Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 1
1. _________are steam filled drums designed to heat the web by direct contact and remove water by evaporation.
Answer: b [Reason:]Dryers are hollow, revolving, steam filled drums about 2 m or 6 ft in diameter designed to heat the web by direct contact and remove water by evaporation.
2. The _________ is designed to keep hot, dry air over the free paper surface, and the pockets b/w dryer drums where H2O quickly evaporates.
d) Ventilation system
Answer: d [Reason:] The ventilation system’s designed to keep hot, dry air over the free paper surface. Pocket ventilation systems blow hot, dry air into the pockets through air ducts and nozzles at high velocity Hot, dry air may also be utilized to dry the dryer felts to improve web drying.
3. _________ keeps the paper web against the drums to enhance heat transfer b/w the drum and web and absorb a portion of the H2O evaporated from the web.
c) Dryer hood
d) Dryer felts
Answer: d [Reason:]They help keep the sheet flat to min. cockle formation on the web and enhance drying. Even tension on the felt across the machine is crucial Fundamenatally, the felt’s non-absorbent, strong, flexible, and as always inexpensive.
4. The first step in controlling the heating of _________ is to remove the steam condensate from the drum.
a) Pocket ventilation
b) Reverse press
c) Press felt
d) Dryer drums
Answer: d [Reason:] The condensate tends to form pools or puddles at low machine speeds and rims at speeds about 1200 ft/min.
5. The _________ is an enclosure around the dryer section and is used to enhance drying efficiency.
a) Dryer hood
d) Ventilation system
Answer: a [Reason:] It’s used to enhance drying efficiency by removing the moist air near the surface of the web. If this air isn’t completely removed, it quickly becomes saturated with H2O, preventing further H2O removal from the web.
6. The _________ is a large dryer drum for drying tissue papers that aren’t strong enough to go through no. of felt transfers.
a) Pocket ventilation
b) Dryer hood
c) Yankee dryer
d) Impulse drying
Answer: c [Reason:] It’s a large dryer drum 3.5- 4.5 m or 12-15 ft. in diameter for drying tissue papers that are cannot endure numerous felt transfers. It’s normally the only dryer used to dry tissue.
7. The use of a long press nip with one roll at 175-400°Celcius to remove water from the web’s called as _________
a) Yankee drying
c) Dryer hood
d) Impulse drying
Answer: d [Reason:] The objective is to vaporize some of the H2O quickly so that the generated steam front forces much of the rest of the H2O out as a liquid. This eliminates the energy required to vaporize much of the H2O and reduces the dryer section size.
8. The _________ is located b/w dryer sections and consists of a pair of squeeze rolls mounted horizontally, vertically, or at a 45 degrees angle.
a) Ventilation point
b) Size press
c) Dryer hood
d) Calendar stack
Answer: b [Reason:] At a 45° angle, it’s used to apply surface size usually a starch solution to papers.
9. Surface size uses _________ materials, commonly starch, but sometimes starch reacted with ethylene oxide are applied as a solution to the surface of the web at the size press, followed by drying.
d) Non metallic
Answer: a [Reason:] Surface size uses polymeric materials, commonly starch, but sometimes starch reacted with ethylene oxide hydroxyethyl starch with a relatively low degrees of substitution, carboxymethyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, alginates, or wax emulsions utilizing alum that are applicable as a sol. to the surface of the web.
10. Sizing efficacy may by measured by the _________
a) Kennedy porosity
b) Gurley porosity
c) Sizing porosity
d) John porosity
Answer: b [Reason:] Typically about 30-50 percent wet pick-up is utilized or 300-500 kg/t in surface sizing. Papers without internal size may get to up higher levels. Sizing efficacy may by measured by the Gurley porosity.
Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 2
1. A __________ is an object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls on it.
a) Grey body
b) Black body
c) Red body
d) White body
Answer: b [Reason:] A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation. A white body is one with a rough surface which reflects all incident rays completely and uniformly in all directions.
2. The rate of radiation emitted from a blackbody is not a function of temperature only and is dependent of the type of material.
Answer: b [Reason:] Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter. Matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation.
