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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The information which is represented by a signal is detected by specific receptors and converted to a cellular response; this conversion is called
a) Signal amplification
b) Signal transversion
c) Signal transduction
d) Signal integration

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The information which is represented by a signal is detected by specific receptors and converted to a cellular response; this conversion is called signal transduction.

2. Signal molecule fits the binding site on its complementary receptor called as
a) Specificity
b) Amplification
c) Integration
d) Cooperativity

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Number of affected molecules increases geometrically in an enzyme cascade in amplification. A regulatory outcome result from integrated input from both receptors is in integration.

3. Number of affected molecules increases geometrically in an enzyme cascade in
a) Specificity
b) Amplification
c) Adaptation
d) Integration

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Signal molecule fits its binding site on its complementary receptor called as specificity. Receptor is removed from cell surface in adaptation. A regulatory outcome result from integrated input from both receptors is in integration.

4. Receptor is removed from cell surface in
a) Specificity
b) Amplification
c) Adaptation
d) Integration

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A regulatory outcome result from integrated input from both receptors is in integration. Signal molecule fits its binding site on its complementary receptor called as specificity. Number of affected molecules increases geometrically in an enzyme cascade in amplification.

5. Regulatory outcome results from integrated input from both receptors is in
a) Specificity
b) Amplification
c) Adaptation
d) Integration

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Receptor is removed from cell surface in adaptation. Signal molecule fits binding site on its complementary receptor called as specificity. Number of affected molecules increases geometrically in an enzyme cascade in amplification.

6. Acetylcholine receptor ion channel is an example of
a) Gated ion channel
b) Receptor enzymes
c) Membrane protein
d) Nuclear protein

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Acetylcholine receptor ion channel is an example of gated ion channel.

7. How many types of signal transducers are there?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Gated ion channels, receptor enzymes, membrane proteins that act through G protein, nuclear proteins, membrane proteins and adhesion receptors are the 6 types of signal transducers.

8. Which of the following is a nuclear receptor protein?
a) Steroid receptor
b) Adhesion receptor
c) Serpentine receptor
d) Receptor with no intrinsic enzyme activity

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Steroid receptor is a nuclear receptor protein.

9. Receptor proteins that indirectly activate enzymes that generate intracellular second messengers are
a) Steroid receptors
b) Serpentine receptors
c) Adhesion receptors
d) Receptor enzymes

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Receptor proteins that indirectly activate enzymes that generate intracellular second messengers are serpentine receptors.

10. Insulin receptor is an example of
a) Steroid receptors
b) Serpentine receptors
c) Adhesion receptors
d) Receptor enzymes

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Insulin receptor is nuclear receptor.

Set 2

1. Tyrosine gives rise to a family of catecholamines that does not include
a) Dopamine
b) Norepinephrine
c) Epinephrine
d) Cortisol

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Tyrosine gives rise to a family of catecholamines that includes dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.

2. Which of the following gives rise to γ-amino butyrate?
a) Glutamate synthase
b) Glutamate decarboxylation
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Pyruvate decarboxylation

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Glutamate decarboxylation gives rise to γ-amino butyrate.

3. Which of the following is the precursor for nitric oxide?
a) Arginine
b) Leucine
c) Isoleucine
d) Lysine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Arginine is the precursor for nitric oxide.

4. Which of the following is an important cellular reducing agent?
a) Glutathione
b) Glycine
c) Arginine
d) Porphirin

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Glutathione is an important cellular reducing agent.

5. Which of the following is a PLP-requiring enzyme?
a) Ornithine decarboxylase
b) Glutathione peroxidase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate synthase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Ornithine decarboxylase is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) requiring enzyme.

6. Which of the following is derived from tryptophan?
a) Dopamine
b) Norepinephrine
c) Epinephrine
d) Serotonin

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine are derived from tyrosine.

7. Cimetidine is a structural analog of
a) Proline
b) Tryptophan
c) Tyrosine
d) Histamine

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Histamine receptor antagonist cimetidine is a structural analog of histamine.

8. Lignin is derived from
a) Phenylalanine
b) Valine
c) Tryptophan
d) Arginine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Lignin is derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine.

