Multiple choice question for engineering
1. The national average milk production per cow in the U.S. is approximately _________ pounds per year.
Answer: c [Reason:] NASS generates the report for national average milk production per cow in US every year. It is approximately 20,500 pounds per year.
2. Nearly ________% of the U.S. milk supply is used in the production of cheese.
Answer: d [Reason:] Cheese is a product made by milk. Cheese requires 40% of milk supply.
3. Fluid milk accounts for ______% of the U.S. milk supply.
Answer: a [Reason:] Fluid milk dominates the dairy market. It accounts for 15% of Total dairy supply.
4. The top ten states in the U.S. now account for about ______% of the total milk supply.
Answer: d [Reason:] In USA top ten state accounts for almost 75% of the total milk supply. The rest is covered by other cities.
5. The leading state in total milk production is?
d) New York
Answer: c [Reason:] Milk production is high in several states. However the highest among the all is California.
6. Which fluid milk product accounted for the largest use of fluid milk production sales?
a) Flavored milk
b) Reduced/low-fat milk
c) Non-fat milk
d) Whole milk
Answer: b [Reason:] Fluid milk accounts for several products. Reduced/Low fat milk is accounted for the largest use of fluid milk production sales.
7. Ice cream, including both hard and soft serves, represents _______% of the entire frozen dairy product market.
Answer: b [Reason:] Ice cream can be categories into hard serve and soft serve. Both these categories together contribute about 25-26% of entire frozen dairy.
8. Which month during the year is the highest production month for ice cream?
Answer: c [Reason:] Ice cream is consumed in all the season. It is a popular product in summer. The highest ice cream product is in the month of June.
9. California is the leading state in production of ice cream, which state was second?
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk production is high in several states. However the highest among the all is California. The second highest production is in Indiana.
10. Which of the following states listed is NOT in the top five for production of cheese?
d) New York
Answer: d [Reason:] Top Five states for cheese production are Idaho, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California and Indiana.
11. The top five state in the production of cheese accounted for almost _______% of all U.S. cheese production.
Answer: d [Reason:] Cheese has high consumption in US market. Top 5 cheese producing states accounts for almost 69% of total cheese production.
12. The largest production of Italian cheese went to the production of _____________ cheese.
Answer: c [Reason:] Mozzarella is a traditionally southern Italian dairy product made from Italian buffalo’s milk. It has the largest production among Italian cheese.
13. Which one of the following “selected dairy products” has the greatest production in the U.S.?
a) Non-fat dry milk
d) Evaporated milk
Answer: c [Reason:] Among the above option the largest production is reported to be of Yogurt. It is also consumed as frozen dessert.
14. The pound per capita of reduced and low-fat milk was _______ pounds/year.
Answer: d [Reason:] Now days due to health concerns many people consider taking reduced or low fat milk. The pound per capita of this category of milk is about 85 pounds/year.
15. The largest increase per capita in all dairy products in 2009 was?
c) Low-fat milk
d) Ice cream
Answer: b [Reason:] Yogurt showed a tremendous increase per capita in all dairy products in 2009. It also has a high consumption rate.
1. Farm marketing cooperatives have been in existence since the early?
Answer: a [Reason:] An agricultural cooperative, also known as a farmers’ co-op, is a cooperative where farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity. They have been into existence since 1800.
2. Federal Milk Marketing Orders affect prices consumers pay for fresh milk in grocery stores by?
a) Adjusting them according to demand
b) Adjusting them according to supply
c) Leaving them to be determined in the marketplace
d) Setting them only once yearly
Answer: c [Reason:] Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMOs) establish certain provisions under which dairy processors purchase fresh milk from dairy farmers supplying a marketing area. These order leave the price determination to market hence affect effect prices consumer pay for fresh milk.
3. What percent of exported U.S. dairy products are sold without a subsidy?
a) 0 %
b) 50 %
c) 80 %
d) 95 %
Answer: d [Reason:] US dairy products are exported in large quantities. These exported products, about 5% have subsidy whereas the rest are exported without any subsidy.
4. Dairy farmers receive what percent of the sale of a half-gallon of milk?
a) 46 %
b) 15 %
c) 26 %
d) 96 %
Answer: c [Reason:] Dairy farmers receive prices based on the sale. They receive 26% of the prce of sale of a half-gallon of milk.
5. Demand for dairy products is typically the lowest in?
Answer: b [Reason:] Dairy products sales dips in winter whereas, it goes high in summer especially de to increased ice cream intake.
