Multiple choice question for engineering
1. Off-flavor of milk that may be described as tasteless and the flavor of normal milk lacks in.
a) High acid
Answer: d [Reason:] A watery flavor is a kind of off flavor. Normal milk has a denser taste.
2. Flavor detected by consumption of strong feeds or weeds or milk from cows in late stages of lactation in milk.
Answer: c [Reason:] Strong feed or weed contributes towards the bitter off flavor in the milk.
3. Off-flavors are detected in milk when cows eat obnoxious weeds. The flavor can be recognized by distinctive odor and taste suggested by its name.
Answer: b [Reason:] obnoxious weeds contribute to garlic/onion off flavor in the milk. This off flavor is recognizable by a distinct smell and taste.
4. Off-flavor to milk due to fly spray, paint, kerosene or creosote. These Substances enter milk as direct contaminants or in vapor form.
Answer: b [Reason:] Foreign to milk caused by fly spray, paint, kerosene or creosote.
5. Off-flavor which is pungent in advanced stages and is recognized by its “papery” or cardboard sensation initially and a tallow odor in more advanced stages.
Answer: d [Reason:] Pungency is the characteristic of Oxidized flavor. It has a very distinct carboard sensation as well.
6. This flavor similar to the flavor of stale fat and has a soapy taste and a goaty, unclean odor as a result of breaking down of fats in milk.
Answer: d [Reason:] Due to breakdown of fats in milk rancid flavor resembles the flavor of stale fat and has a soapy taste and a goaty, unclean odor.
7. This off-flavor is rarely found except in pasteurized milk that has been stored too long or stored at a slightly high refrigerator temperature.
c) High acid
Answer: b [Reason:] Unclean flavor is characteristic of the milk which has been stored for prolonged period of time.
8. This off-flavor is a result of bacterial growth (commonly Streptococcus lactic) and will have detectable ________flavor long before it may be classified sour.
a) High acid
Answer: a [Reason:] Streptococcus lactic gives sour off flavor to milk. It initially has a very high acid flavor.
9. Milk inadequately cooled may encounter this off flavor and is caused by improperly cleaned milking machines or equipment.
Answer-: a [Reason:] Milk not properly cooled may encounter Malty flavor. Dirty and Unclean machines and equipment contribute to this flavor.
10. Removing offending _____ from cows four hours before milking can reduce the risk of getting this off-flavor milk.
Answer: c [Reason:] Feed plays a major role in flavor of milk. Offending feeds can result in off flavor.
11. A Mastitis test appearance with a strong gel formation that tends to adhere to paddle and forms a distinct central peak would have a Leukocyte count/ml of___________
a) Below 200,000
d) Over 5,000,000
Answer: d [Reason:] Milk having leukocyte count/ml of over 5,000,000 would be characterized by gel formations that tend to adhere to paddle. This milk is considered unfit for consumption.
12. While performing a CMT tests watch for color changes and gel formation. Milk from a normal quarter does which of the following?
a) Gelatinous mass clinging together in a strong reaction
b) Flows freely
c) Gel is fragile and forms small clumps in a moderate reaction
d) Has no pattern, simply is a randomly run test
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk from a normal quarter flows freely when performing a CMT tests.
1. Federal Definitions and Standards of Identity specify that Whole Milk contain not less than _____
a) 3.00 percent milk fat and 8.25 percent solids-not-fat
b) 3.50 percent milk fat and 8.50 percent solids-not-fat
c) 3.50 percent milk fat and 8.00 percent solids-not-fat
d) 3.25 percent milk fat and 8.25 percent solids-not-fat
Answer: d [Reason:] Standards of Identity for Dairy Products. This page contains the Standards of Identity for Milk and Cream, Cheese and Related Cheese Products, and Frozen Desserts that are listed in the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). It specifies that the whole milk should at least contain 3.25 percent milk fat and 8.25 percent solids-not-fat.
2. Cheddar cheeses sold in the United States, which are not made from pasteurized milk, must be ripened at least _________ days.
Answer: b [Reason:] Cheddar cheese gets its characteristic flavor by ripening. It should undergo a ripening period of minimum 60 days.
3. The establishment of a Federal milk marketing order is generally initiated by ________
a) Dairy farmers, through their cooperative association
b) Milk handlers in the market
d) Dairy farmers, milk handlers and consumers
Answer: d [Reason:] Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMOs) establish certain provisions under which dairy processors purchase fresh milk from dairy farmers supplying a marketing area. Federal orders serve to maintain stable marketing relationships for all handlers and producers supplying marketing areas, thus facilitating the complex process of marketing fresh milk.
