It is said that, water on freezing undergoes an increase in its volume by about ten per cent. This is expansion is accompanied by exertion of pressure.

4. The form of rock not found by freezing-thawing cycle is ________
a) Angular
b) Sub angular
c) Spherical
d) Irregular

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The frost formed fragments are angular, sub angular, irregular in outline and remain spread over the parent rock having flat surface or flat slopes. Spherical form or outline of rock doesn’t come into picture here.

5. The processes by which Scree deposits are formed are
a) Chemical attack
b) Exposure to sunlight
c) Water movement
d) Heaving and rolling

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] If the original surface forms a significant slope, as is commonly the case in the hilly and mountainous regions, the frost fragments get heaved up from the crevices and cavities and then roll down the slope under the influence of gravity. Finally, the fragments accumulate at the base as heaps commonly called as Scree deposits.

6. What are the slopes covered by Scree called?
a) Scree slope
b) Frost slope
c) Talus slope
d) Trist slope

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The slopes covered by frost formed scree are often referred to as Talus slopes.

7. Where can one find the process of exudation occur?
a) Plains
b) Seashore
c) Hills
d) Waterfalls

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Exudation is a process similar to frost action but in this case disintegration takes place due to the formation of sodium chloride etc., within the cavities of rocks thereby causing disintegration. This process is seen in good measure in porous rocks near seashore.

8. The stress developed in the top layers of the rocks which disintegrate due to repeated variations in temperatures is________
a) Tensile stress
b) Compressive stress
c) Shear stress
d) Bending stress

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Repeated variations in temperature experienced by a body of rock gradually break it into smaller pieces, especially in the top layers, by development of tensile stresses developing from alternate expansion and contraction.

9. Which of the following facts about Exfoliation is false?
a) It is the phenomenon of peeling off of curved shells from rocks
b) The change is accompanied by chemical weathering
c) Internal structure of the rock is affected
d) It occurs in thick or layered rocks.

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The internal structure of the rock is not affected due to the process of exfoliation. The phenomenon of peeling off occurs only in the layered or thick rocks and is accompanied by chemical weathering, mostly near the margins and develop curved surfaces. So basically surface is affected and not the internal structure.

10. The large-scale development of fracturing in confined rock masses occurs under which process?
a) Frost action
b) Unloading
c) Unfolding
d) Insolation

View Answer

Answer: The process of mechanical weathering where large-scale development of fracturing in confined rock masses is attributed to removal of the overlying rock cover due to prolonged erosional work of other agencies is called unloading.

11. The formation of sheets and subsequently joints occurs in which of the following processes?
a) Frost action
b) Insolation
c) Flow of water
d) Unloading

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The rock masses under the effect of unloading remain confined from sides but due to relief of pressure from above, they expand upwards; consequently joints develop in them parallel to the uncovered surface dividing them into sheets.

12. Scree deposits can occur in hilly regions only. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The above statement is true because, for scree deposits to be formed, the rock fragments have to heave up and also roll down the slope under the influence of gravity.

13. Identify the part labelled as “A” in the below diagram.
engineering-geology-questions-answers-geological-work-atmosphere-01-q13
a) Weathered rock
b) Parent rock
c) Rolled down rock
d) Powdered rock

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The part labelled is the parent rock and is yet to undergo weathering. It is the solid rock mass and the other parts above and beside the parent rock are called the weathered rocks.

14. In Kara Qum desert, the rocks are exposed to what temperatures in summer and winter respectively?
a) 70-80° C and -10° C
b) 20-30° C and -1° C
c) 40-50° C and 0° C
d) 25-35° C and -3° C

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Studies have shown that in desert like Kara Qum, rocks are exposed to as high temperatures as 70-80° C in summer and are then cooled down to -10° C in winter. Such repeated variations in temperature experienced by a body of rock gradually break it into smaller pieces.