6. What percent of today’s youth consume the recommended amount of dairy products?
Answer: b [Reason:] Dairy products are recommended for the body nutrition. Today’s youth just consumes 30% of the recommended intake of dairy products.
7. Milk that is used to make butter is classified as which class in Federal Orders?
a) Class I
b) Class II
c) Class III
d) Class IV
Answer: d [Reason:] Milk is classified into 4 classes according to federal milk marketing orders. Out of these four classes class IV milk is utilized in the making of butter.
8. Milk prices on average are the lowest in?
Answer: c [Reason:] Milk sales go down in winter. Yet the Milk prices average are recorded to be in spring.
9. The Federal Orders of today are based on the Agricultural Agreement Act of?
Answer: c [Reason:] Marketing agreements may contain more diversified provisions, but are enforceable only against those handlers who enter into the agreement. The AMAA was a piece of New Deal era legislation implemented for price stability and essential marketing functions in response to economic pressure faced by small farmers in the 1920s.
10. The practice that distributes payments for milk among the producers within a specific Federal Milk Marketing Order is called?
a) Pool pricing
b) Classified pricing
c) Support pricing
d) Differential pricing
Answer: a [Reason:] A milk pool is a financial pooling system used by dairy farmers to ensure that all dairy producers receive similar per-gallon payments for their product at or above a legally regulated minimum.
11. What piece of legislation made farmer cooperatives legal?
a) Sherman Act
b) Capper-Volstead Act
c) Farm Bill
d) Barkley Act
Answer: b [Reason:] Capper–Volstead Act, the Co-operative Marketing Associations Act was adopted by the United States Congress on February 18, 1922. It gave “associations” of persons producing agricultural products certain exemptions from antitrust laws.
12. To be labeled made with organic ingredients a dairy product must contain _________ percent or more organic ingredients.
Answer: d [Reason:] Processed products that contain at least 70 percent organic ingredients can use the phrase “made with organic ingredients” and list up to three of the organic ingredients or food groups on the principal display panel.
13. The reason that testing of milk is done in laboratories of the USDA Milk Market Orders is?
a) To assure safety of the supply
b) To provide an accurate accounting for amounts of milk solids sold in the order
c) To make sure food and drug law is followed
d) To provide data for the US Statistical Reporting Service
Answer: b [Reason:] In order to provide accurate accounting for amounts of milk solids sold in the order testing of milk is done in laboratories of the USDA Milk Market Orders.
14. Milk traits, i.e. fat, protein, SNF, and etc), tend to have a heritability of about __________
a) Less than 10%
d) More than 50%
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk traits are heritable from one generation to another. The heritability in milk traits accounts to be 20-30%.
15. Cows treated with BST typically show an increase of __________ in daily milk production.
Answer: b [Reason:] Bovine somatotropin or bovine somatotrophin (abbreviated bST and BST), or bovine growth hormone (BGH), is a peptide hormone produced by cows’ pituitary glands. Like other hormones, it is produced in small quantities and is used in regulating metabolic processes. It increases the milk production about 10%.
1. What does NMPF stand for?
a) Northern Milk Producers Formulation
b) Never marry poor farmers
c) National Milk Producers Federation
d) National Milk Protein Foundation
Answer: c [Reason:] NMPF (National Milk Producers Federation) is a national milk marketing cooperative in the United States. It is owned by and serves nearly 15,000 dairy farmer-members representing more than 9,000 dairy farms in 48 states.
2. What does NFO stand for?
a) National Feed Organization
b) National Farmers Order
c) National Farmers Organization
d) National Flea Optimist
Answer: c [Reason:] The National Farmers Organization (NFO) is a producer movement when it was founded in the United States in 1955. Notoriety came in 1967 when it organized milk farmers to engage in a holding action to improve the price of milk paid to producers.
3. Who is the current U.S. Secretary of Agriculture?
a) Ann Veneman
b) Mike Johanns
c) Dan Glickman
d) Buddy L. Winny
Answer: b [Reason:] Mike Johanns Former Secretary of Agriculture www.usda.gov. Mike Johanns was sworn in as the 28th Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
4. What is the BFP?
a) Basic Formula Preparation
b) Basic Formula Price
c) Barely Feasible Profit
d) Butter Fat Price
Answer: b [Reason:] BFP is the Basic Formula Price. Federal milk marketing orders use the BFP as the mover for the price structure of regulated milk.
