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Q1: How are the big five personality factors (McRae and Costa, 1990, 1996) also known

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Answer: OCEAN scale

Q2: Which of the following selection techniques has the highest predictive validity

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Answer: Structured interview

Q3: ‘Individuals are unique and complex. Their personalities are always changing and can never be reduced to a measurement.’ Which approach to personality does this best describe

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Answer: Ideographic approach

Q4: Which of the following is a factor which may cause bias in an interview

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Answer: Halo/horns effect

Q5: Which of the following is an issue if employers use social media profiles as part of the selection process

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Answer: It can uncover information that an employer may use as a basis for discrimination

Q6: How would a Foucauldian perspective critique personality tests and types

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Answer: They create artificial labels for people

Q7: According to Harpaz (1989), approximately what proportion of UK workers would continue to work if they won enough money on the lottery to retire

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Answer: 1%

Q8: Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic motivator

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Answer: Satisfaction in a job well done

Q9: Using a foul-tasting nail varnish to motivate a person to stop biting their nails is an example of what

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Answer: Aversion therapy

Q10: Which of the following is a critique of behaviourism

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Answer: People are motivated simply by achieving the target rather than any deeper level of motivation.

Q11: Which of the following best describes Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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Answer: It is a highly flawed model, although it does recognize that people are motivated differently.

Q12: Which of the following is an example of one of Herzberg’s (1966) motivating factors

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Answer: Recognition

Q13: Which of the following best describes how people are motivated according to process theories of motivation

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Answer: People make subjective judgements based on past experiences and individual thought processes.

Q14: Students doing group work may be unhappy with a high grade if they feel some members of the group didn’t contribute evenly to the effort in getting that grade. This is an example of what

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Answer: Equity theory

Q15: According to expectancy theory, why might you be answering this question now

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Answer: Because it will help you to understand the subject, get better module marks and ultimately a better degree.

Q16: Which of the following sums up Marx’s view of how people are motivated

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Answer: People are naturally creative with an inherent desire to transform the world around them.

Q17: Which of the following statements best describes a behaviourist approach to learning

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Answer: People learn through punishment and reward.

Q18: People learn and memorize things by contextualizing them in a pattern, or by making associations. Which approach to learning does this best describe

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Answer: Gestaltist view of learning

Q19: Knowledge that is written down in the form of instructions is a form of what

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Answer: Explicit knowledge

Q20: Which statement best describes Kolb’s (1984) learning cycle

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Answer: It shows that learning uses both tacit and explicit knowledge.

Q21: The VARK model suggests four types of learners: visual, auditory, reading/writing and what

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Answer: Kinesthetic

Q22: In Blackler’s (1995) typology of organizational knowledge, how would embedded knowledge best be described

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Answer: Knowledge in organizational routines

Q23: Nonaka’s (1997) model of the knowledge-creating company suggests four ways in which organizations learn through what

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Answer: Knowledge transfer

Q24: Which of the following phrases best describes Julian Orr’s (1996) research into photocopier engineers at Xerox

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Answer: Knowledge was shared in social settings.

Q25: Which of the following does Peter Senge (1990) not suggest is a characteristic of a learning organization

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Answer: Trained incapacity

Q26: Groupings which are based around a common occupational practice and a common set of knowledge, whether inside an organization or crossing organizational boundaries, are known as what

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Answer: Communities of practice

Q27: Environmental factors, new senior staff and union pressure can all be examples of what

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Answer: Triggers for change

Q28: Anxiety, inertia, cultures and contractual obligations can all contribute to what

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Answer: Resistance to change

Q29: Triggers and resistance to change plotted out on a diagram is a technique known as what

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Answer: Force-field analysis

Q30: Which of the following is true of the building blocks metaphor of organization

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Answer: Management have total power over the organization.