9. Which of the following is the precursor for auxin?
a) Phenylalanine
b) Valine
c) Tryptophan
d) Arginine

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Tryptophan is the precursor for auxin.

10. Glutathione peroxidase contains a covalently bound
a) Selenium atom
b) Calcium atom
c) Magnesium atom
d) Copper atom

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Glutathione peroxidase contains a covalently bound selenium atom.

Set 3

1. Anthrone method is preferred in the determination of
a) Carbohydrates
b) Proteins
c) Vitamins
d) Fats

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Carbohydrates are dehydrated with con.H2SO4 to form Furfural, which condenses with anthrone to form a green color.

2. Which of the following are an example of epimers?
a) Glucose & Galactose
b) Glucose & Ribose
c) Mannose & Glucose
d) a & c

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Both glucose and galactose have the same chemical formula but the orientation of –OH group on C4 molecule in both the compounds are different.

3. One of the following has reducing properties
a) Glucuronic acid
b) Gluconic acid
c) Glucaric acid
d) Mucic acid

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Glucuronic acid has free aldehyde group which is responsible for its reducing property.

4. The red precipitate formed when glucose is heated with “Benedict’s reagent” is
a) Cupric hydroxide
b) Cuprous hydroxide
c) Cupric oxide
d) Cuprous oxide

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] When reducing sugars are heated in the presence of an alkali and reduce the Cupric compounds present in the Benedict’s reagent to cuprous compounds which get precipitated as insoluble red Cu2O.

5. Fructose and Glucose can be distinguished by
a) Selwinoff’s reagent
b) Benedict’s reagent
c) Fehling’s reagent
d) Barfoed’s reagent

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Selwinoff’s reagent gives positive test for fructose.

6. Which of the following is an example of monosaccharide?
a) Galactose
b) Sucrose
c) Lactose
d) Maltose

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Galactose is a simple sugar which consists of a single polyhydroxy aldehyde.

7. Which of the following is an example of disaccharide?
a) Glucose
b) Fructose
c) Galactose
d) Maltose

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Maltose is a disaccharide with two monosaccharide glucose units.

8. In maltose, between which of the following carbons there is a linkage?
a) C1, C2
b) C2, C3
c) C1, C4
d) C2, C4

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Maltose contains two D-glucose residues joined by a glycosidic linkage between C1 of one glucose residue and C4 of the other.

9. Which of the following carbohydrates is a triose?
a) Glucose
b) Ribose
c) Ribulose
d) Glyceraldehyde

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Glyceraldehyde is a triose containing 3 carbons.

10. Lactose is a disaccharide of which of the following sugar units?
a) Glucose and fructose
b) Glucose and galactose
c) Glucose and sucrose
d) Glucose and ribose

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Lactose is a disaccharide of glucose and galactose.

Set 4

1. The specificity of signaling pathways does not include
a) Migration of signal proteins into membrane rafts
b) Assembly of large multiprotein complexes
c) Phosphorylation of target proteins at Ser, Thr/Tyr residues
d) Flippase-catalyzed movement of phospholipids from the inner to the outer leaflet

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The specificity of signaling pathways does not include flippase-catalyzed movement of phospholipids from the inner to the outer leaflet.

2. Which of the following directly phosphorylate tyrosines to start a kinase protein enzymatic cascade?
a) Receptor tyrosine kinase
b) Receptor guanylyl cyclases
c) Receptor serine kinase
d) Receptor threonine kinase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Only receptor tyrosine kinase directly phosphorylates tyrosine to start a kinase protein enzymatic cascade.

3. PTB domains bind to
a) Phosphorylated tyrosine
b) Phosphoryated threonine
c) Phosphorylated serine
d) Phosphorylated cysteine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Phosphotyrosine binding domain binds to phosphotyrosine.

4. Scaffold protein in insulin signal transduction
a) KSR
b) IRS-1
c) MEKK1
d) AKAP

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] IRS-1 is an adapter protein in insulin that codes for IRS1 gene.

5. Which of the following is involved in extrinsic cell death pathway?
a) Heterotrimeric G protein complex
b) TRADD
c) IRS-1
d) Protein-kinase A

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] TRADD, tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain protein is involved in extrinsic cell death pathway.

