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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. ___________ system may include lenses, mirrors, slits, diaphragm etc.
a) Photo system
b) Radiant system
c) Cardiac system
d) Optical system

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] : A detecting system for the measurement of unabsorbed radiant energy, which could be the human eye, a barrier-layer cell, phototube or photo-multiplier tube. An optical system for producing a parallel beam of filtered light for passage through an absorption cell (cuvette). The system may include lenses, mirrors, slits, diaphragm, etc.

2. __________ is not the property of instrumentational amplifier.
a) Extremely high input impedance
b) Very low CMRR
c) Low bias and offset currents
d) High slew rate

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Instrumentational amplifiers have very high CMRR. The instrumentation amplifier offers the following advantages for its applications in the biomedical field. Some of the are like extremely high input impedance, low bias and offset currents, high slew rate.

3. Which of the following feedback type is employed with DC amplifiers?
a) negative
b) can be any positive or negative does’t matter
c) depends on the application
d) positive

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] DC amplifiers are generally of the negative feedback type. They are used for medium gain applications down to about 1 mV signal levels for full scale. They are not practical for very low level applications because of dc drift and poor common-mode rejection capabilities.

4. The CMRR is expressed in _____________
a) V/s
b) dB/ms
c) dB/s
d) dB

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The ability of the amplifier to reject common voltages on its two input leads is known as common-mode rejection. It is specified as the ratio of common-mode input to differential input to elicit the same response. CMRR is an important specification referred to the differential amplifier and is normally expressed as decibels.

5. An oscillator and a capacitance coupled amplifier is present in a carrier amplifier .
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is True. The transducers, which require ac excitation, are those whose impedance is not purely resistive.The carrier amplifier consists of an oscillator and a capacitance coupled amplifier. The oscillator is used to energize the transducer with an alternating carrier voltage.

6. Reduction in electromagnetic coupling is achieved by _____
a) shielding
b) common grounding
c) multiple grounding
d) wire twisting

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electromagnetic coupling is reduced by shielding, wire twisting and proper grounding which provide a balanced signal pair with satisfactory noise rejection characteristics. Having multiple grounds in a single circuit increases the electromagnetic coupling effect by producing ground loop which may generate so much noise that it may completely obscure the useful signal.

7. ________________ is employed with resistive transducers which require an external source of excitation?
a) dc bridge amplifier
b) ac coupled amplifier
c) carrier amplifier
d) differential amplifier

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Essentially, the amplifier comprises of a stable dc excitation source, a bridge balance and calibration unit, a high gain differential dc amplifier and a dc output amplifier. DC bridge amplifiersare employed with resistive transducers which require an external source of excitation.They can be used as conventional dc high gain amplifiers and offer operating simplicity and high frequency response.

8. From the options given below select the one which is not a type of isolation amplifier?
a) transformer type isolation amplifiers
b) resistive coupled isolation amplifiers
c) optically isolated isolation amplifiers
d) capactively coupled isolation amplifiers

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Opto-coupled amplifier uses a minimum number of components and is cost effective, followed by the transformer coupled amplifier. The capacitor coupled amplifier is the most expensive. There is nothing such as the resistive coupled isolation amplifiers.All the other three types are in common use, though the transformer isolation amplifier is more popular.

9. The isolation includes common supply voltage sources and common grounds on each side of the isolation barrier.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is False. Three methods are used in the design of isolation amplifiers: (i) transformer isolation (ii) optical isolation (iii) capacitive isolation. Isolation amplifiers are commonly used for providing protection against leakage currents. The isolation includes different supply voltage sources and different grounds on each side of the isolation barrier.

10. Which of the following amplifier is commonly used for providing protection against leakage currents?
a) Isolation amplifiers
b) Instrumentational amplifiers
c) Inverting amplifiers
d) Differential amplifiers

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Isolation amplifiers are commonly used for providing protection against leakage currents. They break the ohmic continuity of electric signals between the input and output of the amplifier. The isolation includes different supply voltage sources and different grounds on each side of the isolation barrier.

Set 2

1. What is pH range of extracellular fluid?
a) 7.25 to 730
b) 7.30 to 7.35
c) 7.35 to 7.45
d) 7.50 to 7.60

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The normal pH of the extracellular fluid lies in the range of 7.35 to 7.45, indicating that the body fluid is slightly alkaline. When the pH exceeds 7.45, the body is considered to be in a state of alkalosis. A body pH below 7.35 indicates acidosis. Both acidosis or alkalosis are disease conditions widely encountered in clinical medicine.

