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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following problem is solved by reproducibility ?
a) Scalability
b) Data Availability
c) Improved Data Analysis
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] More transparency is achieved with reproducibility.

2. Point out the correct statement with respect to replication:
a) Focuses on the validity of the data analysis
b) Focuses on the validity of the scientific claim
c) Arguably a minimum standard for any scientific study
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Data replication if the same data is stored on multiple storage device.

3. Which of the following is effective way of checking validity of data analysis ?
a) Re-run the analysis
b) Review the code
c) Check the sensitivity
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Reproducibility addresses the most “downstream” aspect of the research process.

4. Which of the following is similar to a pre-specified clinical trial protocol ?
a) Caching-based Data Analysis
b) Evidence-based Data Analysis
c) Markdown-based Data Analysis
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Evidence-based Data Analysis a deterministic statistical machine.

5. Point out the wrong statement with respect to reproducibility:
a) Focuses on the validity of the data analysis
b) The ultimate standard for strengthening scientific evidence
c) Important when replication is impossible
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Replication is particularly important in studies that can impact broad policy or regulatory decisions.

6. Which of the following can be used for data analysis model ?
a) CRAN
b) CPAN
c) CTAN
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Different problems require different approaches and expertise.

7. Reproducibility determines correctness of data analysis.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Reproducibility has nothing to do with validity of data analysis.

8. Which of the following step is not required in data analysis ?
a) Synthesize results
b) Create reproducible code
c) Interpret results
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The data set may depend on your goal.

9. Which of the following gives reviewers an important tool without dramatically increasing the burden ?
a) Quality research
b) Replication research
c) Reproducible research
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Reproducible research is important, but does not necessarily solve the critical question of whether a data analysis is trustworthy.

10. Result Analysis are relatively easy to replicate or reproduce.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Complicated analyses should not be trusted.

Set 2

1. Which of the following is the probability calculus of beliefs, given that beliefs follow certain rules ?
a) Bayesian probability
b) Frequency probability
c) Frequency inference
d) Bayesian inference

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Data scientists tend to fall within shades of gray of these and various other schools of inference.

2. Point out the correct statement:
a) Bayesian inference is the use of Bayesian probability representation of beliefs to perform inference
b) NULL is the standard missing data marker used in S
c) Frequency inference is the use of Bayesian probability representation of beliefs to perform inference
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Frequency probability is the long run proportion of times an event occurs in independent, identically distributed repetitions.

3. Which of the following can be considered as random variable ?
a) The outcome from the roll of a die
b) The outcome of flip of a coin
c) The outcome of exam
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The probability distribution of a discrete random variable is a list of probabilities associated with each of its possible values.

4. Which of the following random variable that take on only a countable number of possibilities?
a) Discrete
b) Non Discrete
c) Continuous
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Continuous random variable can take any value on the some subset of the real line.

5. Point out the wrong statement:
a) A random variable is a numerical outcome of an experiment
b) There are three types of random variable
c) Continuous random variable can take any value on the real line
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] There are two types of random variable-continuous and discrete.

6. Which of the following is also referred to as random variable ?
a) stochast
b) aleatory
c) eliette
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Random variable is also known as stochastic variable.

7. Bayesian inference uses frequency interpretations of probabilities to control error rates.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Frequency inference uses frequency interpretations of probabilities to control error rates.

8. Which of the following condition should be satisfied by function for pmf ?
a) The sum of all of the possible values is 1
b) The sum of all of the possible values is 0
c) The sum of all of the possible values is infinite
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A probability mass function evaluated at a value corresponds to the probability that a random variable takes that value.

9. Which of the following function is associated with a continuous random variable ?
a) pdf
b) pmv
c) pmf
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] pdf stands for probability density function.

10. Statistical inference is the process of drawing formal conclusions from data.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Statistical inference requires navigating the set of assumptions and tools.

Set 3

1. Which of the following is suitable for knitr ?
a) Reports
b) Data preprocessing documents
c) Technical manuals
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] knitr has short technical documents.

2. Point out the correct combination related to output statements:
a) results: “asis”
b) echo: true
c) echo=false
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Global option relating to echo have values TRUE and FALSE.

3. Which of the following is required for not echoing the code ?
a) echo=TRUE
b) print=TRUE
c) echo=FALSE
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Code has to be written to set the global options.

4. Which of the following global options are available for figures in knitr ?
a) fig.height
b) fig.size
c) fig.breadth
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] fig.height has numeric value.

5. Which of the following global option has value “hide” ?
a) results
b) fig.width
c) echo
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Workflow R Markdown is a format for writing reproducible, dynamic reports with R.

