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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. An arrhythmia monitor is basically a ______
a) Sophisticated monitoring system
b) Sophisticated alarm system
c) Patient monitoring system
d) ECG interpretation system

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An arrhythmia monitor is basically a sophisticated alarm system.It is not an ECG interpretation system. It constantly scans ECG rhythm patterns and issues alarms to events that may be premonitory or life threatening.

2. In arrhythmia monitoring system, it gives alarm light signals whenever the prematured or widened ectopic beats exist up to the rate of ___________
a) 6/min to 10/min
b) 6/min to 12/min
c) 6/min or 10/min
d) 6/min or 12/min

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In arrhythmia monitoring instrument, , it gives alarm light signals whenever the prematured or widened ectopic beat exist up to the rate of 6/min or 12/min.It is one of the operating sequence of the arrhythmia monitoring instrument.

3. In automated arrhythmia monitoring system, which task is performed after the Ventricular fibrillation detection?
a) Rhythm definition
b) Beat labeling
c) Atrial fibrillation detection
d) Noise detection

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In automated arrhythmia monitoring system, Rhythm definition is performed after the Ventricular fibrillation detection. Rhythm definition is also performed after the beat labeling and atrial fibrillation detection in automated arrhythmia monitoring and analysis system.

4. In signal conditioning, ECG signal is amplified, filtered with 0.05-100 Hz for monitoring purposes and 1-40 Hz for diagnostic purposes.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] ECG signal is amplified and filtered with 0.05-100 Hz for diagnostic purposes and 1-40 Hz for monitoring purposes in signal conditioning.

5. Which analog-to-digital converter is used in digitization of ECG signal in signal conditioning?
a) 16 bit
b) 12 bit
c) 32 bit
d) 64 bit

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In signal conditioning, ECG signal is amplified, filtered and digitized using an 8- or 12- bit analog-to-digital converter with a typical sampling rate of 250 Hz.

6. By using a _________ rather than a _________, the amplitude of low frequency noise as well as the low frequency components of the ECG will be reduced without affecting the QRS.
a) High-pass filter, Band-pass filter
b) Low-pass filter, Band-pass filter
c) Band-pass filter, Low-pass filter
d) Band-pass filter, High-pass filter

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The maximum of the QRS energy spectrum is in the vicinity of 10 Hz, the filter is designed to have a bandwidth of about 15 Hz with a centre frequency of 10-12 Hz. By using a bandpass filter rather than a low-pass filter, the amplitude of low frequency noise as well as the low frequency components of the ECG will be reduced without affecting the QRS.

7. The steep, large amplitude variation of the QRS complex is the obvious characteristics to use and this is the function of the R wave detector.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Arrhythmia monitors require reliable R wave detectors as a prerequisite for subsequent analysis. The steep, large amplitude variation of the QRS complex is the obvious characteristics to use and this is the function of the R wave detector.

8. In the process of the ECG waveform, the detection filter removes _______ and _______
a) Baseline wander, motion noise
b) Muscle artifact, motion noise
c) Low frequency noise, motion noise
d) Baseline wander, muscle artifact

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The ECG waveform is processed by two digital filters: a detection filter and a classification filter. The detection filter removes low frequency noise (baseline wander) and muscle artifact. P waves and T waves are diminished.

9. How many steps are there in QRS detection?
a) Three steps
b) Two steps
c) Four steps
d) One step

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] QRS detection is now almost universally performed digitally in a two-step process. The ECG is first preprocessed to enhance the QRS complex while suppressing noise, artifact and non-QRS portions of the ECG. The output of the preprocessor stage is subjected to a decision rule that confirms detection of QRS if the processor output exceeds a threshold.

10. _________ is based on analyzing the shape of the QRS complexes and separating beats into groups or clusters.
a) Timing classification
b) Morphology characterization
c) Beat labeling
d) Noise detection

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Morphology characterization is based on analyzing the shape of the QRS complexes and separating beats into groups or clusters of similar morphology.Most algorithms for real time arrhythmia analysis maintain no more than 10-20 clusters at a time , order to limit the amount of computation needed to assign a QRS complex to a cluster.

11. When will be R-R interval declared premature?
a) If it is greater than 85% of the predicted interval
b) If it is less than 85% of the predicted interval
c) If it is greater than 75% of the predicted interval
d) If it is less than 75% of the predicted interval

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In timing classification, the observed R-R interval is compared to an estimate of the expected R-R interval. An R-R interval will be declared premature if it is less than 85% of the predicted interval. Similarly, an R-R interval is long if it is greater than 110% of the predicted value.