4. A milk order, including pricing and other provisions, becomes effective only after approval by ____________
b) Dairy farmers
c) Milk processors
d) Secretary of Agriculture
Answer: b [Reason:] A milk order becomes effective only after the approval of dairy farmers. Milk order includes pricing and other provisions.
5. Federal milk marketing orders give _______ an active voice in determining minimum milk prices through public hearings.
a) Milk activists
b) Milk handlers
c) Milk processors
d) Milk consumers
Answer: b [Reason:] In Federal order provisions, dairy processors are referred to as handlers and dairy farmers are known as producers. Federal orders serve to maintain stable marketing relationships for all handlers and producers supplying marketing areas, thus facilitating the complex process of marketing fresh milk.
6. The rules States adopt to govern the production, processing, packaging and storage of Grade A milk are based on ________
a) The Code of Federal Regulations
b) The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Code
c) USDA Rules and Regulations
d) The Pure Milk Act of 1937
Answer: b [Reason:] The Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) is a set of minimum standards and requirements that are established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for regulating the production, processing and packaging of Grade A milk.
7. Flavors of milk may be caused in general by _______________
a) Water content of the milk
b) Temperature that milk is stored
c) Feeds consumed by the cow
d) Amount of sun light the cow receives
Answer: c [Reason:] Milk flavor is caused due to the feeds consumed by the cow. They might even result in off flavor development in the milk.
8. The major cause of the salty flavor in milk is ___________
a) The large intake of salt by the cow
b) Associated with sunlight exposure
Answer: c [Reason:] Salty of flavor in milk can be attributed to Mastitis. It is a off-flavor.
9. ___________ is a test for rancidity.
a) Acid degree value
c) Disc assay
d) Titratable acidity
Answer: a [Reason:] Acid degree value (ADV) as determined by the standard method, free fatty acid profile, and sensory analyses by a trained panel (n = 5) using magnitude estimation were used as measures of intensity of rancid flavor in milk. The correlation between ADV and rancidity scores was 0.13 (p = 0.16).
10. Mastitis in milk ____________
a) Has a direct effect on cheese yield
b) May cause increased rancidity
c) Decreases calcium content
d) Increases protein content
Answer: a [Reason:] Mastitis refers to milk disease in cows. It may have a direct effect on cheese yield.
11. Which of the following is not one of the duties of the bulk milk hauler, who plays a critical role in milk handling?
a) Checking milk temperature
b) Making sure equipment has been cleaned correctly
c) Examining milk to determine appearance
d) Collecting a representative sample to be used for tests
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk hauler is responsible for checking milk temperature. He is also held responsible for examining milk to determine appearance and collecting a representative sample to be used for test.
12. Milk with an Acid Degree Value (ADV) of 1.0 or above will have a detectable ______ flavor.
Answer: a [Reason:] Acid degree value (ADV) as determined by the standard method, free fatty acid profile, and sensory analyses by a trained panel (n = 5) using magnitude estimation were used as measures of intensity of rancid flavor in milk.
13. The four primary taste sensations are _____________________
a) Bitter, metallic, sour, sweet
b) Bitter, salt, sour, sweet
c) Metallic, salt, sour, sweet
d) Burnt, bitter, salt, sour
Answer: a [Reason:] Dating back to ancient Greece and China, the sensation of taste has historically been dominated by the four “basic tastes” of sweet, bitter, sour and salty.
14. Lactose is the principal ________ in milk.
Answer: c [Reason:] Lactose is a primary milk carbohydrate. The milk is the only source for this carbohydrate for body.
15. The most effective and economical means of reducing the exposure of cows to mastitis causing microorganisms is to _________.
a) Isolate animals with clinical mastitis
b) Disinfect or sterilize milking machine inflation’s between cows
c) Wear rubber or plastic gloves during milking and disinfect the gloves between cows
d) Use a bactericide for disinfecting the teats after milking
Answer: d [Reason:] Mastitis usually happens in nursing mothers when bacteria enter the breast through a cracked or sore nipple. This can cause an infection. Good breastfeeding techniques and use of bactericide for disinfecting the teats after milking can help prevent sore and cracked nipples that may lead to mastitis.
1. Most farm bulk milk tanks are designed for every-other-day (EOD) pickup and must cool 25 percent of the volume of the tank to ___ degrees F within two hours after milking.
