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Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 1

1. Ink consists of pigments or dyes, a vehicle (binder) to attach the pigment to the paper
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Ink consists of pigments or dyes, a vehicle (binder) to attach the pigment to the paper, and include solvents for faster drying and ink additives.

2. Ink consists of pigments such as __________ to supply color and opacity and a vehicle to carry the pigment and bind it to the paper.
a) Silicon oxide
b) Aluminium oxide
c) Titanium oxide
d) Zinc oxide

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The main utilize of TiO2 is as a white powder pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index. Pigments should be insoluble in H2O and the ink formulation to prevent running.

3. Pigments which are _________ variant of organic dyes are called vat dyes.
a) Soluble
b) Insoluble
c) Acidic
d) Basic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Vat dyes are essentially insoluble in H2O and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the H2O-soluble alkali metal salt of the dye, which, in this leuco form, has a similitude for the textile fibre.

4. Ink __________ are often heavy metal salts of (unsaturated fatty acid) soaps that promote oxidation and/or polymerization.
a) Ink paper sizing
b) Ink receptivity
c) Ink additives
d) Ink visibility

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Printing inks and overprint varnishes require good wetting of various substrates, excellent surface protection and defoaming, and good pigment stabilization. Paraffin-based wax emulsion for aq. coatings, printing inks as well as care products and polishes for improving H2O repellency and surface slip.

5. __________ of the ink vehicle leaves the solid ink with rosin esters and metal binders behind; this is utilized in magazine and catalogue grades utilizing letterpress or heat set web offset printing.
a) Sublimation
b) Liquation
c) Evaporation
d) Solidification

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] To keep heating costs low, solvents with low boiling points, but not so low as to be unsafe, are utilized. The ink further sets by cooling to ambient temperatures.

6. __________ of a drying oil with multifunctional carboxylic acids and alcohols left on the paper surface after the vehicle is absorbed into the paper might promote polymerization.
a) Oxidation
b) Reduction
c) Radiation
d) Cracking

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heavy metals (cobalt, manganese, lead) might promote oxidation with atmospheric O2. Since oxidation is the key to curing in these oils, those that are susceptible to chemical drying are often unsuitable for cooking, and are also highly susceptible to becoming rancid through autoxidation, the process by which fatty foods develop off-flavors.

7. __________ curing cautilizes monomers or pre-polymers in the vehicle to form polymers; it’s useful with acrylics.
a) Oxidation
b) Reduction
c) Radiation
d) Cracking

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] They cure by air oxidation when O2 from the air reacts with unsaturated fatty acids in their drying oils. This method doesn’t have much utilize with paper, but is often utilized for metal and plastic substrates to avoid the utilization of large ovens.

8. Infrared hardening , precipitation of binders, gelation, and cooling of hot thermoplastic inks utilized in electrostatic printing.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Infrared hardening , precipitation of binders, gelation, and cooling of hot thermoplastic inks utilized in electrostatic printing like photocopy and laser printers are other mechanisms utilized less often, but are decreasing in utilize.

9. __________ is the amount of paper that could be covered by ink to achieve a specified print density under operating conditions of a press.
a) Ink tack
b) Ink mileage
c) Ink additives
d) Ink visibility

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is measured in English units of square inches per pound of ink. The concept could be developed as an input-transform-output equation. On the input side is ink of correct color and strength.

10. ____________ is a measure of the force or energy required to split a film of ink. In this regard the ink is like a contact adhesive.
a) Ink tack
b) Ink mileage
c) Ink additives
d) Ink visibility

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It’s an crucial aspect in the printing process that needs to be monitored for quality control. If a high force is required to split a film of ink, it might cautilize picking of the paper.

Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 2

1. The _________ is the sum of all of the Na salts in the liquors (as Na2O) that contribute to AA in the kraft cycle, specifically NaOH, Na2S, Na2CO3, and Na2O.
a) Base
b) Total alkali
c) Total acid
d) Buffer

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The total alkali’s the sum of all of the Na salts in the liquors (as Na2O) that are capable of being converted to AA in the kraft cycle, specifically NaOH, Na2S, Na2CO3, and Na2O.

2. _________ is the sum of all of the bases in the white liquor that could be titrated with strong acid.
a) Total titratable alkali
b) Active alkali
c) Total chemical
d) Total alkali

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] T.T.A. is the sum of all of the bases in the white liquor that could be titrated with strong acid. It’s considered as NaOH, Na2S, and Na2CO3 (as Na2O), although small amounts of Na2CO3.