12. Which is the final stage in arrhythmia analysis?
a) Beat labeling
b) Alarms
c) Rhythm labeling
d) Summary statistics

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rhythm labeling is the final stage in arrhythmia analysis. It is based on defined sequences of QRS complexes. The analysis systems are heavily oriented towards detecting ventricular arrhythmias, particularly single PVCs.

13. Ventricular Fibrillation is detected by _________
a) Shape of the QRS complexes
b) Difference of the R-R interval
c) Timing sequence of QRS complexes
d) Frequency domain analysis

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Ventricular fibrillation is usually detected by frequency domain analysis. The system is characterized as a narrow-band, low frequency signal with energy concentrated in a band around 5-6 Hz. It can be distinguished from noise by appropriately designing band-pass filters.

14. Which techniques are used in a new algorithm proposed by Jen and Hwang to obtain the long term ECG signal feature and extract the meaningful information hiding in the QRS complex?
a) Cepstrum time warping and Dynamic coefficient
b) Cepstrum coefficient and Dynamic time warping
c) QRS detection and Dynamic coefficient
d) QRS detection and Cepstrum time warping

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Jen and Hwang proposed a new algorithm using cepstrum coefficient and the dynamic time warping techniques to obtain the long term ECG signal feature and extract the meaningful information hiding in the QRS complex. This algorithm may also be used for arrhythmia detection by simply checking the difference of R-R wave intervals through signal feature extraction comparison for a certain period of time.

15. What is the sampling rate of analog-to-digital converter in digitizing of ECG signal in signal conditioning?
a) 250 Hz
b) 215 Hz
c) 40-100 Hz
d) 200-215 Hz

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In signal conditioning, ECG signal is amplified, filtered (0.05-100 Hz for diagnostic purposes, 1-40 Hz for monitoring purposes) and digitized using an 8- or 12-bit analog-to-digital converter with a typical sampling rate of 250 Hz.

Set 2

1. Which of the following component is used for selection of narrow band in spectrophotmeter?
a) Optical system
b) Radiating source
c) Filtering Arrangement
d) Detecting system

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A source of radiant energy, which may he a tungsten lamp, a xenon-mercury arc, hydrogen or deuterium discharge lamp, etc. Filtering arrangement for the selection of a narrow band of radiant energy. It could be a single wavelength absorption filter, an interference filter, a prism or a diffraction grating.

2. Which of following component is used to produce a parallel beam of filtered light for passage through an absorption cell(cuvette) in spectrophotometer?
a) Optical system
b) Radiating source
c) Filtering Arrangement
d) Detecting system

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] An optical system for producing a parallel beam of filtered light for passage through an absorption cell (cuvette). The system may include lenses, mirrors, slits, diaphragm, etc. A detecting system for the measurement of unabsorbed radiant energy, which could be the human eye, a barrier-layer cell, phototube or photo-multiplier tube.

3. What is used for the measurement of unabsorbed radiant energy in spectrophotometer?
a) Optical system
b) Radiating source
c) Filtering Arrangement
d) Detecting system

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] An optical system for producing a parallel beam of filtered light for passage through an absorption cell (cuvette). The system may include lenses, mirrors, slits, diaphragm, etc. A detecting system for the measurement of unabsorbed radiant energy, which could be the human eye, a barrier-layer cell, phototube or photo-multiplier tube.

4. Which of the following method uses only the human eye as a measuring instrument?
a) Telemetric
b) Colorimetric
c) Polarimetric
d) Calorimetric

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A colorimetric method in its simplest form uses only the human eye as a measuring instrument.This involves the comparison by visual means of the colour of an unknown solution, with the colour produced by a single standard or a series of standards. The comparison is made by obtaining a match between the colour of the unknown and that of a particular standard by comparison with a series of standards prepared in a similar manner, as the unknown.

5. Which of the following instrument isolates monochromatic radiation in a more efficient and versatile manner than colour filters in filter photometers?
a) Calorimeter
b) Colorimeter
c) Spectrophotometer
d) Polarimeter

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A spectrophotometer is an instrument which isolates monochromatic radiation in a more efficient and versatile manner than colour filters used in filter photometers. In these instruments, light from the source is made into a parallel beam and passed to a prism or diffraction grating, where light of different wavelengths is dispersed at different angles.

6. Which of the following detector is required in spectrophotometer?
a) Phototransistor
b) Photodiode
c) LDR
d) Photomultiplier

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The amount of light reaching the detector of a spectrophotometer is generally much smaller than that available for a colorimeter, because of the small spectral bandwidth. Therefore, a more sensitive detector is required. A photomultiplier or vacuum photocell is generally employed.