2. What is pH of Arterial blood?
a) 7.25
b) 7.30
c) 7.35
d) 7.40

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Arterial blood has a pH of approximately 7.40. As venous blood acquires carbon dioxide, forms carbonic acid and hydrogen ions, the venous blood pH falls to approximately 7.36. This pH drop of 0.04 units occurs when the CO2 enters the tissue capillaries. When CO2 diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli, the blood pH rises 0.04 units to bring the normal arterial value of 7.40.

3. What is pH range of intracellular fluid?
a) 7.0 to 7.2
b) 7.3 to 7.35
c) 7.35 to 7.45
d) 7.50 to 7.60

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When CO2 diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli, the blood pH rises 0.04 units to bring the normal arterial value of 7.40. It is quite difficult to measure the pH of fluids inside the tissue cells, but from estimates based on CO2 and (HCO–3) ion concentration, intracellular pH probably ranges from 7.0 to 7.2.

4. What is E0 in given equation: biomedical-instrumentation-questions-answers-spirometry-q4
a) induced emf
b) Faradays Constant
c) pH value deviation from 7
d) standard potential

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The potential (E) of the glass electrode may be written by means of the Nernst equation: biomedical-instrumentation-questions-answers-spirometry-q4 where ,Eo = standard potential R = gas constant T = absolute temperature F = Faraday constant DpH = pH value deviation from 7.The above relation shows that the emf developed in the electro-chemical pH cell is a linear function of DpH.

5. What is E in given equation: biomedical-instrumentation-questions-answers-spirometry-q4

a) induced emf
b) Faradays Constant
c) pH value deviation from 7
d) standard potential

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The potential (E) of the glass electrode may be written by means of the Nernst equation: biomedical-instrumentation-questions-answers-spirometry-q4

where ,Eo = standard potential R = gas constant T = absolute temperature F = Faraday constant DpH = pH value deviation from 7.The above relation shows that the emf developed in the electro-chemical pH cell is a linear function of DpH.

6. With a 1°C change in temperature, the emf changes by ____ mV.
a) 0.1
b) 0.2
c) 0.5
d) 0.8

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The factor –2.3036 RTF is called the slope factor and is clearly dependent upon the solution temperature. With a 1°C change in temperature, the emf changes by 0.2 mV. It is also obvious that the measurement of pH is essentially a measurement of millivolt signals by special methods.

7. The venous blood pH falls to approximately 7.36.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True, As venous blood acquires carbon dioxide, forms carbonic acid and hydrogen ions, the venous blood pH falls to approximately 7.36. This pH drop of 0.04 units occurs when the CO2 enters the tissue capillaries. When CO2 diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli, the blood pH rises 0.04 units to bring the normal arterial value of 7.40.

8. How much amount of capillary blood is required by a micro-electrode for determination of pH?
a) 5 to 10 ml
b) 10 to 12 ml
c) 12 to 18 ml
d) 20 to 25 ml

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A micro-electrode for clinical applications requires only 20–25 ml of capillary blood for the determination of pH. The electrode is enclosed in a water jacket with circulating water at a constant temperature of 38°C. The water contains 1% NACI for shielding against static interference.

9. The micro-electrode is enclosed in water jacket with circulating water at a constant temperature of ____ °C for determination of pH .
a) 25
b) 34
c) 38
d) 42

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A micro-electrode for clinical applications requires only 20–25 ml of capillary blood for the determination of pH. The electrode is enclosed in a water jacket with circulating water at a constant temperature of 38°C. The water contains 1% NACI for shielding against static interference.

10. Internal Reference electrode is of _______
a) gold
b) silver
c) platinium
d) graphite

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The internal reference electrode is silver/silver chloride and the calomel reference electrode is connected to a small pool of saturated KCI, through a porous pin. An accuracy of 0.001 pH can be obtained with this electrode against a constant buffer.

Set 3

1. Which of the following instrument records the electrical activity of heart?
a) VCG(Vectorcardiograph)
b) PCG(Phonocardiograph)
c) ECG(Electrocardiograph)
d) EEG

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The electrocardiograph (ECG) is an instrument, which records the electrical activity of the heart. Electrical signals from the heart characteristically precede the normal mechanical function and monitoring of these signals has great clinical significance.

2. Electrocardiography are used in catheterization laboratories, coronary care units and for routine diagnostic applications in cardiology.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True,Electrocardiographs are used in catheterization laboratories, coronary care units and for routine diagnostic applications in cardiology.

