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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the electrical activity of the brain?
a) ECG
b) EMG
c) PCG
d) EEG

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Electroencephalograph is an instrument for recording the electrical activity of the brain, by suitably placing surface electrodes on the scalp. EEG, describing the general function of the brain activity, is the superimposed wave of neuron potentials operating in a non-synchronized manner in the physical sense.

2. EEG electrodes are larger in size than ECG electrodes.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Several types of electrodes may be used to record EEG. These include: Peel and Stick electrodes, Silver plated cup electrodes and Needle electrodes. EEG electrodes are smaller in size than ECG electrodes.

3. _______ is the superimposed wave of neuron potentials operating in a non-synchrronized manner in physical sense.
a) VCG
b) ECG
c) EEG
d) PCG

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electroencephalograph is an instrument for recording the electrical activity of the brain, by suitably placing surface electrodes on the scalp. EEG, describing the general function of the brain activity, is the superimposed wave of neuron potentials operating in a non-synchronized manner in the physical sense.

4. Which of the following is a material is used to improve electrical contact?
a) Silver Tungsten
b) Electrode jelly
c) Silver Graphite
d) Copper Tungsten

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Electrode jelly or paste is used to improve the electrical contact. If the electrodes are intended to be used under the skin of the scalp, needle electrodes are used. They offer the advantage of reducing movement artefacts.

5. Whose electrodes give high skin impedance as compared to ECG?
a) VCG
b) PCG
c) EMG
d) EEG

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] EEG electrodes give high skin contact impedance as compared to ECG electrodes. Good electrode impedance should be generally below 5 kilohms. Impedance between a pair of electrodes must also be balanced or the difference between them should be less than 2 kilohms.

6. What are generally designed to have a very high value of input impedance to take care of high electrode impedance?
a) Montages
b) Electrodes
c) Preamplifiers
d) Filters

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Good electrode impedance should be generally below 5 kilohms. Impedance between a pair of electrodes must also be balanced or the difference between them should be less than 2 kilohms. EEG preamplifiers are generally designed to have a very high value of input impedance to take care of high electrode impedance.

7. Voltage difference between an active electrode on scalp with respect to reference electrode at ear lobe or any other part of body is known as ___________ recording.
a) Monopolar
b) Bipolar
c) Unipolar
d) Nonpolar

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] EEG may be recorded by picking up the voltage difference between an active electrode on the scalp with respect to a reference electrode on the ear lobe or any other part of the body. This type of recording is called ‘monopolar’ recording.

8. How is bipolar recording done?
a) Omni channel EEG
b) Multi channel EEG
c) Uni Channel EEG
d) Non Channel EEG

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] ‘bipolar’ recording is more popular wherein the voltage difference between two scalp electrodes is recorded. Such recordings are done with multi-channel electroencephalographs.

9. EEG signals picked up by surface electrodes are usually small as compared to ECG.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Yes, EEG signals picked up by the surface electrodes are usually small as compared with the ECG signals. They may be several hundred microvolts, but 50 microvolts peak-to-peak is the most typical.

10. A pattern of electrodes on the head and the channels they are connected to are __________
a) Amplifiers
b) Oscilloscope
c) Montage
d) Wires

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A pattern of electrodes on the head and the channels they are connected to is called a montage. Montages are always symmetrical. The reference electrode is generally placed on a nonactive site such as the forehead or earlobe.

11. Where is reference electrode placed?
a) nasal
b) cervical
c) forehead
d) facial

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A pattern of electrodes on the head and the channels they are connected to is called a montage. Montages are always symmetrical. The reference electrode is generally placed on a nonactive site such as the forehead or earlobe.

12. What is typical value of calibration signal?
a) 10 uV/cm
b) 30 uV/cm
c) 50 uV/cm
d) 70 uV/cm

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A calibrating signal is used for controlling and documenting the sensitivity of the amplifier channels. This supplies a voltage step of adequate amplitude to the input of the channels. A typical value of the calibration signal is 50 uV/cm.

13. Preamplifiers used in electroencephalograph have high gain and low noise characteristics.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Yes, preamplifier used in electroencephalographs must have high gain and low noise characteristics because the EEG potentials are small in amplitude. In addition, the amplifier must have very high common-mode rejection to minimise stray interference signals from power lines and other electrical equipments.