6. Which of the following is correct order of conversion ?
a) .md->.Rmd->.html
b) .Rmd->.md->.html
c) .Rmd->.md->.xml
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] knitr converts markdown document in to html by default.

7. knitr is good for complex time-consuming computations.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] knitr is poor for complex time-consuming computations.

8. Which of the following statement is used for importing knitr library ?
a) library(knitr)
b) import knitr
c) lib(knitr)
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] knitr is not good for documents that require precise formatting.

9. The document produced by knitr document has following extension:
a) .md
b) .rmd
c) .html
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] knitr produces markdown document.

10. Code chunks begin with “`{r} and end with “`.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Code chunks can have names.

Set 4

1. The _________ of the Chi-squared distribution is twice the degrees of freedom.
a) variance
b) standard deviation
c) mode
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The mean of the Chi-squared is its degrees of freedom.

2. Point out the correct statement:
a) Asymptotics are incredibly useful for simple statistical inference and approximations
b) Asymptotics often lead to nice understanding of procedures
c) An estimator is consistent if it converges to what you want to estimate
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Consistency is neither necessary nor sufficient for one estimator to be better than another.

3. Gosset’s distribution is invented by which of the following scientist ?
a) William Gosset
b) William Gosling
c) Gosling Gosset
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Gosset’s distribution is indexed by a degrees of freedom.

4. The _________ of a collection of data is the joint density evaluated as a function of the parameters with the data fixed.
a) probability
b) likelihood
c) poisson distribution
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Likelihood analysis of data uses the likelihood to perform inference regarding the unknown parameter.

5. Point out the wrong statement:
a) Asymptotics generally give assurances about finite sample performance
b) The sample variance and the sample standard deviation are consistent as well
c) The sample mean and the sample variance are unbiased as well
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The kinds of asymptotics that do are orders of magnitude more difficult to work with.

6. Which of the following is a property of likelihood ?
a) Ratios of likelihood values measure the relative evidence of one value of the unknown parameter to another
b) Given a statistical model and observed data, all of the relevant information contained in the data regarding the unknown parameter is contained in the likelihood
c) The Resultant likelihood is multiplication of individual likelihood
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Likelihood is the hypothetical probability that an event that has already occurred would yield a specific outcome.

7. CLT is mostly useful as an approximation.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The CLT applies in an endless variety of settings.

8. The beta distribution is the default prior for parameters between :
a) 0 and 10
b) 1 and 2
c) 0 and 1
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Bayesian statistics posits a prior on the parameter of interest.

9. Which of the following mean is a mixture of the MLE and the prior mean ?
a) interior
b) exterior
c) posterior
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] MLE stands for maximum likelihood.

10. Usually replacing the standard error by its estimated value does change the CLT.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Usually replacing the standard error by its estimated value doesn’t change the CLT.

Set 5

1. What is the role of processing code in the research pipeline ?
a) Transforms the analytical results into figures and tables
b) Transforms the analytic data into measured data
c) Transforms the measured data into analytic data
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Data science work flow is a non-linear, iterative process.

2. Which of the following is a goal of literate statistical programming ?
a) Combine explanatory text and data analysis code in a single document
b) Ensure that data analysis documents are always exported in JPEG format
c) Require that data analysis summaries are always written in R
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Literate Statistical Practice is a programming methodology.

3. What does it mean to weave a literate statistical program ?
a) Convert a program from S to python
b) Convert the program into a human readable document
c) Convert a program to decompress it
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Literate Statistical Programming can be done with knitr.

4. Which of the following is required to implement a literate programming system ?
a) A programming language like Perl
b) A programming language like Java
c) A programming language like R
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics.

5. What is one way in which the knitr system differs from Sweave ?
a) knitr allows for the use of markdown instead of LaTeX
b) knitr is written in python instead of R
c) knitr lacks features like caching of code chunks
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] knitr is an engine for dynamic report generation with R.

6. Which of the following is useful way to put text, code, data, output all in one document ?
a) Literate statistical programming
b) Object Oriented programming
c) Descriptive programming
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Object-oriented programming is a programming language model organized around objects rather than “actions” and data rather than logic.

7. Some chunks have to be re-computed every time you re-knit the file.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] All chunks have to be re-computed every time you re-knit the file.

8. Which of the following tool can be used for integrating text and code in one document ?
a) knitr
b) ggplot2
c) NumPy
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] knitr is a way to write LaTeX, HTML, and Markdown with R code interlaced.

9. Which of the following should be set on chunk by chunk basis to store results of computation ?
a) cache=TRUE
b) cache=FALSE
c) caching=TRUE
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] After the first run.the results are loaded from cache.

10. Dependencies are checked explicitly in caching caveats.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Dependencies are not checked explicitly in caching caveats.

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