3. The energy of the emitted radiation at a given wavelength R (v) was derived by __________ is given as a function of frequency (v), the speed of light in a vacuum (c), temperature (T), and Boltzmann’s constant (k).
d) C. V. Raman
Answer: b [Reason:] The law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.
4. The relationships shown in this section strictly apply to only a single wavelength of light
Answer: a [Reason:] The relationships shown in this section strictly apply to only a single wavelength or a relatively narrow band of wavelengths of light and preferably measurements taken with the same light source and geometry.
5. The utilize of __________ gases allows the temperature at which a tungsten light operates to inc.. This gives a whiter distribution of light and inc. the efficiency of the light. __________ lights operate in the temperature range of 2800—3400 K.
d) Noble gases
Answer: c [Reason:] All of the halogens form acids when bonded with hydrogen. Most halogens are typically produced from minerals or salts. The central halogens, that is chlorine, bromine and iodine, are often utilized as disinfectants.
6. Light sources are often described by their __________ temperature, i.e., the spectral distribution of a blackbody radiator of a specified temperature that most closely matches the light source.
d) Wave number
Answer: a [Reason:] The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that gives out light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has imp. applications in lighting, photography, videography, publishing, and other fields.
7. Light could be produced by the excitation of molecules often by an electric charge, but also by the processes of fluorescence and combustion in addition to blackbody radiation. This mechanism produces different __________
a) Energy distribution
b) Molecular weight
c) Greybody radiation
d) EM radiations
Answer: a [Reason:] Distributed generation, also distributed energy, on-site generation (O.S.G.) or de-centralized energy is generated or stored by various small, grid-connected devices referred to as distributed energy resources (D.E.R.) or distributed energy resource systems.
8. Light is modified by filters to achieve certain purposes. The blue filter centred at 457 nm for paper brightness is well known __________ utilized to remove the I.R. energy from blackbody radiation sources.
a) Heat filters
b) Grey body radiation
c) EM radiation
d) UV filters
Answer: a [Reason:] H.V.A.C. stands for heating, ventilating/ventilation, and air conditioning is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. The system design is a sub discipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics.
9. __________ filters are utilized for purpose, especially with high—temperature blackbody radiation, where large amounts of U.V. light (which could cautilize eye and skin damage) are produced.
c) Grey body
Answer: b [Reason:] It’s defined as a body with constant emissivity over all wavelengths and temperature Such an ideal body doesn’t exist in practice but the assumption is a good nearly for many objects utilized in engineering.
10. Dyes and pigments behave differently because they absorb light that is not part of the given colour. This is called _________
a) Additive mixing
b) Subtractive mixing
c) Pigment mixing
d) Radiation mixing
Answer: b [Reason:] Subtractive color mixing is the one you get if you illuminate colored filters with white light from behind. The commonly utilized subtractive primary colors are cyan, magenta, and yellow, and if you overlap all 3 in effectively equal mixture, all the light is subtracted giving black.
Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 3
1. It is fundamental that the properties on paper depend on the fiber properties and the method of fiber preparation.
Answer: a [Reason:] Correlations between fibre and paper properties are hard to find, but this doesn’t mean that correlations don’t exist. Fibre properties, calculated by the pulp analyser Pulp Eye, were investigated and correlations to paper properties were studied.
2. It is not crucial to have authentic fiber samples of contributing species on hand for comparison with unknown samples.
Answer: b [Reason:] It’s crucial to have authentic fiber samples of contributing species on hand for comparison samples.
3. When attempting quantitative analysis of fiber mixtures, the number of a particular type of fiber is multiplied by its ________ since some types of fibers appear to be present in larger amounts than others.
a) Weight factor
b) Charge factor
c) Lignin factor
d) Ray cross factor
Answer: a [Reason:] The statistical weight is the relative probability of a particular feature of a state. If the energy is ΔE, the statistical weight could be calc. by the Boltzmann factor.
4. ________ is very utilized in the determination of isolated fibers.
Answer: b [Reason:] A void in the wall of a plant cell where there is no secondary wall, as in fibers, tracheids, and vessel elements. However, one must keep in mind that pulping operations and refining are bound to affect the way a pit looks under the microscope.