14. EEG machines have notch filter sharply tuned at _______ Hz as to eliminate mains frequency interference.
a) 10
b) 30
c) 50
d) 70

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] EEG machines have a notch filter sharply tuned at 50 Hz so as to eliminate mains frequency interference. These however have the undesirable property of ‘ringing’ i.e. they produce a damped oscillatory response to a square wave calibration waveform or a muscle potential. The use of notch filters should preferably be restricted to exceptional circumstances when all other methods of eliminating interference have been found to be ineffective.

15. What is typical frequency range of standard EEG machines?
a) 0.025 to 0.05 Hz
b) 0.05 to 0.1 Hz
c) 0.1 to 70 Hz
d) 70 to 140 Hz

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The typical frequency range of standard EEG machines is from 0.1 Hz to 70 Hz, though newer machines allow the detection and filtering of frequencies up to several hundred Hertz. This may be of importance in some intracranial recordings.

Set 2

1. Which of the following is the technique of analyzing the electrical activity of heart by obtaining ECG’s?
a) VCG
b) EEG
c) EMG
d) PCG

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Vectorcardiography is the technique of analyzing the electrical activity of the heart by obtaining ECG’s along three axes at right angles to one another and displaying any two of these ECGs as a vector display on an X-Y oscilloscope.

2. Vectorcardiogram displays the electrical events in __________perpendicular axes.
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In contrast, the electrocardiogram which displays the electrical potential in any one single axis, the vectorcardiogram displays the same electrical events simultaneously in two perpendicular axes.

3. ___________ is a vectorial representation of the distribution of electric potentials generated by heart.
a) EEG
b) ECG
c) PCG
d) VCG

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In contrast, the electrocardiogram which displays the electrical potential in any one single axis, the vectorcardiogram displays the same electrical events simultaneously in two perpendicular axes. This gives a vectorial representation of the distribution of electrical potentials generated by the heart, and produces loop type patterns on the CRT screen.

4. How many loops each vectorcardiogram exhibits?
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The major information that it provides is the direction of depolarization and repolarization of the atria and the ventricles. Each vectorcardiogram exhibits three loops, showing the vector orientation of the P wave, the QRSaxis and the T wave.

5. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the sounds connected with the
pumping action of the heart.
a) ECG
b) VCG
c) PCG
d) EEG

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The phonocardiograph is an instrument used for recording the sounds connected with the pumping action of the heart. These sounds provide an indication of the heart rate and its rhythmicity. They also give useful information regarding effectiveness of blood pumping and valve action.

6. Which instrument is used for clinical detection of heart sounds?
a) Stethoscope
b) Endoscope
c) Anoscope
d) Proctoscope

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heart sounds are diagnostically useful. Sounds produced by healthy hearts are remarkably identical and abnormal sounds always corelate to specific physical abnormalities. From the beginning till today, the principal instrument used for the clinical detection of heart sounds is the acoustical stethoscope.

7. Who provides a recording of waveforms of heart sounds?
a) Electrocardiograph
b) Vectorcardiograph
c) Phonocardiograph
d) Electromyograph

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The phonocardiographs provide a recording of the waveforms of the heart sounds. These waveforms are diagnostically more important and revealing than the sounds themselves.

8. What is the frequency range of sound generated from the closure of mitral and tricuspid valve?
a) 0 to 30 Hz
b) 30 to 100 Hz
c) 100 to 1000 Hz
d) above 1000 Hz

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The closure of the mitral and tricuspid valve contributes largely to the first sound. The frequencies of these sounds are generally in the range of 30 to 100 Hz and the duration is between 50 to 100 ms.

9. Which of the following microphone is used for recording phonocardiograms?
a) Contact Microphone
b) Shotgun Microphone
c) Handheld Microphone
d) Lapel Microphone

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Two types of microphones are commonly in use for recording phonocardiograms. They are the contact microphone and the air coupled microphone. They are further categorized into crystal type or dynamic type based on their principle of operation.

10. What is the frequency range of sound produced at the closure of aortic and pulmonic valves?
a) less than 0 Hz
b) 0 to 30 Hz
c) 30 to 100 Hz
d) above 100 Hz

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The second sound is higher in pitch than the first, with frequencies above 100 Hz and the duration between 25 to 50 ms. This sound is produced by the slight back flow of blood into the heart before the valves close and then by the closure of the valves in the arteries leading out of the ventricles. This means that it occurs at the closure of aortic and the pulmonic valves.

11. What is the thickness of new acoustic sensor?
a) 0.25 mm
b) 0.5 mm
c) 1.0 mm
d) 1.5 mm

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A new acoustic sensor, which enhances the audibility of heart sounds and enables recording of quantitative acoustic spectral data is described by Kassal et al, 1994. This device is a polymer based adherent differential-output sensor, which is only 1.0 mm thick.

