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1. Which of the following graph represents the I-V characteristics of real diode
a) b) c) d) Answer: d [Reason:] First graph represents constant voltage drop model of diode. In this mode diode assumes as a perfect insulator on reverse bias. On forward bias up to cut-in voltage it assumes to be an insulator and after it becomes perfect conductor. Second graph represents ideal diode that is in forward bias it is a perfect conductor and in reverse bias it is perfect insulator. Third graph represents piecewise linear mode of diode. This assumption is very close to constant voltage drop model except the fact that after cut-in voltage instead of perfect insulator diode is assumed as a ohmic device. The fourth graph represents real diode. The diode in real life is similar to the characteristics. That is after cut-in voltage graph is exponential and in reverse bias mode current is in micro or nano ampere range.

2. Which of the following I-V characteristics represents a typical Si diode
a) b) c) d) Answer: b [Reason:] The second graph denotes a Si diode because the cut-in voltage is 0.7V and after this the current is exponential. Also in reverse bias there is a nano ampere range current it must also be accounted. Therefore, second option is the best.

3. Which of the following graph represents a typical Ge diode
a) b) c) d) Answer: a [Reason:] The first graph denotes a Si diode because the cut-in voltage is 0.7V and after this the current is exponential. Also in reverse bias there is a micro ampere range current it must also be accounted. Therefore, first option is the best.

4. Which of the following graph represent a zener diode which is voltage rated as “VZ”.
a) b) c) d) Answer: b [Reason:] Voltage rating is the voltage at which reverse breakdown occurs. Voltage rating of a zener diode indicates the voltage beyond which current increases rapidly. Beyond this point increase in reverse bias voltage will only reflect on current which means voltage drop beyond this point is almost constant. At forward bias zener diode behaves as a normal diode. So appropriate graph is second.

5. Which of the following statement is false for a zener diode voltage rated as “VZ “
a) Reverse breakdown occurs at VZ
b) Forward breakdown occurs at VZ
c) Zener diode is a heavily doped diode
d) Usually operates in reverse bias mode

Answer: b [Reason:] Voltage rating is the voltage at which reverse breakdown occurs. Voltage rating of a zener diode indicates the voltage beyond which current increases rapidly. Beyond this point increase in reverse bias voltage will only reflect on current which means voltage drop beyond this point is almost constant. This phenomenon holds the key role in the working of zener diode as a voltage regulator. Zenor diode is a heavily doped diode because for zenor breakdown we need a narrow junction. It operates in reverse bias mode. In forward bias mode it operates as a normal diode.

6. Voltage rating of a zener diode denoted
a) Reverse breakdown voltage
b) Forward breakdown voltage
c) Voltage at which current is maximum
d) maximum forward voltage which a diode can withstand

Answer: a [Reason:] Voltage rating of a zener diode indicates the voltage beyond which current increases rapidly. Beyond this point increase in reverse bias voltage will only reflect on current which means voltage drop beyond this point is almost constant. This phenomenon holds the key role in the working of zener diode as a voltage regulator.

7. Knee current in the case of zener diode implies
a) Forward bias current beyond which I-V characteristics is a straight line
b) Reverse bias current above which I-V characteristics is a straight line
c) Forward cut-in current beyond which current is directly proportional to voltage
d) Maximum allowable reverse bias current through a zener diode

Answer: b [Reason:] Knee current indicates the current above which reverse characteristics is a straight line. That is the relationship between current and voltage beyond this point will be directly proportional and this is very useful for solving real life problems.

8. Which of the following graph represents I-V characteristics of an ideal diode
a) b) c) d) Answer: b [Reason:] First graph represents constant voltage drop model of diode. In this mode diode assumes as a perfect insulator on reverse bias. On forward bias up to cut-in voltage it assumes to be an insulator and after it becomes perfect conductor. Second graph represents ideal diode that is in forward bias it is a perfect conductor and in reverse bias it is perfect insulator. Third graph represents piecewise linear mode of diode. This assumption is very close to constant voltage drop model except the fact that after cut-in voltage instead of perfect insulator diode is assumed as a ohmic device. The fourth graph represents real diode. The diode in real life is similar to the characteristics. That is after cut-in voltage graph is exponential and in reverse bias mode current is in micro or nano ampere range.

9. Which of the following I-V characteristics represents the constant voltage drop model of diode
a) b) c) d) 