Answer: b [Reason:] Bulk tanks are used for pickup. They should cool up to 25 percent the volume of the tank to 45 degree F within two hours prior to milking.
2. A consumer found an off-flavor in milk packaged in transparent plastic and exposed to high intensity fluorescent light. The off-flavor probably was?
a) High acid
d) Rancid (lipolyzed)
Answer: c [Reason:] Oxidized flavor may result due to exposure of milk to high fluorescent lighting. Such milk are more prone to this when packaged in transparent packaging material.
3. Which group of flavors cannot be detected by odor?
a) Bitter, salty
b) High acid, rancid
c) Feed, garlic/onion
d) Metallic/oxidized, malty
Answer: a [Reason:] Most of the flavors are detectable. However, Bitter and salty flavor can’t be detected by odor.
4. Milk used to make ice cream would be priced in what Federal Order class?
a) Class I
b) Class II
c) Class II
d) Class IV
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk of class II is used to make ice cream. Class II is the milk going into ‘soft’ manufactured products such as sour cream, cottage cheese, ice cream and yogurt.
5. _________ is the time after processing during which a dairy product normally remains suitable for human consumption.
a) Code date
b) Product life
c) Package date
d) Shelf date
Answer: d [Reason:] Sell-by date is the date in which your supermarket needs to stop selling that particular carton of milk. Shelf date specifies the time during which the product remains fit for consumption.
6. The off flavor most likely to be found in milk that has not been cooled properly is:
Answer: a [Reason:] Sour off flavor is found in improperly cooled milk. Hence cooling done properly is an important factor to avoid off flavor development.
7. The Babcock test is a rapid, simple and accurate test for:
a) Water in milk
b) Titratable acidity
c) Fat content
d) Nonfat milk solids content
Answer: c [Reason:] The Babcock test is the first inexpensive and practical test factories could use to determine the fat content of milk. It is a rapid, simple and accurate test.
8. To remove fat from milking equipment use:
a) Alkaline cleaner in hot water
b) Alkaline cleaner in cold water
c) Acid cleaner in cold water
d) Acid cleaner in hot water
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk has high amount of fat. Such fat needs to be cleaned. Alkaline cleaner in hot waters helps to remove fat from milking equipments.
9. Quality of grade A milk is:
a) Not controlled by Federal Orders
b) The first consideration in pooling milk
c) The part of the testing by Market Administrators
d) Only checked if there is excess milk
Answer: a [Reason:] Grade A milk, also called fluid grade milk, refers to milk produced under sufficiently sanitary conditions to qualify for fluid (beverage) consumption. Only Grade A milk is regulated under not federal milk marketing orders.
10. Federal Milk Marketing Orders provide or describe:
a) Sanitary standards used for grade A
b) Milk purchased by dealers
c) Milk sold by farmers
d) Payment made to milk producers for milk
Answer: d [Reason:] Federal milk marketing order is a association. It helps to provide or describe payment made to milk producers for milk.
11. It takes approximately _______ lbs. of whole milk to make one pound of whole milk cheddar cheese.
Answer: b [Reason:] Cheddar cheese is a unique variety of cheese. Approximately 10lbs whole milk is utilized to make 1 pound of cheddar cheese.
12. Federal Milk Marketing Orders are a mechanism for?
a) The most economical utilization of milk
b) Finding a market for every producer’s milk
c) Economical transportation of milk
d) Market stabilization
Answer: d [Reason:] Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMOs) establish certain provisions under which dairy processors purchase fresh milk from dairy farmers supplying a marketing area. They help in market stabilization.
13. Cow’s milk contains _____ percent lactose.
Answer: c [Reason:] Lactose is an important milk carbohydrate. Milk contains 5% lactose.
14. For the maximum intake of calcium, one should consume_______
a) Whole Milk
b) 2% Milk
c) 1% Milk
d) Skim Milk
Answer: d [Reason:] Calcium is an essential component to maintain bone health in the body. For maximum intake of calcium it is advised to have skim milk.
15. While some extra-label drugs can be used by food-producing animals, others cannot. Which of the following is/are an illegal drug(s)?
Answer: a [Reason:] Clenbuterol, also called “clen,” is considered a performance-enhancing drug and is banned in most athletic competitions. Because of this, some athletes who test positive for clenbuterol often claim they must have eaten contaminated meat, thus this drug is banned.
1. Tests for proper pasteurization are based on the activity of which enzyme?
Answer: c [Reason:] Phosphatase is an enzyme which is naturally present in milk, but is destroyed at a temperature just near to the pasteurization temperature. Alkaline Phosphatase test is used to indicate whether milk has been adequately pasteurised or whether it has been contaminated with raw milk after pasteurization.