3. Who provides valuable information about a wide range of cardiac disorders?
a) VCG
b) ECG
c) PCG
d) EEG

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] ECG provides valuable information about a wide range of cardiac disorders such as the presence of an inactive part (infarction) or an enlargement (cardiac hypertrophy) of the heart muscle.

4. What is diagnostically useful frequency range?
a) 0.025 to 0.05 Hz
b) 0.05 to 150 Hz
c) 150 to 200 Hz
d) 0.05 to 150 MHz

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Although the electric field generated by the heart can be best characterized by vector quantities, it is generally convenient to directly measure only scalar quantities, i.e. a voltage difference of mV order between the given points of the body. The diagnostically useful frequency range is usually accepted as 0.05 to 150 Hz (Golden et al 1973).

5. Which machines CMRR is of order of 100-120 dB?
a) VCG
b) PCG
c) EEG
d) ECG

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] CMRR of the order of 100–120 dB with 5 kW unbalance in the leads is a desirable feature of ECG machines. In addition to this, under specially adverse circumstances, it becomes necessary to include a notch filter tuned to 50 Hz to reject hum due to power mains.

6. How many paper speeds are necessary for ECG recording?
a) One
b) Minimum two
c) Can be any
d) Max two

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The instability of the baseline, originating from the changes of the contact impedance, demands the application of the automatic baseline stabilizing circuit. A minimum of two paper speeds is necessary (25 and 50 mm per sec) for ECG recording.

7. Where are potentials picked up by patient electrodes taken to ?
a) Lead Selector switch
b) Preamp
c) Power Amplifier
d) Instrumentational amplifier

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The potentials picked up by the patient electrodes are taken to the lead selector switch. In the lead selector, the electrodes are selected two by two according to the lead program.

8. How lead selector selects electrodes?
a) one by one
b) two by two
c) three by three
d) four by four

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The potentials picked up by the patient electrodes are taken to the lead selector switch. In the lead selector, the electrodes are selected two by two according to the lead program.

9. The amplified output signal is picked up single-ended from preamp and is given to the _________
a) Power Amplifier
b) Lead Selector
c) Pen Motor
d) Paper motor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The preamplifier is usually a three or four stage differential amplifier having a sufficiently large negative current feedback, from the end stage to the first stage, which gives a stabilizing effect. The amplified output signal is picked up single-ended and is given to the power amplifier. The power amplifier is generally of the push-pull differentical type.

10. Why is preamplifier used?
a) For Amplification
b) For Stabilizing effect
c) For Reducing effect
d) For Modifying effects

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The preamplifier is usually a three or four stage differential amplifier having a sufficiently large negative current feedback, from the end stage to the first stage, which gives a stabilizing effect.

11. ‘Stand by’ mode of operation is generally provided in which instrument?
a) VCG
b) PCG
c) ECG
d) EMG

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A‘stand by’ mode of operation is generally provided on the electrocardiograph. In this mode, the stylus moves in response to input signals, but the paper is stationary. This mode allows the operator to adjust the gain and baseline position controls without wasting paper.

12. ________ are made horizontally on electrocardiogram.
a) Time Measurements
b) Heart Rate Measurements
c) Time Measurements and Heart Rate Measurements
d) Not fixed and can be any thing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electrocardiograms are almost invariably recorded on graph paper with horizontal and vertical lines at 1 mm intervals with a thicker line at 5 mm intervals. Time measurements and heart rate measurements are made horizontally on the electrocardiogram.

13. What is paper recording speed for routine work?
a) 10 mm/s
b) 15 mm/s
c) 20 mm/s
d) 25 mm/s

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electrocardiograms are almost invariably recorded on graph paper with horizontal and vertical lines at 1 mm intervals with a thicker line at 5 mm intervals. Time measurements and heart rate measurements are made horizontally on the electrocardiogram.

14. What measurements are made vertically on electrocardiogram?
a) Time Measurements
b) Heart Rate Measurements
c) Amplitude Measurements
d) Time Measurements and Heart Rate Measurements

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electrocardiograms are almost invariably recorded on graph paper with horizontal and vertical lines at 1 mm intervals with a thicker line at 5 mm intervals. Time measurements and heart rate measurements are made horizontally on the electrocardiogram. Amplitude measurements are made vertically in millivolts.The sensitivity of an electrocardiograph is typically set at 10 mm/mV.