3. The sum of the active ingredients in the pulping process is called active alkali.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] White liquor’s a strongly alkaline sol. mainly of NaOH and Na2S. It’s utilized in the first stage of the Kraft process in which lignin and hemicellulose are separated from cellulose fiber for the production of pulp.

4. _________ is the sum of Na chemicals that will produce OH during kraft pulping.
a) Active akali
b) Effective alkali
c) Causticity
d) Sulfidity

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] NaOH is completely ionized and for every 2 sodium atoms of Na2S, there’ll be one OH produced.

5. In the _________ sulfidity’s the ratio of Na2S to the active alkali, expressed as a %.
a) Green liquor
b) Red liquor
c) White liquor
d) Black liquor

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Generally, a mill runs in the vicinity of 25 to 30% sulfidity, depending largely on the wood species pulped. Sulfidity inc. the rate of de-lignification, which occurs by nucleophilic action of the hydrosulfide anion (H.S.) and appears to protect cellulose against degradation.

6. The _________ is the ratio of NaOH to active alkali, expressed as a %.
a) Active alkali
b) Liquor to wood ratio
c) Causticity
d) Sulfidity

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The causticity’s the ratio of NaOH to active alkali, depicted as a percentage; therefore, causticity + sulfidity = 100%. The term sulfidity’s utilizes much more than the term causticity, and both give the same information.

7. The _________ is the ratio of NaOH to NaOH and Na2CO3.
a) Sulfidity
b) Causticity
c) Causticizing efficiency
d) Reduction efficiency

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] This is a calculation of how efficient causticizing is; it represents the percentage of the Na2CO3 from the recovery boiler that is converted back into useful NaOH cooking chemical. A value of 77-80% is typical.

8. The ratio of Na2S to the sum of Na2S and Na2SO4 in green liquor expressed as a percentage. What’s the name of the topic?
a) Sulfidity
b) Causticity
c) Causticizing efficiency
d) Reduction efficiency

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The reduction efficiency’s the ratio of Na2S to the sum of Na2S and Na2SO4 in green liquor expressed as a %. This’ a calc. of the reduction efficiency in the recovery boiler. This value should be high, as 95 percent, and is not routinely measured in the mill.

9. Derive the conversion factor of 0.775 utilized to express the weight of NaOH on an Na2O basis.
a) 0.775 g Na2O
b) 3.254 g Na2O
c) 15.775 g Na2O
d) 0.456 g Na2O

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] 1st, the molar relationship b/w these 2 species is expressed. 2 NaOH andbarr; Na2O + H2O Gravimetric factor’s determined as follows: 1g NaOH X 1 mol NaOH(40g NaOH)-1 x 1 mol Na2O(2 mol NaOH)-1 x 62g Na2O(1 mol Na2O)-1 = 0.775g Na2O.

10. Fill in the blank.
________ = {(NaOH) / (NaOH + Na2CO3)} x 100%
a) Na2CO3
b) NaOH
c) CO3
d) Na

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The causticizing efficiency is the ratio of NaOH to NaOH and Na2CO3. This’s a calculation of how efficient causticizing is; it represents the percentage of the Na2CO3 from the recovery boiler that’s converted back into useful NaOH cooking chemical. A value of 77 to 80% is typical.

Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 3

1. The crucial optical properties include reflectance colour and brightness, especially diffuse reflectance and opacity.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The optical properties of paper are extremely crucial for many of its utilizes, especially when paper is utilized for printing. Most crucial ones are reflectance colour and brightness, especially diffuse reflectance and opacity.

2. A normalized approach to the optical properties of paper allows one to predict the properties of paper to avoid a labour intensive trial—and—error work approach.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Optical projection tomography (O.P.T.) is a recently introduced 3-dimensional imaging technique for primary utilize the developmental biology and gene expression studies.

3. Paper with 85.0% reflectance relative to a certain MgO standard that is known to have an absolute reflectance of 0.980 corresponds to an absolute reflectance of ___________
a) 0.833
b) 1.25
c) 6.35
d) 0.687

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Absolute reference is calculated as 0.850 x 0.980 = 0.833

4. ___________ is the property of a material that indicates the ability to hide what is behind it.
a) Transparency
b) Opacity
c) Glossiness
d) Reflectivity

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Opacity is the calculation of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light. In radiative transfer, it tells about the absorption and scattering of radiation in a medium, such as a plasma, dielectric, shielding material, glass, etc.

5. The reflectance of an (effectively infinite) thick pad of paper is R1 and is known as ___________
a) Transparency
b) Opacity
c) Glossiness
d) Reflectivety

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that’s reflected at an interface. The reflectance of a single sheet with a perfectly white backing is given as R1 and the corresponding opacity is called the ideal opacity.