5. What percentage of whole milk is fat when compared on a dry matter basis?
a) About 10 percent
b) About 50 percent
c) About 25 percent
d) Exactly 100 percent
Answer: c [Reason:] Whole milk can be divided as fat and dry matter. Fat is almost 25% of milk when compared on a dry matter basis.
6. In a study of milk parlors conducted by researchers at the University of Florida, how did parallels perform when compared to herringbones?
a) They were twice as slow
b) Parallels out performed herringbones by nearly 8 percent
c) They performed the same
d) Herringbones out performed parallels by nearly 8 percent
Answer: b [Reason:] There was a study conducted for milk parlor in University of florida. The results concluded that parallels out performed herringbones by nearly 8 percent.
7. What is GATT?
a) General Alien Tariff and Trade
b) General Agricultural Tariffs and Trades
c) General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs
d) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Answer: d [Reason:] General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
8. What does NFDM stand for?
a) Nonfat Dry Milk
b) No Fun Dairy Mandate
c) Nonfat Dairy Milk
d) National Forum of Dairy Milkers
Answer: a [Reason:] Nonfat dry milk and skimmed milk powder are very similar but are defined by two different sets of regulations and authorities. Both contain 5% or less moisture (by weight) and 1.5% or less milkfat (by weight). The difference is that skimmed milk powder has a minimum milk protein content of 34%, whereas nonfat dry milk has no standardized protein level.
9. What is the CCC?
a) Caring Cats Corporation
b) Commodity Credit Corporation
c) Cow Chemistry Center
d) Crazy Cow Corporation
Answer: b [Reason:] The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is a Government-owned and operated entity that was created to stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices. CCC also helps maintain balanced and adequate supplies of agricultural commodities and aids in their orderly distribution.
10. What is the USDEC?
a) United States Dairy Export Corporation
b) United States Dairy Export Center
c) United States Dairy Export Company
d) United States Dairy Export Council
Answer: d [Reason:] The U.S. Dairy Export Council (USDEC) is a organization which is non-profit, independent and that represents the global trade interests of U.S. dairy producers, proprietary processors and cooperatives, ingredient suppliers and export traders. Dairy Management Inc. founded USDEC in 1995 and, through the dairy check off program, is the organization’s primary funder.
11. When using a body condition scoring system of 1 to 5, what does a score of 5 represent?
a) Extremely thin
b) Average body condition
c) Extremely fat
d) Below average body condition
Answer: c [Reason:] This system concentrates its accuracy toward the mid-range scores (2.50 to 4.00), which includes most cows. This mid-range is the most critical for making management decisions. Scores of 1.00 denotes a very thin cow, while 5.00 indicates an excessively fat cow.
12. What is the FAS?
a) Finland Agriculture Service
b) Final Agriculture Service
c) Foreign Agricultural Service
d) Food and Agriculture Society
Answer: c [Reason:] The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is the foreign affairs agency with primary responsibility for the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) overseas programs—market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information.
13. What are ways to avoid milk fever in cows?
a) Feed low-potassium hay and/or silage to dry cows
b) Adding anionic salts to the dry cow ration
c) Fasting dry cows two weeks before calving
d) Both Feed low-potassium hay and/or silage to dry cows and Adding anionic salts to the dry cow ration
Answer: d [Reason:] Management of the diet can be a valuable aid preventing milk fever. Cows should be kept on a low calcium diet while they are lactating (dry). Both Feed low-potassium hay and/or silage to dry cows and Adding anionic salts to the dry cow ration can help in prevention of cow fever.
14. What should the pH of a close up Holstein’s urine be?
a) Between 1.0 and 2.0
b) Between 2.0 and 3.0
c) Between 6.0 and 6.5
d) Between 12.0 and 13.0
Answer: c [Reason:] For Holstein lactating cow urine pHs within a range of 6 to 6.5 should be recorded.
15. When feeding close-up cows a calcium deficient diet, which gland experience stimulation?
b) Parathyroid gland
d) Mammary gland
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk fever, postparturient hypocalcemia, or parturient paresis is a disease, primarily in dairy cattle, but also seen in beef cattle, characterized by reduced blood calcium levels.
1. After centrifugation when sublimate settles, clear liquid_____________
a) can be allowed to rest
b) can be allowed to form crystals
c) can be decanted off
d) can be evaporated
Answer: c [Reason:] Centrifugation separates sublimate and whey. Once the sublimate settles after centrifugation, clear liquid can be decanted off.