Q31: When talking about the iceberg metaphor of organization, what factors make up its hidden depths

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Answer: Cultures, attitudes, emotions and social bonds

Q32: What are the three steps of Lewin’s three-step model

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Answer: Unfreezing, movement and freezing

Q33: ‘…[A]n effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide and (3) managed from the top to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s processes using behavioural science knowledge’ (Beckhard, 1969). What approach to change does this describe

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Answer: Organization development

Q34: Which of the following quotes best describes the ‘river approach’

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Answer: ‘You cannot step twice into the same river for other waters are continually flowing on.’ (Heraclitus)

Q35: Which of the following is not an example of an emergent approach to change

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Answer: The three-step model of change

Q36: Small actions can have disproportionate knock-on effects. What is this a description of

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Answer: The butterfly effect

Q37: Which of these is not a principle of great man theory

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Answer: A great leader is only great in certain situations.

Q38: In leadership trait theory what is a trait

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Answer: A list of key characteristics that makes a leader great.

Q39: What is Skinner’s A-B-C of behaviourism

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Answer: Antecedents-behaviour-consequences

Q40: For the Ohio State leadership studies the perfect leader

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Answer: Combines a focus on the task and the employee

Q41: Contingency theory is based on the assumption that the ideal leader

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Answer: Shapes their leadership style depending on the situation.

Q42: A transactional leader is one who

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Answer: Does deals with people in order to get them to do things the leader wants

Q43: What is a transformational leader

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Answer: A leader who inspires the workers to new levels by offering them a vision of a better future.

Q44: What is post-heroic leadership theory

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Answer: A theory which states that there is too much emphasis on leaders and more attention should be placed on followers.

Q45: What is the social construction of leadership

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Answer: What counts as good leadership is a construction of the perceptions of the followers.

Q46: What is the ‘glass ceiling’

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Answer: A barrier which prevents women from passing through to more senior positions in the company.

Q47: Who stated that: ‘A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do’

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Answer: Robert Dahl

Q48: Which of the following is the advice Niccol Machiavelli offers to leaders

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Answer: It is better to be feared than loved.

Q49: Who, in this list, has power in the organization

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Answer: Executives, management and workers

Q50: According to Jeffery Pfeffer power is

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Answer: Having something that someone else wants or needs where there are few other alternatives.

Q51: What would French and Raven state that an IT specialist has

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Answer: Expert power

Q52: Why does Stephen Lukes state that power exists even when you do not see conflict

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Answer: Because the powerful shape the very needs and wants of the less powerful.

Q53: Why, for Foucault, can power be a positive phenomenon

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Answer: Power is a creative force that brings certain ways of being and thinking into reality.

Q54: What are the key implications, for OB of our understanding of power, that arise out of the Milgram experiments

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Answer: That people are willing to obey commands from authority figures over their own judgement.

Q55: Why might empowering the workers be good for the organization

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Answer: Power resides at the level of the person actually doing the job, leading to better decision making and can satisfy customer needs.

Q56: Why does empowerment not necessarily produce greater freedom for the worker

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Answer: Employees have increased responsibilities of how to carry out tasks without necessarily being able to set the wider goals of the organization.

Q57: Which of the following is an example of informal communication in an organization

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Answer: Gossip

Q58: According to Mehrabian (1971), what percentage of meaning is communicated through actual words

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Answer: 0%

Q59: If less than 100% of intended meaning is communicated from a sender to recipient, what is this evidence of

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Answer: Noise

Q60: What percentage of meaning of an original message does Nichols (1962) suggests remains after it has been communicated from the top to the bottom of an organization

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Answer: 0%

Q61: Bruno Latour (1986) suggests that the power to pass on the meaning of a communication successfully from person to person is similar to the movement of what

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Answer: A rugby ball during a match

Q62: When communications technology is used, there is a trade-off between what

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Answer: Richness and efficiency

Q63: According to media richness theory (Daft and Lengel, 1986) which of these media would communicate the richest meaning

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Answer: Telephone call

Q64: Frank Blackler (1995) suggests that organizations have imploded into computer code and simultaneously what

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Answer: Exploded into computer networks

Q65: Which of the following best describes the nature of organizations, and the connections between organizations, within cyberspace

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Answer: Rhizome

Q66: Which of the following is a threat that organizations need to take account of in cyberspace

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Answer: Denial of service attack

Q67: What is meant by McLuhan’s (1964) phrase ‘global village’

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Answer: The world feels like a smaller place.

Q68: Which of the following best describes Robertson’s (1992) concept of a global ‘intensification of consciousness’

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Answer: As journey and communication times decrease, our awareness of the world increases.