7. Spectrophotometer generally employ a 6V Xenon Arc Lamp, which emits radiation in wavelength region of visible light.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] False, Spectrophotometers generally employ a 6 V tungsten lamp, which emits radiation in the wavelength region of visible light. Typically, it is 32 candle power. These lamps should preferably be operated at a potential of say 5.4 V, when its useful life is estimated at 1200 h.

8. The recorder used with spectrophotometers have _____ wavelength scanning speeds.
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The recorder used with spectrophotometers have four wavelength scanning speeds (100, 50, 20 and 5 nm/mm) and seven chart speeds (10, 5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 inch/mm). It has a sensitivity of 100 mV absorbance units or 100 mV/100% T.

9. The recorder used in spectrophotometers have ______ chart speeds.
a) three
b) five
c) seven
d) nine

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The recorder used with spectrophotometers have four wavelength scanning speeds (100, 50, 20 and 5 nm/mm) and seven chart speeds (10, 5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 inch/mm). It has a sensitivity of 100 mV absorbance units or 100 mV/100% T.

10. Which component is used in spectrophotometer for control, Signal processing and Communication functions?
a) Detector
b) Microprocessor
c) Deuterium Lamp
d) Tungsten Lamp

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A microprocessor, in a spectrophotometer, could be used for the following functions: • Control functions: Wavelength scanning, automatic light source selection, control of slitwidth, detector sensitivity, etc. • Signal processing functions: Baseline correction, signal smoothing, calculation of % T, absorbance and concentration, derivative, etc. • Communication functions: Keyboard entry, menu-driven operations, data presentation, warning display, communication with external systems, etc.

Set 3

1. Which of the following statement is correct ?
a) movement of waste product molecules from the dialysate to the blood results in cleaning of the blood
b) movement of waste product molecules from the blood to the dialysate results in cleaning of the blood
c) movement of waste product molecules from the blood to the dialysate results in impuring of the blood
d) movement of waste product molecules from the dialysate to the blood results in cleaning of the blood

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Movement of waste product molecules from the blood to the dialysate results in cleaning of the blood. The dialysate fluid is free of waste product molecules and, therefore, those in the blood would tend to distribute themselves evenly throughout the blood and the dialysate. All other options are completely wrong.

2. A positive pressure is applied to the blood compartment or a negative pressure established in the dialysate compartment. This process in dialyses is called
a) nano filtration
b) mega filtration
c) micro filtration
d) ultra filtration

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The volume of body fluid cannot be controlled by dialysis. Instead, ultra-filtration across the membrane is employed. For this, a positive pressure is applied to the blood compartment or a negative pressure established in the dialysate compartment. Either way, fluid—both water and electrolytes—will move from the blood compartment to the dialysate, which is subsequently discarded.

3. Which of the following technique is not employed in isolation devices?
a) resistance
b) optical
c) inductance
d) capacitance

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Resistance technique is not employed in making isolation devices. The isolation devices pass the signal from its source to the measurement device without a physical or galvanic connection by using transformer, optical or capacitive coupling technique.

4. To achieve the low frequency response for medical applications, the amplifier configuration must contain?
a) higher resistance
b) higher capacitance
c) lower resistance
d) lower capacitance

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] To achieve the low frequency response required for medical applications, the amplifier must have large values of coupling capacitance. In all RC-coupled amplifiers, low frequency response is limited by reluctance of the coupling capacitors. The response should be down to less than one hertz which is a very frequent requirement.

5. Besides breaking ground loops, isolation blocks high voltage surges and rejects high common mode voltages.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is true. Besides breaking ground loops, isolation blocks high voltage surges and rejects high common mode voltages. The isolation devices pass the signal from its source to the measurement device without a physical or galvanic connection by using transformer, optical or capacitive coupling technique.

6. Optical fiber sensors are not immune to electromagnetic disturbances.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Optical fiber sensors are electrically passive and consequently immune to electromagnetic disturbances. They are geometrically flexible and corrosion resistant. They can be miniaturized and are most suitable for telemetry applications.

7. In which of the following optic fiber sensor the fiber is simply used to carry light to and from an external optical device where the sensing takes place?
a) extrinsic fiber optic sensor
b) energized fiber optic sensor
c) all fibers are used to simply carry light to and from the external optical devices
d) intrinsic fiber optic sensor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In an extrinsic fiber optic sensor fiber is simply used to carry light to and from an external optical device where the sensing takes place. In intrinsic fiber optic sensor one or more of the physical properties of the fiber undergo a change.