15. What is sensitivity of an electrocardiograph?
a) 10 mm/mV
b) 15 mm/mV
c) 20 mm/mV
d) 25 mm/mV

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Electrocardiograms are almost invariably recorded on graph paper with horizontal and vertical lines at 1 mm intervals with a thicker line at 5 mm intervals. Time measurements and heart rate measurements are made horizontally on the electrocardiogram. Amplitude measurements are made vertically in millivolts.The sensitivity of an electrocardiograph is typically set at 10 mm/mV.

Set 4

1. _______________ will reject any common mode signal that appears simultaneously at both amplifier input terminal.
a) aC coupled amplifiers
b) dc amplifiers
c) carrier amplifiers
d) differential amplifiers

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Most of the amplifiers used for measuring bioelectric signals are of the differential type. Differential amplifier is one which will reject any common mode signal that appears simultaneously at both amplifier input terminals and amplifies only the voltage difference that appears across its input terminals. AC amplifiers have a limited frequency response and are, therefore, used only for special medical applications such as electrocardiograph machine.

2. The amplifier from the following that has a limited frequency response is _________
a) dc amplifiers
b) differential amplifier
c) ac coupled amplifiers
d) carrier amplifiers

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] AC amplifiers have a limited frequency response and are, therefore, used only for special medical applications such as electrocardiograph machine. For electrocardiograms, an ac amplifier with a sensitivity, giving 0.5 mV/cm, and frequency response up to 1 kHz and an input impedance of 2 to 5 MW is used. For such applications as retinography, EEG and EMG, more sensitive ac amplifiers are required, giving a chart sensitivity of say 50 mV/cm with a high input impedance of over 10 MW.

3. Which of the following amplifiers are used with transducers which require an external source of excitation?
a) ac coupled amplifiers
b) dc amplifiers
c) carrier amplifiers
d) differential amplifier

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Carrier amplifiers are used with transducers which require an external source of excitation. They essentially contain a carrier oscillator, a bridge balance and calibration circuit, a high gain ac amplifier, a phase-sensitive detector and a dc output amplifier. They are characterized by high gain, negligible drift, extremely low noise and the ability to operate with resistive, inductive or capacitive type transducers.

4. Which feedback system is employed in DC amplifiers?
a) Can be any positive or negative does’t matter
b) Negative
c) Depends on the application
d) Positive

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] DC amplifiers are generally of the negative feedback type. They are not practical for very low level applications because of dc drift and poor common-mode rejection capabilities. They are used for medium gain applications down to about 1 mV signal levels for full scale.

5. Digital filters are not sensitive to temperature as compared with analog filters.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is True. Digital filters are insensitive to temperature as compared with analog filters. The are also insensitive to ageing, voltage drift and external interference as compared to analog filters. Theri response is completely reproducible and predictable, and software simulations can exactly reflect product performance.

6. The number of amplifiers incorporated in the module of a Chopper stabilized dc amplifiers are ___________
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Chopper stabilized dc amplifiers are used for low level but preferably wideband applications such as oscilloscopes, tape recorders and light beam oscilloscope recorders. This includes an ac amplifier for signals above about 20 Hz, a dc chopper input amplifier for signals from about 20 Hz down to dc plus a wideband feedback stabilized dc amplifier. These are complex amplifiers having three amplifiers incorporated in the module.

7. _____________ is employed with resistive transducers which require an external source of excitation?
a) differential amplifier
b) dc bridge amplifier
c) carrier amplifier
d) ac coupled amplifier

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Essentially, the amplifier comprises of a stable dc excitation source, a bridge balance and calibration unit, a high gain differential dc amplifier and a dc output amplifier. DC bridge amplifiersare employed with resistive transducers which require an external source of excitation. They can be used as conventional dc high gain amplifiers and offer operating simplicity and high frequency response.

8. Which of the following IC is a variable negative voltage regulator?
a) 7912
b) 7905
c) LM337
d) LM317

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] LM337 is a variable negative voltage regulator IC. It is capable of drawing current up to 1.5A and voltage range from (-1.25V) – (-30V) ideally. LM317 is a variable positive voltage regulator IC. 7905 and 7912 are fixed voltage regulator IC that give output voltage as -5V and -12V respectively.

9. Chopper input dc amplifiersare preferred for high level inputs to instrumentation systems because of their high sensitivity, negligible drift and excellent common mode rejection capability.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is False. Chopper input dc amplifiersare preferred for low level inputs to instrumentation systems because of their high sensitivity, negligible drift and excellent common mode rejection capability. Their high frequency response is limited to about one half of the input chopper frequency.