6. If one knows the ___________ and reflectivity of a paper, the changes in these properties with a change could be predicted.
a) Weight ratio
b) Contrast ratio
c) Curtis ratio
d) Kraft ratio

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It’s the ratio of the luminance of the brightest color to that of the darkest color that the system is capable of giving out. A high contrast ratio’s a required aspect of any display.

7. The Kubelka—Munk theory of light allows one to predict quantitatively the behaviour of light in coatings such as ___________ for which it was developed; this work has become the basis of much of this field.
a) Thinner
b) Paper
c) Paint
d) Plastic

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Kubelka—Munk theory is utilized in papermaking in many ways. If one knows the optical properties of each pulp, filler, and dye utilized in papermaking, then the optical properties of a paper made with any combination of the materials could be predicted. If one knows the contrast ratio and reflectivety of a paper, the changes in these properties with a change in basis weight could be predicted.

8. The Kubelka—Munk theory was developed to define properties based on the thickness of a material (X), but in the case of porous materials like ___________ workers quickly started utilizing basis weight.
a) Thinner
b) Paper
c) Paint
d) Plastic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It isn’t terribly good for dyed papers when light absorption reaches a greater level. A limiting assumption is that the particles making up the layer must be much less than the total thickness.

9. _____________ filters could be utilized to remove the effect of gloss light reflected according to Fresnel’s law which has a degree of polarization.
a) Polarized
b) Doped
c) Magnified
d) Electrocuted

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The ability of waves to oscillate in more than a single direction; in particular polarization of light, responsible for example for the glare-reducing effect of polarized sunglasses.

10. What is the name of the equation?

Sp = (S-(1-y)Sf) / (y)

a) Steele
b) Kraft
c) Michaud
d) Tomas

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Steele in 1937 gave the calculation to determine the scattering coefficient of the pigment filler in the filled paper as a function of the scattering power of the fiber, the scattering coefficient of the filled paper (5), and the fraction of filler in the filled sheet (y).

Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 4

1. Lithography was invented by __________ in 1798.
a) Alois Senefelder
b) John Denver
c) Billy Armstrong
d) Manuel Neuer

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Alois Senefelder in 1798 invented lithography. The original method utilized sandstone rock upon which an image was made using a thick, greasy material.

2. The surface is treated with a __________ that is soaked into the image area, but avoided the H2O treated, non-image area.
a) Polar ink
b) Non-polar ink
c) Silk screen
d) Pressure screen

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The surface is treated with a non-polar ink (oil, wax, soap, and carbon soot) that soaked into the image area, but avoided the H2O treated, non-image area. Some of the ink from the message is dissolved in the least possible amount of a suitable solvent, and that’s also spotted onto the same line.

3. The H2O solution utilised to prevent printing in the non-print areas is called the __________
a) Laser solution
b) Electrophotocopy solution
c) Fountain solution
d) Dye solution

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The dampening system on a lithographic sheet fed press applies a H2O-based dampening or fountain solution to the printing plate before it is inked. Dampening solutions keep the non-image areas of a plate moistened so that they would not accept ink.

4. Laser printing method is sometimes called planographic printing since the image and non-image areas are in the same plane.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Lithography method is sometimes called planographic printing since the image and non-image areas are in the same plane. Planographic denotes a printing process in which the printing surface is flat, as in lithography.

5. The system utilised to apply the H2O solution to the plate surface is called the __________
a) Dissociating system
b) Dampening system
c) H2O hating system
d) Littering

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] It makes the non image area hydrophilic and leaves the image area hydrophobic [H2O hating, but non polar ink loving (oleophilic)]. It’s the system that transfers a water-based fountain solution to the printing plate as a means of making non-image areas ink repellent.

6. The plate surface is often a thin __________ plate wrapped tightly around a cylinder. Every time the cylinder rotates, a copy can be made.
a) Copper
b) Magnesium
c) Calcium
d) Aluminium

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Bimetallic plates are made using 2 metals of different properties. Aluminium (Al) is the 3rd most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.

7. Most lithography is carried out as offset printing; the image on the ink plate is transferred to a rubber sheet and from the blanket to the paper.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Ink is applied to a grease-treated image upon the flat printing surface. Most lithography is carried out in a way that the image on the ink plate is transferred offset to a rubber sheet the blanket and from the blanket to the paper as opposed to direct printing.