8. On the bases of application of optic fiber sensor, which of the following is not considered to be the classification of fiber optic sensor?
a) biomedical/photometric sensors
b) physical sensors
c) thermal sensors
d) chemical sensors

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The variations in the returning light are sensed using a photodetector. Such sensors monitor variations either in the amplitude or frequency of the reflected light. Two of the most important physical parameters that can be advantageously measured using fibre optics are temperature and pressure.

9. Electrode paste ______________
a) increases contact impedance
b) equates contact impedance
c) reduces contact impedance
d) absorbs contact impedance

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In order to obtain a clearly established contact (low contact impedance) an electrolyte or electrode paste is usually employed as an interface between the electrode and the surface of the source of the event. It is placed between the skin and the electrode. It helps to get better signal acquisition.

10. Heart wall is made up of __________ layers.
a) 2
b) 4
c) 3
d) 7

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Heart wall is made up of three layers. First pericardium which is the outer layer of the heart. Second is the myocardium which is the middle layer of the hear and finally endocardium which is the inner layer of the heart wall.

Set 4

1. The instrument which carries out a continuous and simultaneous recording of the instantaneous foetal heart rate and labour activity is called _________
a) Ergometer
b) Cardiotocograph
c) Cardiotocometer
d) Cardiotonometer

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording the fetal heartbeat and the uterine contractions during pregnancy. The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph, more commonly known as an electronic fetal monitor(EFM).

2. In the cardiotocograph, sensitivity of _______of recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorder FHR.
a) 30 bpm / cm
b) 10 bpm / cm
c) 20 bpm / cm
d) 15 bpm / cm

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Normally, an accuracy of measurement of foetal heart rate may be 2-3% for classification for responses. Sensitivity of 20 bpm /cm of recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorder FHR. Labour activity and FHR traces are usually recorded simultaneously on the same time scale.

3. What is the chart speed in cardiotocograph to provide sufficient resolution of the stimulus- response relationship?
a) 1-2 cm / sec
b) 2-3 cm / min
c) 1-2 cm / min
d) 2-3 cm / sec

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Normally, an accuracy of measurement of foetal heart rate may be 2-3% for classification for responses. Sensitivity of 20 bpm /cm of recording chart allow adequate reading of the recorder FHR. Labour activity and FHR traces are usually recorded simultaneously on the same time scale. Chart speed of 1-2 cm / min is adequate to provide sufficient resolution of the stimulus- response relationship.

4. ________ is not an indirect method of foetal heart rate in cordiotocography monitoring?
a) Foetal ECG with scalp electrode
b) Foetal phonocardiogram
c) Abdominal foetal electrocardiogram
d) Ultrasound techniques

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The following methods are commonly employed in most of the cardiotocographic monitoring during labour: I) Indirect method: Abdominal foetal electrocardiogram, foetal phonocardiogram, ultrasound techniques (narrow beam and wide-angle transducer) II) Direct method: Foetal ECG with scalp electrode (spiral, clip or suction electrode attached to the presenting part of the foetus).

5. _______ is direct technique of uterine contraction in cardiotocographic monitoring.
a) Tocodynamometry
b) Intrauterine pressure measurement
c) Phonocardiometry
d) Ultrasound technique

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The following techniques are commonly used in uterine contraction in most of the cardiotocographic monitoring: I) Indirect method: Tocodynamometry (using tocotonometer to sense changes in uterine tension transmitted to abdominal skin surface) II) Direct method: Intrauterine pressure measurement (using a fluid-filled intracervical catheter with strain gauge transducer).

6. What is the range of instantaneous “beat-to-beat” rate which is displayed on a calibrated linear scale?
a) 200-220 bpm
b) 150-210 bpm
c) 50-200 bpm
d) 50-210 bpm

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Instantaneous “beat-to-beat” rate is displayed on a calibrated linear scale or digitally displayed with a range from 50 to 210 bpm. A two channel chart recorder is incorporated in instruments used for monitoring labour activity.

7. One channel records FHR on a calibrated chart in beats per minute while the other channel is used for recording uterine contractions calibrated _______
a) 50-210 mmHg
b) 0-210 mmHg
c) 0-100 mmHg
d) 0-50 mmHg

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A two channel chart recorder is incorporated in instruments used for monitoring labour activity. . One channel records FHR on a calibrated chart in beats per minute while the other channel is used for recording uterine contractions calibrated 0-100 mmHg. The record is printed on thermo-sensitive z-fold paper using a high resolution thermal matrix printer.

8. The galvanometer, which needs a frequency response of only 3 MHz, is positioned by a servo motor through a silent step-down belt drive.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The galvanometer, which needs a frequency response of only 3 Hz, is positioned by a servo motor through a silent step-down belt drive. Recording sensitivity is 20 bpm / cm giving a basic resolution of 1 bpm for seeing small changes in the heart rate.