5. Ray cross—field pitting shows whether ray parenchyma and or tracheids are present; it also indicates the ________
a) Length of the rays
b) Height of the rays
c) Wavelength of the rays
d) Frequency of the rays
Answer: b [Reason:] Intervessel pitting of hardwoods and ray cross—field pitting in softwoods are the principal means of identification. The presence of ray parenchyma and or tracheids indicates the height of the rays.
6. Chemical stains could help with the analysis by concluding the type of pulping method utilized to generate the fiber which is crucial in ________ that might have some recycled newsprint.
a) White paper
b) Brown paper
c) Non-Recyclable paper
d) Red paper
Answer: b [Reason:] Staining is an auxiliary technique utilized in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Stains and dyes are frequently utilized in biology and medicine to highlight structures in biological tissues for observing, often with the aid of diff. microscopes.
7. ________ is utilized to detect the presence of starch, which could be present in sapwood but not heartwood or in paper such as in the detection of forged currency.
Answer: d [Reason:] The iodine test is utilized to test for the presence of starch. When treated with IKI solution—iodine dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide—the tri-iodide anion complexes with starch, producing an intense blue colour.
8. Phloroglucinol is specific for ________ cautilizing it to turn red. It is utilized as a 2% solution in 18.5% HCl.
Answer: d [Reason:] Phloroglucinol is generally supplied as an alcoholic solution Treat the sections with this stain and then acidify the preparation with a drop of concentratedd hydrochloric acid.
9. Mechanical softwood and ________ are diff.iated with the utilize of 2 percent aniline sulfate made acidic followed by 0.02 percent methylene blue after removal of the first dye by blotting
Answer: c [Reason:] Mechanical softwood and hardwoods are diff.iated with the utilize of 2% aniline sulfate made acidic 1 drop concentrated H2SO4 / 50mL followed by 0.02% methylene blue after removal of the first dye by blotting. Softwoods are yellow and hardwoods are bluish green.
10. Mechanical pulp bleached with dithionite no more than a few months old is calculated by detecting traces of __________ as H2S liberated by stannous chloride.
Answer: a [Reason:] In contrast to H2O2, which oxidizes the chromophores, dithionite decrementing these color-cautilizing groups. Dithionite reacts with O2, so efficient utilize of dithionite requires that O2 exposure be minimized during its utilize. Several stains are available to calculate the level of bleaching or cooking of pulps, such as Bright stain.
Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 4
1. In order to simplify the mathematical development, flow is often considered in rectangular cross section pipe.
Answer: b [Reason:] The flow of liquids in pipes can be difficult to describe mathematically. To simplify the mathematical development, flow is usually considered in circular cross section pipe.
2. The ___________ is an crucial parameter utilized to predict the flow pattern in a pipe.
a) Plank’s number
b) Reynold’s number
c) Kraft’s number
d) Sherwood number
Answer: b [Reason:] It is defined as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative crucial of these 2 types of forces for given flow conditions.
3. If the Reynolds number is below 2000, the flow tends to be __________
d) Can’t be predicted
Answer: b [Reason:] It is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and less momentum convection. Whenever a fluid is flowing through a closed channel such as a pipe or between 2 flat plates, either of 2 types of flow may occur depending on the velocity and viscosity of the fluid.
4. If the Reynolds number is above 2000, the flow tends to be ___________
d) Can’t be predicted
Answer: b [Reason:] Turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity. In unsteady vortices appear on many scales and interact with each other. Drag due to boundary layer skin friction inc.
5. The addition of a small amount of ___________ to H2O may actually reduce friction compared to H2O alone.
Answer: c [Reason:] The addition should be done on the order of 0.3% consistency although it can be higher at higher flow velocities, so it could actually reduce friction compared to H2O alone.
6. What is the name of the equation?
Q = (πΔPr4) / (8µL)
a) Darcey equation
b) Poiseuille law
c) Reynolds equation
d) Sherwood law
Answer: b [Reason:] The Hagen–Poiseuille equation also called as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid which is flowing through a long cylindrical pipe in laminar flow of constant cross section.
7. What is the name of the equation?
h = (fvL) / (2Dg)
a) Darcey equation
b) Poiseuille law
c) Reynolds equation
d) Sherwood law
Answer: a [Reason:] It’s a constitutive equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium. It’s based on the results of experiments on the flow of H2O through beds of sand, forming the basis of hydrogeology, a branch of earth sciences.