8. The __________ balance in offset lithographic printing is critical. Also, the utilization of the dampening system complicates the press and its operation and adds to its initial cost.
a) Ink/H2O
b) Starch/H2O
c) Pulp/solvent
d) Ink/starch

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The flat printing surface and blank areas which hold moisture repels the lithographic ink. This inked surface is then printed, either directly on paper, by means of a special press.

9. __________ must be designed especially for this system to be effective; the principal difference is that the __________ vehicle that’s selected must give suitable rheological properties such as a fairly high viscosity.
a) Ink
b) Steel
c) Aluminium
d) Copper

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It’s a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is utilized to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is utilized for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, orquill.

10. Dot gain in the mid tones is said to be about __________ lower than with conventional lithography.
a) 10%
b) 20%
c) 30%
d) 40%

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Most offset presses can be converted to a H2O less printing by adding an ink cooling system and using the appropriate plates and inks. Dot gain in the mid tones is said to be about 30% lower than with conventional lithography.

Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 5

1. _________ is a measure of the amount of material present in an object, that is, the quantity of matter. It is not influenced by gravitational fields, and an object’s mass is constant whether on the earth’s surface or in outer space.
a) Weight
b) Tensile strength
c) Stress
d) Mass

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Mass is a measure of the amount of material present in an object, that is, the quantity of matter. It isn’t influenced by gravitational fields, and an object’s mass is constant whether on the earth’s surface or in outer space.

2. Force is that which changes the _________of an object.
a) Mass
b) Momentum
c) Shape
d) Order

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Force is that which changes the motion (that is, the momentum) of an object. (Pressure or stress is force per unit area,) A force may act on a body without changes in motion if an equal force in the opposite direction is also acting.

3. Air is a _________ fluid, it exerts force on a moving object, and when a person in free fall reaches a speed of about 180 ft/s (120 nules per hour), the air resistance force is equal to the force of gravity, and one stops accelerating. This is known as terminal velocity.
a) Non viscous
b) Viscous
c) Constant
d) Gravity free

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Air is a viscous fluid, it exerts force on a moving object, and when a person in free fall reaches a speed of about 180 ft/s (120 nules per hour), the air resistance force is equal to the force of gravity, and one stops accelerating. This is known as terminal velocity.

4. The _________ of an object depends on its mass, shape, and surface area; the _________of a feather of low mass and high surface area might be substantially less than 1 ft/s.
a) Viscosity
b) Magnitude
c) Density
d) Terminal velocity

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The terminal velocity of an object depends on its mass, shape, and surface area; the terminal velocity of a feather of low mass and high surface area might be substantially less than 1 ft/s.

5. _________ the measure of the force a gravitational field exerts on an object.
a) Mass
b) Density
c) Stress
d) Weight

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Weight is the measure of the force a gravitational field exerts on an object. The relationship is: weight = m.g ; that’s, weight equals mass times according of gravity.

6. The tensile strength of black willow is about 15,800 psi parallel to the grain. It has a specific gravity of 0.41. What is its breaking length?
a) 27.1
b) 20.9
c) 16.5
d) 11.2

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] L=15800/0.41×1422=27.1

7. What is the name of the hidden part?
x = __________________ x 981 N. cm-2 . km-1
a) Gravity
b) Specific gravity
c) Stress
d) Strain

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Specific gravity’s the ratio of the density of a substance / density of a reference substance; equivalently, it’s the ratio of the mass of a substance / mass of a reference substance for the same given volume

8. What is the name of the hidden term?
Lkm = (________) / (specific gravity x 981 N . cm-2 km-1)
a) Tensile strength in psi
b) Tensile strength in MPa
c) Tensile strength in N cm-2
d) Tensile strength in N m-2

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Breaking length’s a way of measuring the strength of a material; it’s the maximum length of a column of a material that can support its own weight if it’s anchored only at the top.

9. What is the name of the hidden part?
Lkm = (_________) / (specific gravity x 9.81 MPa . km-1)
a) Tensile strength in psi
b) Tensile strength in MPa
c) Tensile strength in N cm-2
d) Tensile strength in N m-2

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Self-support length is a way of measuring the strength of a material; it’s the maximum length of a column of a material that could support its own weight if it’s anchored only at the top. For example, the breaking length.

10. What is the name of the hidden part?
Lkm = (________) / (specific gravity x 1422 psi . km-1)
a) Tensile strength in psi
b) Tensile strength in MPa
c) Tensile strength in N cm-2
d) Tensile strength in N m-2

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Breaking length’s a way of measuring the strength of a material; it’s the maximum length of a column of a material that can support its own weight if it’s anchored only at the top.

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