12. Who described about new acoustic sensor?
a) Golden et al
b) Rijn et al
c) Levkov et al
d) Kassal et al

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A new acoustic sensor, which enhances the audibility of heart sounds and enables recording of quantitative acoustic spectral data is described by Kassal et al, 1994. This device is a polymer based adherent differential-output sensor, which is only 1.0 mm thick.

13. Acoustic sensor principal sensing component is made up of which polymer ?
a) PEO(Poly-ethylene oxide)
b) PET(Poly-ethylene tetraphthalate)
c) PVDF(Poly-vinylidene fluoride)
d) PS(Poly-styrene)

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Its principle sensing components is PVDF (poly-vinylidene fluoride), which is a piezo-electric polymer. It produces charges of equal magnitude and opposite polarity on opposite surfaces when a mechanical strain is imposed on the material.

14. What is the frequency range of amplifier used for a phonocardiograph?
a) less than 0 Hz
b) 0 to 20 Hz
c) 20 to 2000 Hz
d) above 2000 Hz

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The amplifier used for a phonocardiograph has wide bandwidth with a frequency range of about 20 to 2000 Hz. Filters permit selection of suitable frequency bands, so that particular heart sound frequencies can be recorded.

15. PCG amplifiers usually have gain compensation circuits to increase amplification of high frequency signals, which are usually of low intensity.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Yes, PCG amplifiers usually have gain compensation circuits to increase the amplification of high frequency signals, which are usually of low intensity. The frequencies at the higher end of the range are of particular significance in research applications.

Set 3

1. Which of the following parameter would provide information about nature of material?
a) Number of photons
b) Frequencies of photons
c) Number of atom
d) Molecules of atom

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The study of the frequencies of the photons which are absorbed would thus provide information about the nature of the material. Also, the number of photons absorbed may provide information about the number of atoms or molecules of the material present in a particular state. It thus provides us with a method to have a qualitative and quantitative analysis of a substance.

2. Molecules posses ____ types of internal energy.
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Molecules possess three types of internal energy—electronic, vibrational and rotational. When a molecule absorbs radiant energy, it can increase its internal energy in a variety of ways. The various molecular energy states are quantized and the amount of energy necessary to cause any change in any one of the above energy states would generally correspond to specific regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

3. Electronic transistions corresponds to _____ region.
a) near Infrared
b) infrared
c) gar Infrared
d) visible

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Electronic transitions correspond to the ultraviolet and visible regions, vibrational transitions to the near infrared and infrared regions and rotational transitions to the infrared and far-infrared regions. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as Absorption Spectroscopy.

4. Vibrational transistion correspond to ____ region.
a) ultarviolet
b) infrared
c) far Infrared
d) visible

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Electronic transitions correspond to the ultraviolet and visible regions, vibrational transitions to the near infrared and infrared regions and rotational transitions to the infrared and far-infrared regions. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as Absorption Spectroscopy.

5. Which of the following transistion is corresponded to far-infrared region?
a) Electronic
b) Vibrational
c) Rotational
d) Mechanical

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electronic transitions correspond to the ultraviolet and visible regions, vibrational transitions to the near infrared and infrared regions and rotational transitions to the infrared and far-infrared regions. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as Absorption Spectroscopy.

6. Which method is based on absorption of radiation of a substance?
a) Absorption Endoscopy
b) Absorption Spectroscopy
c) Absorption Arthroscopy
d)Absorption Colonoscopy

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Electronic transitions correspond to the ultraviolet and visible regions, vibrational transitions to the near infrared and infrared regions and rotational transitions to the infrared and far-infrared regions. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as Absorption Spectroscopy.

7. Spectrometric methods are speedy and sensitive.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True, The main advantages of spectrometric methods are speed,sensitivity to very small amounts of change and a relatively simple operational methodology. The time required for the actual measurement is very short and most of the analysis time, in fact, goes into preparation of the samples.

8. Which of the following component is used to provide a sufficient intensity of light which is suitable for making measurement in Spectrophotometer?
a) Optical system
b) Radiating source
c) Filtering Arrangement
d) Detecting system

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The function of the radiation source is to provide a sufficient intensity of light which is suitable for making a measurement. The most common and convenient source of light is the tungsten lamp. This lamp consists of a tungsten filament enclosed in a glass envelope. It is cheap, intense and reliable. A major portion of the energy emitted by a tungsten lamp is in the visible region and only about 15 to 20% is in the infrared region.

9. Which of the following radiating source is most common and convenient for use in spectrophotometer?
a) Carbon Arc Lamp
b) Mercury-vapor Lamp
c) Tungsten Lamp
d) Xenon Arc Lamp

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The function of the radiation source is to provide a sufficient intensity of light which is suitable for making a measurement. The most common and convenient source of light is the tungsten lamp. This lamp consists of a tungsten filament enclosed in a glass envelope. It is cheap, intense and reliable. A major portion of the energy emitted by a tungsten lamp is in the visible region and only about 15 to 20% is in the infrared region.

10. Deuterium arc lamp provides emission of high intensity and adequate continuity in the _____ nm range.
a) 0-90
b) 90-180
c) 190-380
d) 390-650

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Deuterium arc lamp provides emission of high intensity and adequate continuity in the 190–380 nm range. A quartz or silica envelope is necessary not only to provide a heat shield, but also to transmit the shorter wavelengths of the ultraviolet radiation. The limiting factor is normally the lower limit of atmospheric transmission at about 190 nm.

Set 4

1. Which system may include lenses, mirrors, slits, diaphragm etc?
a) Radiant system
b) Optical system
c) Cardiac system
d) Photo system

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An optical system for producing a parallel beam of filtered light for passage through an absorption cell (cuvette). The system may include lenses, mirrors, slits, diaphragm, etc. A detecting system for the measurement of unabsorbed radiant energy, which could be the human eye, a barrier-layer cell, phototube or photo-multiplier tube.

2. What is the most common and convenient source of light?
a) Xenon-mercury arc
b) Hydrogen discharge lamp
c) Neon-xenon arc
d) Tungsten lamp

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The most common and convenient source of light is the tungsten lamp. This lamp consists of a tungsten filament enclosed in a glass envelope. It is cheap, intense and reliable. A major portion of the energy emitted by a tungsten lamp is in the visible region and only about 15 to 20% is in the infrared region.

3. In the radiation source, for work in the ultraviolet region, a _______ is used.
a) Tungsten lamp
b) Xenon-mercury arc
c) Deuterium discharge lamp
d) Hydrogen arc

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] For work in the ultraviolet region, a hydrogen or deuterium discharge lamp is used. In these lamps, the envelope material of the lamp puts a limit on the smallest wavelength which can be transmitted.

4. What are the wavelengths of quartz and fused silica respectively in hydrogen discharge lamp?
a) 200 nm, 185 nm
b) 200 nm, 145 nm
c) 185 nm, 200 nm
d) 145 nm, 200 nm

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In these lamps, the envelope material of the lamp puts a limit on the smallest wavelength which can be transmitted. For example, quartz is suitable only up to 200 nm and fused silica up to 185 nm. The radiation from the discharge lamps is concentrated into narrow wavelength regions of emission lines. Practically, there is no emission beyond 400 nm in these lamps.

5. Modern instruments use ________ light source in calorimeters and spectrophotmetry.
a) Xenon-mercury lamp
b) Tungsten-halogen lamp
c) Mercury arc
d) Deuterium discharge lamp

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Modern instruments use a tungsten-halogen light source, which has a higher intensity output than the normal tungsten lamp in the change over region of 320–380 nm used in colorimetry and spectrophotometry. It also has a larger life and does not suffer from blackening of the bulb glass envelope.

6. The absorption type optical filter usually consists of coloured glasses, gelatin etc. and solutions of the coloured substances.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The absorption type optical filter usually consists of colour media: colour glasses, coloured films (gelatin, etc.), and solutions of the coloured substances. This type of filter has a wide spectral bandwidth, which may be 40 to 50 m in width at one-half the maximum transmittance.

7. Which of the following is the dielectric?
a) MgF3
b) ZnF2
c) ZnS
d) ZnF3

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Interference filters usually consist of two semi-transparent layers of silver, deposited on glass by evaporation in vacuum and separated by a layer of dielectric (ZnS or MgF2). In this arrangement, the semi-transparent layers are held very close.

8. The transmittance of interference filters varies between ________ % with a spectral bandwidth of 10 to 15 nm.
a) 15 to 20 %
b) 20 to 60 %
c) 10 to 20 %
d) 15 to 60 %

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Interference filters allow a much narrower band of wavelengths to pass and are similar to monochromators in selectivity. They are simpler and less expensive. However, as the selectivity increases, the transmittance decreases. The transmittance of these filters varies between 15 to 60 per cent with a spectral bandwidth of 10 to 15 nm.

9. The expression relating the wavelength of the radiation and the angle (q) at which it is reflected is given by _________
a) ml = 2d sin q, where l= lambda
b) m = 2d sin q
c) ml = d sin q, where l= lambda
d) m = d sin q

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The expression relating the wavelength of the radiation and the angle (q) at which it is reflected is given by ml = 2d sin q, where l= lambda. where d is the distance separating the grooves and is known as the grating constant and m is the order of interference. When m = 1, the spectrum is known as first order and with m = 2, the spectrum is known as second order.

10. _______ are optical systems, which provide better isolation of spectral energy than the
optical filters.
a) Spectromators
b) Monochromators
c) Tocochromators
d) Baromators

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Monochromators are optical systems, which provide better isolation of spectral energy than the optical filters, and are therefore preferred where it is required to isolate narrow bands of radiant energy. Monochromators usually incorporate a small glass of quartz prism or a diffraction grating system as the dispersing media.

Set 5

1. Which section of the clinical laboratory deals with determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells?
a) Chemistry
b) Haematology
c) Microbiology
d) Sample collection

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] There are three different areas within the clinical laboratory set up. These are: • Chemistry section deals with the analysis of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other fluids to determine the quantity of various important substances they contain. Most of the electronic instruments in the clinical laboratory are available in this section. • Haematology section deals with the determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells. • Microbiology section in which studies are performed on various body tissues and fluids to determine the presence of pathological micro-organisms.

2. What is the percentage of blood plasma and the blood cells respectively in blood volume?
a) 60, 40
b) 40, 60
c) 70, 30
d) 30, 70

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The liquid part of the blood—the blood plasma, and the formed elements—the blood cells are analyzed during a chemical examination. The blood plasma accounts for about 60% of the blood volume and the blood cells occupy the other 40%. The plasma is obtained by centrifuging a blood sample.

3. The plasma is a viscous, light yellow liquid, i.e. almost clear in the fasting stage.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The plasma is obtained by centrifuging a blood sample. During centrifugation, the heavy blood cells get packed at the bottom of the centrifuge tube and the plasma can thus be separated. The plasma is a viscous, light yellow liquid, i.e. almost clear in the fasting stage.

4. Which of the following method is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges?
a) Cardiotocography
b) Ultrasonic therapy
c) Spectrophotometry
d) Diathermy

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Spectrophotometry is the most important of all the instrumental methods of analysis in clinical chemistry. This method is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges.

5. Which of the following waves have short wave-length?
a) Microwave
b) Radio wave
c) Gamma rays
d) IR waves

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from very short wavelengths (including gamma and X-rays) to very long wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). The range of wavelength of gamma rays and X-rays is 10^(-4) to 10 nm. The range of wavelengths of microwaves and radio-waves is 10^6 to 10^9 nm.

6. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as?
a) Absorption photometry
b) Spectrophotometry
c) Absorption tocometry
d) Absorption spectrophotoscopy

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Electronic transitions correspond to the ultraviolet and visible regions, vibrational transitions to the near infrared and infrared regions and rotational transitions to the infrared and far-infrared regions. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as Absorption Spectroscopy.

7. What is the range of visible light of electromagnetic spectrum?
a) 380 to 780 mm
b) 780 to 1080 nm
c) 380 to 780 nm
d) 380 to 1080 nm

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The region in the electromagnetic spectrum which is normally used in spectroscopic work is very limited. Visible light represents only a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and generally covers a range from 380 to 780 nm. The ultraviolet region extends from 185 mm to the visible.

8. The ratio of the radiant power transmitted by a sample to the radiant power incident on the sample is known as ______
a) Absorbance
b) Transmittance
c) Optical density
d) Photometric concentration

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Let us suppose, Po is the incident radiant energy and P is the energy which is transmitted. The ratio of the radiant power transmitted by a sample to the radiant power incident on the sample is known as the transmittance. Transmittance = P/Po

9. If absorbance is plotted graphically against concentration, the graph is _________
a) Parabola
b) Increasing
c) Straight line
d) Decreasing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] If absorbance is plotted graphically against concentration, a straight line is obtained. A graph derived from the transmittance data will not be a straight line, unless transmittance (or per cent transmission) is plotted on the log axis of a semi-log paper.

10. Which of the following is not a source of radiant energy?
a) Tungsten-mercury lamp
b) Tungsten lamp
c) Xenon-mercury arc
d) Deuterium discharge lamp

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Radiant just means energy that can move from one place to another without a medium to carry it. A source of radiant energy, which may be a tungsten lamp, a xenon-mercury arc, hydrogen or deuterium discharge lamp, etc.