2. Starch is split by which enzyme?
Answer: b [Reason:] Diastase is an enzyme group that is originally found in malt and it is produced when the germination of the seeds happens. Diastase converts starch into maltose and after that it converts it this into glucose.
3. What is freezing point of milk?
a) 0 °C
b) -0.55 °C
c) -1 °C
d) -1.55 °C
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk that has been watered down contains more water and less solutes, so its freezing point is closer to 0 °C. Most milk processors will conclude that milk has been watered down if the freezing point is anywhere above -0.55 °C.
4. What is the average boiling point of milk?
a) 100-101 °C
b) 105-110 °C
c) 115-117 °C
d) 102-105 °C
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk is a mix of butter fat and water so it is slightly heavier than water. The boiling points of liquids are due to the gravity of the liquid. Milk boils at 100-101 °C.
5. What is the average specific gravity of normal whole milk at 16 °C?
Answer: b [Reason:] The specific gravity of milk measured at 15oC or 20oC is normally 1.028 – 1,033 kg/litre. The specific gravity depends on the protein and fat content. The specific gravity of fat is 0.93, solids-non-fat, 1.6 and water 1.0 kg/litre.
6. Which is the pre-dominating organism in dirty utensils of milk?
a) Lactobacillus bulgaricus
c) Streptococcus lactis
Answer: c [Reason:] Streptococcus lactis, Members of the Lactococcus genus (lactis, milk; milk cocci) are facultatively anaerobic, catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains. They are extensively found in dirty milk utensils.
7. Energy value of a food is measured in terms of?
Answer: d [Reason:] Energy value calculation uses a single factor for each of the energy-yielding substrates (protein, fat, and carbohydrate), regardless of the food in which it is found. The energy values are 37 kJ/g (9.0 kcal/g) for fat, 17 kJ/g (4.0 kcal/g) for protein, and 17 kJ/g (4.0 kcal/g) for carbohydrates.
8. Legal butter must contain at least what percentage of fat?
a) 70 %
b) 80 %
c) 90 %
d) 95 %
Answer: b [Reason:] Butter must contain at least 80% butterfat. In practice, most American butters contain slightly more than that, averaging around 81% butterfat.
9. The high nutritive value of cheese is due to which of the following?
a) High mineral contents
b) High protein contents
c) Taste & flavor
Answer: b [Reason:] Cheese has been an important part of the human diet, both as a dietary staple and a gourmet food. In addition to being delicious, it is highly nutritious and very rich in several vitamins and minerals.
10. Food value of ice cream depends to a large extent on its?
Answer: c [Reason:] The food value of a particular food measures of how good it is for you, based on its level of vitamins, minerals, or calories. Ice cream’s food value depends on its composition.
11. Chlorine compounds have widespread acceptance in the dairy industry due to?
b) High sanitizing efficiency
c) High corrosiveness
d) Oxidative properties
Answer: b [Reason:] Sanitization is one of the important aspects of dairy industry. Chlorine is an highly efficient sanitizing agent.
12. At what concentration chlorine sanitizing solutions are usually used in the dairy industry?
a) 50-100 ppm
b) 100-200 ppm
c) 200-500 ppm
d) 500-800 ppm
Answer: c [Reason:] It is important to prepare the sanitizing solution accurately to ensure that the concentration is in optimum range for optimal results. Chlorine sanitizing solution to be effective is used at the concentration of 200-500 ppm.
13. The process of raising or lowering the percent of fat in milk or cream to a desired standard is called?
Answer: c [Reason:] Standardization of milk refers to the adjustment which means raising or lowering of fat and solids not fat levels of milk. It is simply the process of adjusting the fat content of milk.
14. A product consisting of a mixture of milk and cream which contains not less than 10.5% milk fat is called?
a) Concentrated Milk
b) Low Fat Milk
c) Half-and –Half
Answer: c [Reason:] Half and half is simplyhalf whole milk and half cream. Its butterfat content is usually 12.5%. but never less than 10.5%.
15. Butter milk is a fluid product resulting from the manufacture of?
c) Ice cream
Answer: d [Reason:] Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream.
1. Kingdom protista includes organisms like:
a) Euglena, Spirogyra and Penicillium
b) Amoeba, Spirogyra and Penicillium
c) Amoeba, Euglena and Penicillium
d) Amoeba, Euglena and Diatoms
Answer: d [Reason:] A protista is a group which include eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant or fungus. Protista kingdom includes Amoeba, Euglena and Diatoms.