8. What does ub stands for?
Re = (Dubρ) / µ
a) Initial velocity
b) Final velocity
c) Bulk velocity
d) Blocking velocity
Answer: c [Reason:] If the flow regime is laminar the problem still exists of trying to represent the “average” velocity at any given cross-section since an average value is utilized in the fluid flow equations. For fluid flow in a pipe or duct, the average flow velocity, given by V = ṁ/ρA.
9. For Reynolds number below 2000, f has been empirically shown to be equal to 64/Re.
Answer: a [Reason:] In case of Laminar flow, it’s a consequence of Poiseuille’s law from an exact classical solution for the fluid flow that where Re is Reynold’s number and where µ is the velocity of the fluid and is known as kinematic viscosity.
fD =64/Re, Re=V.D/v.
10. ___________ is the sudden change in pressure cautilized by a column of H2O that suddenly changes velocity (as when a valve is closed).
a) H2O hammer
b) Globe hammer
c) Needle hammer
d) Air check hammer
Answer: a [Reason:] It’s a pressure surge or wave cautilized when a fluid generally a liquid but sometimes also a gas in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly (momentum change). It’s also known as hydraulic shock.
Pulp and Paper MCQ Set 5
1. _________ are large air bubbles separated by thin films of liquid with thicknesses in the range of those of colloids.
d) Synergistic effect
Answer: a [Reason:] Foam, in physical chemistry, a colloidal system i.e., a dispersion of particles in a cont. medium into which the particles are gas bubbles and the medium is a liquid. They decrement the rate of water drainage at the junction of 3 gas bubbles, the plateau borders.
2. Foams are relatively unstable with lifetimes that increment with increasing viscosity of the liquid phase.
Answer: a [Reason:] Foams are large air bubbles differentiated by thin films of liquid with thicknesses in the range of those of colloids. The term also is applicable to material in a lightweight cellular spongy or rigid form.
3. _________ are important because they are utilized in froth flotation deinking and because they are detrimental in many other aspects of pulping and papermaking.
d) Brown stock washing
Answer: a [Reason:] In most foams, the volume of gas is big, with thin films of liquid or solid separating the regions of gas. They come under the category of dispersed media.
4. Froth flotation of minerals uses a surfactant to attach to the mineral particles, making them _________ and a foaming agent to stabilize the foam that is formed.
Answer: b [Reason:] It is the process of removing printing ink from paper fibres of recycled paper. This is accomplished by a combination of mechanical action and chemical means.
5. Agents used to induce foam are selected empirically, although a few rules can act as guidance.
Answer: c [Reason:] Froth flotation of minerals utilises a surfactant to attach to the mineral particles, making them hydrophobic, and a foaming agent to stabilize the foam that is formed.
6. Surfactants used near their C.M.C. are particularly effective since they can form monolayers.
Answer: d [Reason:] Usually mixtures of surfactants have a synergistic effect toward inducing foam formation. It is defined as the concentration of surfactants above which micelles form and all additional surfactants added to the system go to micelles.
7. Which of the following is utilized in foam formation?
Answer: c [Reason:] Proteins are sometimes useful in foam formation, as anyone who has beaten an egg white or cream knows. These foams are formed by denaturing of the proteins.
8. _________ can sometimes be destroyed by blowing hot air on them.
Answer: b [Reason:] This lowers the viscosity of the liquid and helps evaporate liquid at the interfaces. Gas is % in large amount so it’ll be divided into gas bubbles of many different sizes separated by liquid regions which may form films, thinner and thinner when the liquid phase is drained out of the system films.
9. Some surface active chemicals that do not stabilize the foam can displace the surfactants that do stabilize the _________
Answer: b [Reason:] A crucial division of solid foams is into closed-cell foams and open-cell foams. In a closed-cell foam, the gas forms discrete pockets which are completely surrounded by the solid material.
10. Low molecular weight alcohols or fatty acids (4-6 carbon atoms) can also act as _________
Answer: d [Reason:] Ca2+ may decrement the foaming tendency of fatty acid soaps by rendering them insoluble, like taking a bath in hard water. It is a chemical additive that reduces and obstructs the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
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