10. The amplifier configuration must contain _____________ to achieve the low frequency response for medical applications, ?
a) higher resistance
b) lower resistance
c) lower capacitance
d) higher capacitance

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] To achieve the low frequency response required for medical applications, the amplifier must have large values of coupling capacitance. The response should be down to less than one hertz which is a very frequent requirement. In all RC-coupled amplifiers, low frequency response is limited by reluctance of the coupling capacitors.

Set 5

1. How much blood is present in an average adult ?
a) 10-12 L
b) 2-3 L
c) 5-6 L
d) 20-25 L

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In an average adult about 5-6 L of blood is present. Blood consists of corpuscles suspended in a fluid called plasma in the proportion of 45 parts of corpuscles (cells) to 55 parts of plasma. The percentage of cells in the blood is called the haematocrit value or packed cell volume (PCV).

2. What is the blood percentage to total body weight ?
a) 5-10 %
b) 20-30 %
c) 2-3 %
d) 10-15 %

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The blood constitutes 5–10% of the total body weight and in the average adult, it amounts to 5–6 l. Blood consists of corpuscles suspended in a fluid called plasma in the proportion of 45 parts of corpuscles (cells) to 55 parts of plasma. The percentage of cells in the blood is called the haematocrit value or packed cell volume (PCV).

3. Blood consists of corpuscles suspended in a fluid called plasma in the proportion of 45 parts of ____________ to 55 parts of _____________
a) Plasma, corpuscles
b) Corpuscles, plasma
c) Protoplasma, cytozomes
d) Cytozomes, protoplasma

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Blood consists of corpuscles suspended in a fluid called plasma in the proportion of 45 parts of corpuscles (cells) to 55 parts of plasma. The percentage of cells in the blood is called the haematocrit value or packed cell volume (PCV). The majority of the corpuscles in blood are red blood cells (erythrocytes), others being white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).

4. The percentage of cells in the blood is called _____________
a) haematocrit value
b) packet corpuscles value
c) packed haematocrit value
d) corpuscles value

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The percentage of cells in the blood is called the haematocrit value or packed cell volume (PCV). The majority of the corpuscles in blood are red blood cells (erythrocytes), others being white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).

5. Which of the following blood constituent is in the form of a bi-concave disc?
a) lymphocytes
b) leucocutes
c) neutrophils
d) erythrocytes

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Red blood cells have the form of a bi-concave disc with a mean diameter of about 7.5 m and thickness of about 1.7 m. The mean surface area of the cell is about 134mm2. There are about 5.5 million of them in every cubic millimetre of blood in men and nearly 5 million in women.

6. Diameter of erythrocytes is in the range of ___________
a) nano meters
b) micro meters
c) pico meters
d) femto meters

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Mean diameter of about 7.5 m and thickness of about 1.7 m. The mean surface area of the cell is about 134mm2. There are about 5.5 million of them in every cubic millimetre of blood in men and nearly 5 million in women.

7. In the whole body, there are about 25 billion erythrocytes and they are constantly being destroyed and replaced at a rate of about 9000 million per hour.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is true. In the whole body, there are about 25 billion erythrocytes and they are constantly being destroyed and replaced at a rate of about 9000 million per hour. There are about 5.5 million of them in every cubic millimetre of blood in men and nearly 5 million in women.

8. The normal red cell lasts approximately how many days before it is destroyed?
a) 240
b) 10
c) 12
d) 120

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The normal red cell lasts approximately 120 days before it is destroyed. There are about 5.5 million of them in every cubic millimetre of blood in men and nearly 5 million in women. In the whole body, there are about 25 billion erythrocytes and they are constantly being destroyed and replaced at a rate of about 9000 million per hour.

9. The erythrocytes have a nucleus.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The erythrocytes have no nucleus. They are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. In the whole body, there are about 25 billion erythrocytes and they are constantly being destroyed and replaced at a rate of about 9000 million per hour.

10. Anaemia is reduction/increase _________
a) in the carbon dioxide carrying capacity of blood
b) in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood
c) in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood
d) in the carbon dioxide carrying capacity of blood

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Anaemia is reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. It can develop from a change in the number, volume or Hb concentration of erythrocytes, caused by bone marrow dysfunction resulting in the poor production rate of RBCs. Since these changes are specific, the measurement of packed cell volume (PCV), the number of RBCs and the haemoglobin (Hb) are very important.

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