9. The intrauterine pressure can reach values of 150 mmHg or more during the expulsion period.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True, because during labour, the uterus muscle starts contraction of increasing intensity in a bid to expel out the child. The intrauterine pressure can reach values of 150 mmHg or more during the expulsion period. However, a normal patient in spontaneous active labour will demonstrate uterine contractions occurring at intervals of three to five minutes, with a duration of 30 to 70 s and peak intensity of 50 to 75 mmHg.

10. Which transducer cannot be used in the same place as the foetal heart rate detector, thus the patient must have two transducers on her abdomen?
a) Cardiotocometer
b) Toco-tonometer
c) LVDT
d) IUPC

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The toco-transducers are location sensitive. They should be placed over the fundus where there is maximum motion with the contractions. The toco-tonometer transducer cannot be used in the same place as the foetal heart rate detector, thus the patient must have two transducers on her abdomen.

Set 5

1. Most of the ________ processes result in chemical changes in the internal environment of human body.
a) micromorphological
b) pathological
c) immunological
d) neuropschycological

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Most of the pathological processes result in chemical changes in the internal environment of the human body. These changes can generally be detected by the analysis of various samples taken from the body. The analysis not only helps in the diagnosis of various ailments but also in determining the progress of treatment and for making a prognosis.

2. Which section deals with the analysis of blood,urine,CSF and other fluids to determine the quantity of various important substance?
a) Chemistry
b) Haemotology
c) Microbiology
d) Blood Bank

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Chemistry: section deals with the analysis of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other fluids to determine the quantity of various important substances they contain. Most of the electronic instruments in the clinical laboratory are available in this section. Haematology: section deals with the determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells. Microbiology: section in which studies are performed on various body tissues and fluids to determine the presence of pathological micro-organisms.

3. Which section deals with the determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells?
a) Chemistry
b) Haemotology
c) Microbiology
d) Blood Bank

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Chemistry: section deals with the analysis of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other fluids to determine the quantity of various important substances they contain. Most of the electronic instruments in the clinical laboratory are available in this section. Haematology: section deals with the determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells. Microbiology: section in which studies are performed on various body tissues and fluids to determine the presence of pathological micro-organisms.

4. In which section studies are performed on various body tissues and fluids to determine the presence of pathological micro-organisms?
a) Chemistry
b) Haemotology
c) Microbiology
d) Blood Bank

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Chemistry: section deals with the analysis of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other fluids to determine the quantity of various important substances they contain. Most of the electronic instruments in the clinical laboratory are available in this section. Haematology: section deals with the determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells. Microbiology: section in which studies are performed on various body tissues and fluids to determine the presence of pathological micro-organisms.

5. Which of the following is the most common substance for analysis from body?
a) CSF
b) Urine
c) Blood
d) Glucose

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The most common substance for analysis from the body is blood. This is because the blood carries out the most important function of transportation and many pathological processes manifest themselves as demonstrable changes in the blood.

6. _____ accounts for 60% of blood volume.
a) Blood cells
b) Water
c) Carbon Dioxide
d) Blood plasma

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The liquid part of the blood—the blood plasma, and the formed elements—the blood cells are analyzed during a chemical examination. The blood plasma accounts for about 60% of the blood volume and the blood cells occupy the other 40%. The plasma is obtained by centrifuging a blood sample.

7. The blood plasma gets separated by centrifugation.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True, During centrifugation, the heavy blood cells get packed at the bottom of the centrifuge tube and the plasma can thus be separated. The plasma is a viscous, light yellow liquid, i.e. almost clear in the fasting stage.

8. _____ accounts for 40% of the blood volume.
a) Blood cells
b) Water
c) Carbon Dioxide
d) Blood plasma

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The liquid part of the blood—the blood plasma, and the formed elements—the blood cells are analyzed during a chemical examination. The blood plasma accounts for about 60% of the blood volume and the blood cells occupy the other 40%. The plasma is obtained by centrifuging a blood sample.

9. Which is the most important of all instrumental methods of analysis in clinical chemistry?
a) Colorimetry
b) Spectrophotometry
c) Pneumotachometry
d) Oximetry

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Spectrophotometry is the most important of all the instrumental methods of analysis in clinical chemistry. This method is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges.

10. Which method of the following is based on absorption of electromagnetic radiation in visible,ultraviolet and infrared ranges?
a) Colorimetry
b) Spectrophotometry
c) Pneumotachometry
d) Oximetry

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Spectrophotometry is the most important of all the instrumental methods of analysis in clinical chemistry. This method is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges.