# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. What is slenderness ratio of a tension member?

a) ratio of its least radius of gyration to its unsupported length

b) ratio of its unsupported length to its least radius of gyration

c) ratio of its maximum radius of gyration to its unsupported length

d) ratio of its unsupported length to its maximum radius of gyration

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2. What is the maximum effective slenderness ratio for a tension member in which stress reversal occurs?

a) 180

b) 200

c) 280

d) 300

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3. What is the maximum effective slenderness ratio for a member subjected to compressive forces resulting only from combination of wind/earthquake actions?

a) 180

b) 200

c) 340

d) 250

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4. What is the maximum effective slenderness ratio for a member normally acting as a tie in roof truss or a bracing member?

a) 180

b) 200

c) 350

d) 400

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5. What is the maximum effective slenderness ratio for members always in tension?

a) 400

b) 200

c) 350

d) 150

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6. The limits specified for slenderness ratio are not

a) applicable to cables

b) applicable to angle sections

c) applicable to built-up sections

d) applicable to circular sections

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7. The displacement of tension member under service load is given by

a) PLEA_{g}

b) PLE/A_{g}

c) PL/EA_{g}

d) P/LEA_{g}

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_{g}, where Δ = Elongation of member in mm, P= unfactored axial load in N, L = length of member in mm, E = elastic modulus = 2×10

^{5}MPa, A

_{g}= gross cross sectional area of member in mm

^{2}.

8. What is gross section yielding?

a) considerable deformation of the member in longitudinal direction may take place before it fractures, making the structure unserviceable

b) considerable deformation of the member in longitudinal direction may take place before it fractures, making the structure serviceable

c) considerable deformation of the member in lateral direction may take place before it fractures, making the structure unserviceable

d) considerable deformation of the member in lateral direction may take place before it fractures, making the structure serviceable

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9. What is net section rupture failure?

a) rupture of member when the cross section reaches yield stress

b) rupture of member when the cross section reaches ultimate stress

c) rupture of member when the cross section reaches less value than yield stress

d) rupture of member when the cross section is reaches very less value than ultimate stress

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10. The tensile stress adjacent to hole will be ____________

a) about five times the average stress on the net area

b) about half the average stress on the net area

c) equal to average stress on the net area

d) about two to three times the average stress on the net area

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11. What is stress concentration factor?

a) ratio of average stress to maximum elastic stress

b) product of average stress and maximum elastic stress

c) ratio of maximum elastic stress to average stress

d) twice the average stress

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12. What is block shear failure?

a) failure of fasteners occurs along path involving tension on one plane and shear on perpendicular plane along fasteners

b) failure of member occurs along path involving tension on one plane and shear on perpendicular plane along fasteners

c) failure of member occurs along path involving tension on one plane and shear on parallel plane along fasteners

d) failure of fasteners occurs along path involving tension on one plane and shear on parallel plane along fasteners

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13. The possibility of block shear failure increases by

a) larger connection length

b) increasing the number of bolts per connection

c) with use of low strength bolts

d) with use of high bearing strength material

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## Set 2

1. Which of the following equation is correct for bolt subjected to combined shear and tension?

a) (V_{sb}/V_{db})2 + (T_{sb}/T_{db})2 ≤ 1

b) (V_{sb}/V_{db})2 + (T_{sb}/T_{db})2 ≥ 1

c) (V_{sb}/V_{db}) + (T_{sb}/T_{db}) ≤ 1

d) (V_{sb}/V_{db}) + (T_{sb}/T_{db}) ≥ 1

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_{sb}/V

_{db})2 + (T

_{sb}/T

_{db})2 ≤ 1 , where V

_{sb}= factored shear force, V

_{db}= design shear capacity, T

_{sb}= factored tensile force, T

_{db}= design tensile capacity.

2. Shear Capacity of HSFG bolts is

a) μ_{f}n_{e}k_{h}F_{o}

b) μ_{f}n_{e}k_{h}F_{o}γ_{mf}

c) μ_{f}n_{e}k_{ho}γ_{mf}

d) μ_{f}n_{e}k_{h}F_{o}/γ_{mf}

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_{f}n

_{e}k

_{h}F

_{o}/γ

_{mf}, where μ

_{f}= coefficient of friction(0.55), n

_{e}= number of frictional interfaces offering frictional resistance to slip, k

_{h}= 1 for fasteners in clearance holes, 0.85 for fasteners in over sized and short slotted holes, γ

_{mf}= 1.1 (slip resistance designed at service load), 1.25 (slip resistance designed at ultimate load), F

_{o}= minimum bolt tension = A

_{nb}f

_{0}, where A

_{nb}= net area of bolt, f

_{0}= 0.7fub , f

_{ub}= ultimate tensile stress of bolt.

3. The maximum number of bolts of diameter 25mm that can be accomodated in one row in 200mm wide flat are:

a) 2

b) 3

c) 4

d) 5

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4. Calculate strength in shear of 16mm diameter of bolt of grade 4.6 for lap joint

a) 50 kN

b) 40 kN

c) 29 kN

d) 59 kN

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^{2}=156.83mm

^{2}. Strength of bolt in shear = Anbfub/(√3 x 1.25) = 156.83x400x10

^{-3}/1.25x√3 = 28.97kN.

5. What is the value of kb in nominal bearing strength for a bolt of 20mm diameter of grade 4.6?

a) 0.5

b) 1

c) 0.97

d) 2

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_{0}= 33/(3×22) = 0.5, p/3d

_{0}-0.25 = 50/(3×22) -0.25=0.5, f

_{ub}/f

_{b}= 400/410=0.975 k

_{b}= minimum of (e/3d

_{0}, p/3d

_{0}-0.25, f

_{ub}/f

_{b}, 1) = 0.5.

6. Calculate bearing strength of 20mm diameter bolt of grade 4.6 for joining main plates of 10mm thick using cover plate of 8mm thick using single cover butt joint.

a) 70.26 kN

b) 109.82 kN

c) 50.18 kN

d) 29.56 kN

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_{0}= 27/(3×18) = 0.5, p/3d

_{0}-0.25 = 40/(3×18) -0.25=0.49, f

_{ub}/f

_{b}= 400/410=0.975 k

_{b}= minimum of (e/3d

_{0}, p/3d

_{0}-0.25, f

_{ub}/f

_{b},1) = 0.49 bearing strength = 2.5kbdtfu/1.25 = 2.5×0.49x16x8x400x10-3/1.25 = 50.18 kN.

7. Find the number of HSFG bolts of diameter 20mm, grade 88 for connection of member carrying factored tensile load of 200kN when no slip is permitted.

a) 5

b) 4

c) 3

d) 2

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_{o}=0.7f

_{ub}A

_{nb}=0.7x800x0.78x(π/4)x20

^{2}x10

^{-3}=137.22 kN Assume μ

_{f}=0.5, n

_{e}=1, k

_{h}=1 Slip resistance of bolt = μ

_{f}n

_{e}k

_{h}F

_{o}/1.25 = 0.5x1x1x137.22/1.25 =54.88 kN Number of bolts required = 200/54.88 = 3.64 = 4(approximately).

8. What is the efficiency of joint when strength of bolt per pitch length is 60kN and strength of plate per pitch length is 150kN?

a) 25%

b) 30%

c) 35%

d) 40%

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9. Strength of bolt is

a) minimum of shear strength and bearing capacity of bolt

b) maximum of shear strength and bearing capacity of bolt

c) shear strength of bolt

d) bearing capacity of bolt

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10. Prying forces are

a) friction forces

b) shear forced

c) tensile forces

d) bending forces

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## Set 3

1. What is static theorem ?

a) load must be greater than collapse load

b) load must be less than collapse load

c) load must be not equal to collapse load

d) load cannot be related to collapse load

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2. Which of the following is true about static theorem?

a) it represents upper limit to true ultimate load

b) it represents plastic load

c) it has minimum factor of safety

d) it satisfies equilibrium and yield conditions

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3. Which of the following condition is true for kinematic theorem?

a) load must be greater than collapse load

b) load must be less than collapse load

c) load must be not equal to collapse load

d) load cannot be related to collapse load

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4. Which of the following is true about kinematic theorem?

a) it represents lower limit to true ultimate load

b) it represents plastic load

c) it has small factor of safety

d) it satisfies equilibrium and yield conditions

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5. Which of the following condition is true for uniqueness theorem?

a) load must be greater than collapse load

b) load must be less than collapse load

c) load must be equal to collapse load

d) load cannot be related to collapse load

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6. Load is called as correct collapse load when

a) static theorem is not satisfied

b) kinematic theorem is not satisfied

c) only static theorem is satisfied

d) both static and kinematic theorem are satisfied

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7. Which of the following is true about kinematic analysis?

a) virtual work equations are not used to determine collapse load

b) virtual work equations are used to determine collapse load

c) equilibrium condition is assumed

d) plasticity condition is assumed

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8. The number of independent mechanism is related to number of possible plastic hinge locations by ________

a) n = h * r

b) n = h / r

c) n = h + r

d) n = h – r

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9. In static method of analysis, moment at any section is _______ plastic moment capacity.

a) greater than

b) two times

c) less than

d) three times

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10. Which of the following relation between load factor, collapse load(Wc) and working load (W)

a) F = W_{c} / W

b) F = W / W_{c}

c) F = W_{c} W

d) F = W_{c} + W

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_{c}/ W.

11. Which of the following is load factor for simply supported beam with central point load?

a) (f_{y}f_{bc})v

b) (f_{bc}/ f_{y})v

c) (f_{y}/f_{bc})v

d) (f_{y} + f_{bc})v

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_{bc}Z

_{e}, M

_{p}= W

_{c}L/4 = f

_{y}vZ

_{e}, where v is shape factor F = M

_{p}/M = W

_{c}/W = (f

_{y}/f

_{bc})v.

12. What is the value of load factor for I-section when f_{bc}= 0.66f_{y} and mean value of v is 0.14?

a) 1.727

b) 2.7

c) 1.56

d) 3.98

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_{y}/f

_{bc})v. F = (1/0.66) x 0.14 = 1.27.

## Set 4

1. Which of the following is the attribute of ideal column according to Euler?

a) material is non homogenous

b) material is isotropic

c) load does not act along centroidal axis

d) column ends are fixed

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2. Euler critical load for column with both the ends hinged is given by

a) P_{cr} = 2π^{2}EI/L^{2}

b) P_{cr}= π^{2}EIL^{2}

c) P_{cr} = 2π^{2}EIL^{2}

d) P_{cr} = π^{2}EI/L^{2}

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_{cr}= π

^{2}EI/L

^{2}, where E is elastic modulus of material, I is moment of inertia and L is length of column.

3. Which of the following is true?

a) increasing member length causes reduction in stiffness

b) decreasing member length causes reduction in stiffness

c) member with high stiffness will buckle early than that with low stiffness

d) stiffness of member is not influenced by amount and distribution of material in cross section of column

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4. Euler critical load for column with both the ends fixed is given by

a) P_{cr} = 2π^{2}EI/L^{2}

b) P_{cr} = π^{2}EIL^{2}

c) P_{cr} = 4π^{2}EI/L^{2}

d) P_{cr}= π^{2}EI/L^{2}

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_{cr}= 4π

^{2}EI/L

^{2}, where E is elastic modulus of material, I is moment of inertia and L is length of column, effective length of column in this case = 2L.

5. What is the relation between critical stress and slenderness ratio?

a) critical stress is directly proportional to slenderness ratio

b) critical stress is inversely proportional to slenderness ratio

c) critical stress is square of slenderness ratio

d) critical stress is cube of slenderness ratio

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_{cr}= P

_{cr}/Ag = π

^{2}E/λ

^{2}, critical stress is inversely proportional to slenderness ratio of column and very large values can be obtained by using L/r → 0 .

6. Why is built up section used?

a) to sustain seismic loads only

b) for aesthetic appearance

c) used when rolled section do not furnish required sectional area

d) for resisting bending moment

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7. The shear in column may not be due to

a) material used in column

b) lateral loads from wind

c) lateral loads from earthquake

d) end eccentricity of load

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8. Which of the following is not true?

a) function of lacing and battens is to hold main component members

b) tie plates are provided at top and bottom of column

c) lacing bars and batten plates are not designed as load carrying elements

d) lacing bars and batten plates are designed as load carrying elements

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9. Which of the following is true?

a) built up column lacings or battens are uneconomical if load carrying members permit greater reduction in weight than what is added by lacing or batten

b) built up column lacings or battens are economical if load carrying members permit greater reduction in weight than what is added by lacing or batten

c) no related shear stress force in plane of cross section

d) built up column designed as axially loaded column can never be eccentrically loaded

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10. The buckling strength of latticed column is ___________ that of solid column having ame area and same slenderness ratio

a) smaller than

b) greater than

c) equal to

d) cannot be compared

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11. Which of the following condition is not considered in design of built up column?

a) buckling of column as whole

b) failure of lattice member

c) material to be used for fabrication

d) buckling of component column

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## Set 5

1. The slenderness ratio of each member when placed back-to-back or separated by small distance shall be

a) greater than 40

b) not greater than 40

c) 0.8 times the slenderness ratio of column as a whole

d) greater than 50

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2. Minimum number of bolts for connecting end of strut is

a) 0

b) 3

c) 1

d) 2

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3. Which of the following is true?

a) when there is small spacing between the two sections placed back-to-back, washers and packing should be provided

b) when there is small spacing between the two sections placed back-to-back, washers and packing should not be provided

c) there should be additional connection in between along the length of member

d) when leg of angles greater than 125mm wide or web of channel is mm wide, minimum bolt is sufficient for connection

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4. Minimum diameter of bolt when member is less than 16mm thick is

a) 8

b) 10

c) 22

d) 20

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5. Which of the following is not true?

a) spacing of tack bolt should be less than 600mm

b) spacing of tack bolt should be greater than 600mm

c) if bolts are used, they should be spaced longitudinally at less than 4 times the bolt diameter

d) connection should extend at least 1.5 times the width of the member

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6. Members connected back-to-back connected by bolts should be

a) not be used

b) subjected to transverse loading in plane perpendicular to bolted surface

c) subjected to twice the transverse loading in plane perpendicular to bolted surface

d) not subjected to transverse loading in plane perpendicular to bolted surface

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7. For members placed back-to-back, the spacing of bolt should not exceed

a) 12t

b) 16t

c) 18t

d) 20t

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8. Longitudinal spacing between intermittent welds used for connection should be

a) greater than 18t

b) greater than 16t

c) not greater than 16t

d) equal to 18t