2. After centrifugation, sublimate ______
a) dissolves completely
b) remain suspended in liquid
c) settles at bottom
d) depends upon pH of sublimate
Answer: c [Reason:] These particles can sediment at the bottom of the tube into what’s known as a pellet, and this isolated specimen, or the remaining solution, the supernatant, can be further processed or analyzed.
3. Which of the following is an effective way of purifying liquids containing suspensions?
d) separating funnel
Answer: c [Reason:] A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation .Liquids containing suspension can be purified using centrifugation.
4. Fine insoluble solid particles can be removed through which of the following process?
d) separating funnel
Answer: c [Reason:] Decantation is a process for the separation of mixtures, by removing a layer of liquid, generally one from which a precipitate has settled. Centrifugation helps in removal of fine insoluble particles in a solution.
5. Process quicker than filtration but not so effective is
d) fractional distillation
Answer: a [Reason:] Decanting is a process to separate mixtures. Decanting is just allowing a mixture of solid and liquid or two immiscible liquids to settle and separate by gravity. This process can be slow and tedious without the aid of a centrifuge.
6. Differential centrifugation relies on the differences in ______ of biological particles of different ___________
a) Size, density
b) Sedimentation rate, sizes and density
c) Size, structure
d) Mass, size
Answer: b [Reason:] Differential centrifugation is a process which is used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells. Differential centrifugation is a process based on the differences in the sedimentation rate of biological particles of different sizes and density.
7. Which of the following statements about the basic principle of sedimentation is False?
a) The denser a biological structure is, the faster it sediments in a centrifugal field.
b) The more massive a biological particle is, the slower it moves in a centrifugal field
c) The denser the buffer system is, the slower the particle will move in a centrifugal field
d) The greater the centrifugal force is, the faster the particle sediments
Answer: b [Reason:] Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained, and come to rest against a barrier. The statement is false because the more massive a biological particle is, the faster it moves in a centrifugal field.
8. Which of the following is/are the application of analytical centrifugation?
I. The determination of the purity of macromolecules.
II. The determination of the relative molecular masses of solutes in their native state.
III. The examination of changes in the molecular mass of supramolecular complexes.
IV. The detection of conformational changes.
a) I only
b) I and II only
c) I,II and III only
d) I, II, III and IV
Answer: d [Reason:] Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a versatile and powerful method for the quantitative analysis of macromolecules in solution. All of these are application of analytical centrifugation.
9. Which of the following is/are appropriate care and maintenance of centrifuges?
I. Proper balancing of centrifuge tubes.
II. Avoid long time exposure of the rotors to alkaline solution and acidic buffers.
III. Cleaning centrifuges and rotors with coarse brushes and then wash them with distilled or de-ionized water after every run.
IV. For overnight storage, the rotors are left upside down and then positioned in a safe and dry place.
a) I, II, III only
b) II, III and IV only
c) I, II, and IV only
d) II only
Answer: c [Reason:] Only option I, II and IV are appropriate care and maintenance of centrifuges. However, cleaning centrifuges and rotors with coarse brushes may cause damage to the protective layers of rotors. Therefore, option iii is wrong.
10. After centrifugation of milk, the supernatant is?
Answer: b [Reason:] After centrifugation of milk, the whey is left as the supernatant. A separator is a centrifugal device which aid in separation of milk into cream and skimmed milk.
11. What is the name of the machine that spins in order to separate out components making up a mixture?
b) Blood plasma
d) Centrifugation tube
Answer: c [Reason:] A centrifuge is a machine with a rapidly rotating container that applies centrifugal force to its contents, typically to separate fluids of different densities (e.g. cream from milk) or liquids from solids.
12. How does centrifugation work?
a) Through dripping particles
b) Through spinning
c) By keeping large particle in the center and smaller on the outside
d) By separating particles into different tubes
Answer: c [Reason:] The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the center.
13. If you were centrifuging whole milk, which would you expect to get flung further out from the center of the centrifuge?
a) The cream/fat
b) Both would be equally flung
c) The skim milk
d) Neither would be flung
Answer: c [Reason:] When spun, the heavier milk is pulled outward against the walls of the separator and the cream, which is lighter, collects in the middle. The cream and milk then flow out of separate spouts.
14. Which of the following scientist invented the centrifugal separator?
a) Gustaf de Laval
b) Donald ronholm
c) Luis pastuer
Answer: a [Reason:] From 1890 the separators built by Gustaf de Laval were equipped with specially designed conical discs, the patent on which had been granted in 1888.