Set 4

1. The winds are formed basically due to which reason?
a) Uniform heating
b) Non-uniform heating
c) Precipitation
d) Tectonic activity

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Winds are born mainly due to non-uniform heating of the surface of the earth at different places causing differences in atmospheric pressure. The pressure difference so created makes the atmospheric gases (the air) to move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure in the form of winds.

2. The removal of particles of dust and sand by strong winds is called
a) Abrasion
b) Depletion
c) Deflation
d) Aeration

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The process of removal of dust and sand by strong winds is called deflation. In Latin, ‘deflare’ means ‘to blow away’. It is the main process of wind erosion in desert regions.

3. The water in an oasis is obtained from which source?
a) Rain
b) Erosion from other place
c) Water table
d) Water released from adsorption

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Sometimes due to deflation, huge depressions are created in the deserts to such an extent that the depression becomes so deep that it intersects with the groundwater table. And it gets partially filled up with water and this is called an oasis.

4. The type of erosion which involves rubbing, grinding is
a) Deflation
b) Attrition
c) Deflection
d) Wind abrasion

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The type of erosion involving rubbing, grinding, abrading and polishing the rock surfaces by any natural agent (wind, water or ice) with the help of its lead while passing over the rocks is termed as abrasion.

5. Which among the following is called “Mushroom rocks” ?
a) Pedestal rocks
b) Yardangs
c) Ventifacts
d) Desert pavements

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pedestal rocks are also often called mushroom rocks because of their likeness to mushrooms popping up closely in a level land.

6. The rock which is well polished by wind abrasion is called
a) Yardangs
b) Pedestal rock
c) Ventifacts
d) Desert pavements

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Ventifacts are small sized rock fragments showing one, two or three or even more typically wind-polished surfaces called faces. The polishing of different sides of originally rough fragments is caused by prolonged wind abrasion.

7. The factor which does not affect the attrition by wind is
a) Nature of the region
b) Velocity of wind
c) Duration
d) Sunlight

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Factors which affect attrition by wind are nature of the region, velocity of wind and duration. It is not affected by sunlight.

8. Which of the following about saltation is not true?
a) In this process the heavier and coarse sediments are lifted up
b) They are lifted up periodically and for short distances
c) In this process the light-density particles are carried away
d) It is the process of sediment transport by series of jump

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The heavier and coarse sediments such as sand grains, pebbles and gravels etc. are lifted up periodically during high velocity times and only for short distances and that too for smaller heights above the ground. The uplifting of lighter particles is called suspension.

9. The transporting power of wind depends on shape of the particle. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The transporting power of wind depends on its velocity as also on the size, shape and density of the particles.

10. Which among the following has S-shaped outline?
a) Crescentic dune
b) Barchans
c) Transverse dunes
d) Sigmoidal dunes

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A typical sigmoidal dune is characterized with the absence of horns or cusps and a curved outline. In its simplest form, a sigmoidal dune is a steep sided ridge that extends in a sinuous or S-shaped outline.

11. The type of dune which is short lived is
a) Barchans
b) Sigmoidal
c) Transverse dunes
d) Fixed dune

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Most of the dunes are migratory in nature and among all, Barchans are especially known to move ahead at the rate of 25 to 250 meters a month. Hence barchans are said to be short-lived relative to other dunes.

12. The particle size in a Loess is around _________
a) 2-3 mm in diameter
b) 1-2 mm in diameter
c) 0.01-0.05 mm in diameter
d) 0.1-1 mm in diameter

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A typical Loess is unconsolidated, unstratified, and porous accumulation of particles of the size range 0.01-0.05 mm in diameter. This size fraction makes almost 40 percent of a particular loess deposit rest being made up of still finer clay grade material.

13. What is the term used for wind blown deposits of silt and clay grade particles?
a) Dunes
b) Loess
c) Hills
d) Ventifacts

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The term loess is used for wind blown deposits of silt and clay grade particles. Dune is used to refer to sand particles. Ventifacts and hills are usually rocks.