2. Bioluminescence is exhibited by:
Answer: d [Reason:] Bioluminescence is the phenomenon of production and emission of light by a living organism. Ceratium exhibits Bioluminescence.
3. Protista differs from monera in having:
a) Cell wall
b) Nuclear membrane
d) Autotropic nutrition
Answer: b [Reason:] Monera is a kingdom which contained unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization example Bacteria. Protista has a Nuclear membrane as opposed to monera which lacks it.
4. Single celled eukaryotes are include in:
Answer: d [Reason:] The single celled eukaryotes are classified under the kingdom “PROTISTA”. It is a being a paraphyletic group. They are first eukaryotes, having a well organized nucleus and complex membranous organelles.
5. The slime moulds are characterized by the presence of:
Answer: c [Reason:] Slime molds have pseudo elaters. The result is one large bag of cytoplasm with many diploid nuclei.
6. Which of the following is not a character of protista?
a) Protista are prokaryotic
b) Body organization is cellular
c) Some protists have cell walls
d) Membrane bound organelles are present in cells
Answer: a [Reason:] All single celled organisms are placed under the Kingdom Protista. Protista are thus prokaryotic.
7. Red tide is caused by:
d) Noctiluca, Gonyaulax and Gymnodinium
Answer: d [Reason:] Red tide is caused by algal blooms during which algae become so numerous that they discolor coastal waters. It is caused by Noctiluca, Gonyaulax and Gymnodinium.
8. Which of the following combination of characters is true for slime moulds?
a) Parasitic, Plasmodium with true walls, spores dispersed by air currents
b) Saprophytic, Plasmodium without walls, spores dispersed by water
c) Parasitic, Plasmodium without walls, spores dispersed by water
d) Saprophytic, Plasmodium without walls, spores dispersed by air currents
Answer: d [Reason:] Slime mold is a soil-dwelling amoeba. It is a brainless, single-celled organism, often containing multiple nuclei. Out of the above options “Saprophytic, Plasmodium without walls, spores dispersed by air currents” is correct.
9. Kingdom protista includes:
a) Life cycle showing sporic meiosis
b) Life cycle showing gametic meiosis
c) Life cycle showing zygotic meiosis
d) Life cycle showing zygotic meiosis and gametic meiosis
Answer: d [Reason:] Zygotic Meiosis is the process in which organism spends most of its life cycle in haploid condition. In gametic meiosis the organism spends most of its life cycle in the 2n condition. Kingdom protista shows boths zygotic meiosis and gametic meiosis.
10. In diatoms, auxospores help in:
b) Spore formation
Answer: c [Reason:] Auxospores play a role in sexual reproduction or dormancy. They have no effect on metabolism.
11. The chief type of spoilage in sweetened condensed milk may not be:
a) Gas formation by sucrose fermenting yeast
b) Thickening caused by micrococci
c) Molds colonies growing on surface
d) Cleaning in Place
Answer: d [Reason:] Gas formation by sucrose fermenting yeast is a kind of spoilage indicator in sweetened condensed milk. Thickening caused by micrococci and molds colonies growing on surface are also spoilage indicator in sweetened condensed milk.
12. Blue Cheese mold is :
a) Penicillium roqueforti
b) Stachybotrys chartarum
c) Aspergillus niger
d) Penicillium camemberti
Answer: a [Reason:] The genus Penicillium is one of the most common types of mould.The Blue-cheese mold is called Penicillium roqueforti.
13. Camembert mold is:
a) Penicillium roqueforti
b) Stachybotrys chartarum
c) Aspergillus niger
d) Penicillium camemberti
Answer: d [Reason:] Penicillium due to their powerful protein and fat splitting properties make them the chief agents in the ripening of Blue cheese, Camembert, etc. the Camembert mold is Penicillium camemberti.
14. Milk mold is also called:
a) Penicillium roqueforti
b) Stachybotrys chartarum
c) Geotrichum candidum
d) Penicillium camemberti
Answer: c [Reason:] The milk mould Geotrichum candidum is on the borderline between yeast and mould. The mold occurs on the surface of cultured milk as a fine, white velvety coating.
15. Which of the following is due to molds?
c) Discoloration and off-flavor
Answer: c [Reason:] Molds on the surfaces of cheese and butter can cause discoloration and also give the product an off-flavor. Strict hygiene is necessary in the dairy in order to prevent products from being affected by moulds during processing.