15. The skimming efficiency of a separator consequently decreases with increased throughput. State true or false?
Answer: a [Reason:] The flow velocity through the separation channels will be reduced if the flow rate through the machine is reduced. Thus providing the fat globules more time to rise and be discharged through the cream outlet. The skimming efficiency of a separator consequently increases with decrease in throughput and vice versa.
1. Which of the following does not accelerate rate of oxidation of fat?
a) Presence of iron and copper salts
b) Presence of dissolved oxygen
c) Exposure to light
d) Presence of water
Answer: d [Reason:] The presence of iron and copper salts accelerates the onset of auto-oxidation and development of metallic flavor, as does the presence of dissolved oxygen and exposure to light, especially direct sunlight or light from fluorescent tubes.
2. _______ is the principal contributor to sunlight flavor.
Answer: a [Reason:] Methional or 3-mercapto-methylpropionaldehyde is the principal contributor to sunlight flavor, as this particular flavor is called. It is a typical off-flavor found in milk.
3. What is the process of breakdown of fat into glycerol and free fatty acid called?
Answer: a [Reason:] The breakdown of fat into glycerol and free fatty acids is called lipolysis. Lipolysed fat has a rancid taste and smell, caused by the presence of low molecular free fatty acids.
4. Enzyme responsible for Lipolysis is :
Answer: c [Reason:] Lipolysis is caused by the action of lipases. Lipolysis is encouraged by high storage temperatures.
5. The purpose of heat treatment on milk is:
a) Kill pathogenic microorganism
b) Heat milk
d) Taste enhancement
Answer: a [Reason:] Heat treatment on milk aims to kill pathogenic microorganism. Heat treatment of milk also enhances its shelf life.
6. The fat globules in milk when heated to 74℃ show which of the following phenomenon?
c) Cream plug formation
Answer: c [Reason:] It has been shown that when milk is pasteurized at 70 – 80°C for 15 seconds, the cream plug phenomenon is already evident at 74°C.
7. ________ is recommended in order to avoid cream plug formation.
Answer: d [Reason:] Homogenization is practiced to avoid cream plug formation. Cream plug formation leads to blockage in pipes and tubes.
8. What is the result of heat treatment on proteins?
c) Spore formation
d) Froth formation
Answer: a [Reason:] Proteins on heat treatment undergo denaturation. Denaturing of protein leads to off flavor.
9. Denature Protein contribute to improvement of quality of which of the following products?
a) Cultured milk product
c) Ice cream
Answer: a [Reason:] In milk intended for cultured milk products (yoghurt, etc.), the whey protein denaturation and interaction with casein obtained at 90 – 95°C for 3 – 5 minutes will contribute to improved quality in the form of reduced syneresis and improved viscosity.
10. Effect of Heat treatment (Temperature above 100℃) on Lactose:
a) Greenish color
b) Bluish color
c) Brownish color
d) Reddish color
Answer: c [Reason:] Lactose undergoes changes more readily in milk than in the dry state. At temperatures above 100 °C a reaction takes place between lactose and protein, resulting in a brownish color.
11. The lactulose content ______ with increased intensity of the heat treatment.
c) Remains same
d) First increase and then decrease
Answer: b [Reason:] The lactulose content thus increases with increased intensity of the heat treatment. It may lead to denaturation of proteins.
12. Most Heat sensitive vitamin in milk is?
a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B
c) Vitamin C
d) Vitamin D
Answer: c [Reason:] Vitamin C is most heat sensitive vitamin in milk among all other. Milk is a rich source of Vitamin A& D.
13. Effect of Pasteurization on Vitamins in Milk :
a) Great loss
b) Little or no loss
Answer: b [Reason:] Pasteurization in a plate heat exchanger can however, be accomplished with virtually no loss of vitamin C. The other vitamins in milk suffer little or no harm from moderate heating.
14. Which of the following mineral is affected by heat treatment in milk?
Answer: c [Reason:] Of the minerals in milk only the important calcium hydroxyphosphate in the casein micelles is affected by heating. Rest has no affect on heating.
15. Heat treatment on minerals results leads to :
a) Clumps formation
b) Bubble formation
c) Foul smell
d) Loss of cheese making characteristics
Answer: d [Reason:] When heated above 75°C the substance loses water. Loss of water leads to formation of insoluble calcium orthophosphate; which impairs the cheese making properties of the milk.