14. Treating the sands locally with crude oil is not a method of combating the advancing sands. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Treating the sands locally with crude oil whereby their susceptibility for transport by wind is considerably reduced. It is one of the effective methods to combat advancing sands.

Set 5

1. The branch of geology which deals with various aspects of rocks is
a) Petrology
b) Mineralogy
c) Lithology
d) Rockology

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The branch of geology dealing with various aspects of rocks such as their formation, classification and occurrence is called petrology.

2. What are the two conditions believed to be required for the formation of igneous rocks?
a) Low temperature and molten state
b) Molten state and very high temperature
c) Molten state and moderate temperature
d) Crystallized state and moderate temperature

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A very high temperature and a molten state are, two very important conditions for the original material from which the igneous rocks are believed to have been formed.

3. What is the state of lava or magma?
a) Liquid always
b) Solid
c) Gaseous
d) Mixture of liquid, crystals and gases

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Magma or lava from which igneous rocks are formed may not be entirely a pure melt: it may have a crystalline or solid fraction and also a gaseous fraction thoroughly mixed with it.

4. Where are the volcanic rocks formed?
a) Under the surface of earth
b) On the surface of earth
c) Inside the core
d) Between mantle

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Volcanic rocks are the igneous rocks formed on the surface of the Earth by cooling and crystallization of lava erupted from volcanoes.

5. What is the grain size of volcanic rocks?
a) Very coarse
b) Coarse
c) Intermediate
d) Very fine

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Since the lava cools down at very fast rate (compared to magma), the grain size of the crystals formed in the volcanic rocks is very fine, often microscope.

6. Magma is hypothetical melt. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Igneous rocks are formed both from magma and lava. It may be mentioned that magma is actually a hypothetical melt. It has not been possible to see it at its place of occurrence.

7. The plutonic rocks are formed at depths below the earth’s surface ranging
a) 10 to 100 km
b) 100 to 200 km
c) 7 to 10 km
d) 1 to 5 km

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Plutonic rocks are the igneous rocks formed at considerable depths, generally between 7-10 km below the surface of the earth.

8. The rock is coarse grained in
a) Volcanic rocks
b) Plutonic rocks
c) Hypabyssal rocks always
d) Not found in igneous rocks

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Because of a very slow rate of cooling at the depths, the rocks resulting from magma are coarse grained. These rocks get exposed on the surface of the earth as a consequence of erosion of the overlying strata.

9. Pick the plutonic igneous rock.
a) Granite
b) Granite porphyry
c) Syenite porphyry
d) Marble

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Granites, Syenites and Gabbros are a few examples of Plutonic rocks. They occur in good abundance in both the Peninsular and extra-Peninsular India.

10. The rocks which exhibit mixed characteristics of volcanic and plutonic rocks are
a) Intermediate rocks
b) Mixed rocks
c) Hypabyssal rocks
d) Secondary rocks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The hypabyssal rocks are the igneous rocks which are formed at intermediate depths, generally up to 2 km below the surface of the earth and exhibit mixed characteristics of volcanic and plutonic rocks.

11. Porphyries are examples of which type of rocks?
a) Volcanic
b) Plutonic
c) Hypabyssal
d) Sedimentary rocks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Porphyries of various composition are examples of hypabyssal rocks.

12. Which is the most dominant constituent of igneous rock?
a) Al2O3
b) SiO2
c) CaCO3
d) CaO

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In terms of chemical composition, Silica is the dominant constituent of the igneous rocks. Second comes the Alumina.

13. The mineral most abundantly present in the igneous rocks is
a) Micas
b) Titanium
c) Iron
d) Felspars

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In terms of the mineralogical composition, Felspars are the most common minerals of igneous rocks. Even amphiboles, pyroxenes and quartz are present to some extent. Others are present only in subordinate amounts.

14. What is the approximate percentage of silica present in the igneous rocks?
a) 10%
b) 26%
c) 59%
d) 15%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The approximate percent of silica present in the igneous rocks is 59% and alumina is about 15%. This was given by the data of Clark and Washington.

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