6. Which of the following converts GTP to cGMP to start its enzymatic cascade?
a) Receptor guanylyl cyclase
b) Receptor adenylyl cyclase
c) Calmodulin
d) Protein kinase-A

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Receptor adenylyl cyclase converts ATP to cAMP.

7. Which of the following are stimulated to become membrane associated upon binding of insulin to the insulin receptor?
a) PH-domain
b) PTB
c) SH3
d) SH2

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] PH domain is stimulated to become membrane associated upon binding of insulin to the insulin receptor.

8. Which of the following is involved in phospho-tyrosine binding?
a) SH2
b) SH3
c) PTB
d) PH

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] SH3 is involved in proline rich motif binding.

9. Which of the following is involved in proline rich motif binding?
a) SH2
b) SH3
c) PTB
d) PH

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] SH2 is involved in phospho-tyrosine binding.

10. Which of the following is not a downstream component?
a) Ras
b) MEK
c) ERK
d) PIP3

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Ras, MEK and ERK are the downstream components.

Set 5

1. Urea production occurs almost exclusively in
a) Kidneys
b) Liver
c) Blood
d) Urine

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Urea production occurs almost exclusively in the liver and is the fate of most of the ammonia channeled there. The urea passes into the blood stream and thus to the kidneys and is excreted into the urine.

2. The first amino group entering into urea cycle is
a) Carbomyl phosphate
b) Ornithine
c) Cituilline
d) Argininosuccinate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The carbomyl phosphate, which functions as an activated carbomyl group donor enters the urea cycle.

3. The first enzyme in the pathway carbamoyl phosphate synthase I, is allosterically activated by
a) N-acetylglutamate
b) Acetyl coA
c) Glutamate
d) Carbamoyl phosphate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The first enzyme in the pathway carbamoyl phosphate synthase I, is allosterically activated by N-acetylglutamate.

4. A second amino group is transferred to cituilline from
a) Aspartate
b) Glutamate
c) Alanine
d) Guanine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The second amino group enters from aspartate generated in mitochondria by transamination and transported into the cytosol.

5. Nitrogen atoms of urea produced in the urea cycle are derived from
a) Ammonia and aspartic acid
b) Nitrate
c) Nitrite
d) Ammonia

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] One amino group comes from ammonia and another comes from aspartate.

6. Products of urea cycle are
a) One molecule of urea, one molecule of ammonia, one molecule of ATP and one molecule of fumaric acid
b) One molecule of urea, one molecule of AMP, two molecule of ADP and one molecule of fumaric acid
c) One molecule of aspartic acid, one molecule of ammonia, one molecule of ATP and one molecule of fumaric acid
d) Two molecules of urea, two molecules of ammonia, one molecule of ATP and one molecule of fumaric acid

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Products of urea cycle are one molecule of urea, one molecule of AMP, two molecule of ADP and one molecule of fumaric acid.

7. The carbon atom source while producing urea in the urea cycle is
a) CO2
b) Glucose
c) Aspartic acid
d) Arginine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] CO2 is the carbon atom source while producing urea in the urea cycle.

8. Which of the following is not an essential amino acid?
a) Glycine
b) Leucine
c) Methionine
d) Histidine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Only Leucine, methionine and histidine are essential in this case.

9. Urea cycle converts
a) Keto acids into amino acids
b) Amino acids into keto acids
c) Ammonia into a less toxic form
d) Ammonia into a more toxic form

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A less toxic ammonia form is produced by urea cycle.

10. Inputs to one cycle of urea cycle are
a) One molecule of CO2, one molecule of ammonia, three molecule of ATP and one molecule of aspartic acid
b) One molecule of urea, one molecule of AMP, two molecule of ADP and one molecule of fumaric acid
c) One molecule of aspartic acid, one molecule of ammonia, one molecule of ATP and one molecule of fumaric acid
d) Two molecules of urea, two molecules of ammonia, one molecule of ATP and one molecule of fumaric acid

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] One molecule of CO2, one molecule of ammonia, three molecule of ATP and one molecule of aspartic acid are the inputs to one cycle of urea cycle.