Q69: Which of the following is true of the global economy

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Answer: Markets and economies across the globe are interconnected and affect each other.

Q70: Which of the following is an example of a physical aspect of globalization

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Answer: Goods being transported across borders

Q71: Global brands, the use of English globally and the prevalence of Hollywood films all contribute to global what

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Answer: Culture

Q72: According to Hofstede (1980), which nation has the most individualistic management culture

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Answer: USA

Q73: Which of the following is not a critique of Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of national culture

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Answer: The research was updated at a later date.

Q74: McDonalds adapts its menu and activities for different national markets. This is an example of what

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Answer: Glocalization

Q75: Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) suggest that the types of global strategy adopted by firms depend on how they adapt to national markets and what

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Answer: The degree to which the organization is controlled centrally.

Q76: Most of the top 50 largest global organizations have headquarters in the developed world, whilst cheap manufacturing labour is often subcontracted to the developing world. This is evidence of what in the global economy

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Answer: Inequality

Q77: Which of the following is not an aspect of Bryman’s (2004) Disneyization

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Answer: Calculability

Q78: Which of the following best describes the relationship between production and consumption when a service sector organization delivers an ‘experience’ as a product to its consumers

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Answer: Production and consumption are simultaneous

Q79: Which of the following best defines the concept of hyperreality? (Eco, 1983; Baudrillard, 1986)

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Answer: A simulation of reality that eliminates many flaws of the reality it aims to copy.

Q80: Which of the following are examples of Bryman’s (2004) performative labour

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Answer: Emotional and aesthetic labour

Q81: With which group of workers was Hochschild’s (1983) original research into emotional labour conducted

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Answer: Airline cabin crew

Q82: Which of the following is an example of emotional labour

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Answer: Being polite to an unpleasant customer on the telephone.

Q83: Korczynski (2003) suggests that workers help each other informally to deal with the stress of emotional labour. What is this known as

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Answer: Communities of coping

Q84: Dress codes, grooming standards and corporate ‘looks’ are examples of what

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Answer: Aesthetic labour

Q85: Bourdieu’s (1984) concept of habitus suggests what

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Answer: We embody certain behaviours as a result of our social class and upbringing.

Q86: The objectification of female appearance and sexuality in service work is known as what

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Answer: Sexual commodification

Q87: What is meant by the phrase CSR

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Answer: Corporate Social Responsibility

Q88: What is meant by the phrase ‘teleological ethics’

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Answer: An action can only be judged by its consequences.

Q89: For Karl Marx, where do our values come from

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Answer: They are a product of the economic system within which we live.

Q90: What does Milton Friedman believe to be the sole responsibility of business

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Answer: The only social responsibility of business is to its shareholders.

Q91: What, according to Adam Smith, is the best way to promote collective interest

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Answer: Through everyone working on their own self-interest.

Q92: Why, according to stakeholder theory, is it in companies’ best interests to pay attention to their stakeholders

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Answer: If firms only act in their own self-interest and inflict harm on stakeholders then society might withdraw its support.

Q93: What is the enlightened self-interest model of CSR

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Answer: That it is in an organization’s own best interest to act in an ethical way.

Q94: What is greenwashing

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Answer: Making a product appear more ethical that it really is.

Q95: What is triple bottom line

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Answer: An accounting tool that looks at the impact on people, planet and profits.

Q96: Why do alternative organizations run differently from conventional shareholder led approach

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Answer: They are run in non-hierarchical ways which aim to provide a positive impact on society rather than to make profit.

Q97: Global marketing is an expansive, extensive, and complex concept of management. In the global marketplace, multinational companies are able to

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Answer: leverage their assets across political and cultural boundaries by maximising opportunities and exploit market similarities and differences in search of global competitiveness.

Q98: The trading of services plays a vital role in today’s world economy. Which of the following statements is not true

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Answer: Protecting intellectual property rights, issues of barriers to trade and regulation of international data flows are not important topics discussion at the World Trade Organization today.

Q99: The concept of economic globalization refers to

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Answer: the movement of people, information and goods across international borders.

Q100: Which of the following is incorrect and does not apply? It is likely that global competition will become more fiercely intensive due to

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Answer: the new competition is more likely between single organizations against each other.