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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. The method of Barken is based on the assumption of___________
a) Equation of motion
b) Linear spring theory
c) Participation of soil in the vibration
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] Barken’s method is based on linear spring theory. The method neglects the effect of damping and participating soil mass.

2. The rotation of foundation about y axes is known as_____________
a) Yawning
b) Pitching
c) Rocking
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] In the general case, rotation about y, z and x-axes are respectively known as rocking, yawning and pitching.

3. Barken’s method is used in___________ places.
a) Congested area
b) Design offices
c) Working area
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Barken’s method is very much used in design offices.

4. If the combined C.G. of the machine and foundation lies in the same vertical line, then the twisting modes are_________
a) Coupled
b) Uncoupled
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] If the combined C.G. of the machine and foundation lies in the same vertical line as the centroid of the base plane, then the vertical and translation and twisting modes are uncoupled.

5. The value of kx for the elastic support of soil is given by which of the following expression?
a) Kx = Cu A
b) Kx = Cϴ Iy
c) Kx = Cx A
d) Kx = Cu Iy

Answer: c [Reason:] The values of Kx, Ky and Kϴy for the elastic support of soil are given by the following expressions: For vertical motion: Kz = Cu A For horizontal motion: Kx = Cx A For rocking motion: Kϴy : Cϴ Iy.

6. The permissible amplitude should not exceed___________ for reciprocating machine.
a) Probable amplitude
b) Limiting amplitude
c) Maximum amplitude
d) Minimum amplitude

Answer: b [Reason:] The permissible amplitude should not exceed the limiting amplitude for the machine prescribed by the manufacturers.

7. The methods of Pauw and Balakrishna Rao are based on___________ assumptions.
a) Equation of motion
b) Linear spring theory
c) Participation of soil in the vibration
d) Barken’s method

Answer: c [Reason:] The method of Pauw and Balakrishna Rao are based on the assumption that a certain mass of soil participates in the vibration with the foundation.

8. According to Barken, the value of coefficient of elastic uniform shear is taken as__________
a) 0.5
b) 2 Cu
c) 3.0
d) 0.5 Cu

Answer: d [Reason:] According to Barken, the coefficient of elastic uniform shear Cτ for foundation resting on elastic support is taken as 0.5 Cu.

9. If foundation block is supported by on elastic pad of contact area A and thickness t, the value of stiffness factor for vertical motion is given by which of the following expression?
a) Kx = C A/t
b) Kz = E A/t
c) Kϴy = Ely / t
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The value of stiffness factors are given by the following expressions: For vertical motion: Kz = E A /t For horizontal (sliding motion): Kx = CA /t For rocking motion: Kϴy = Ely/t.

10. The two natural frequencies representing the couple motion, in sliding and rocking motion is___________
a) ωn1 and ωn2
b) ωx and ωy
c) ωϴ and ωn
d) ωn1 and ωn

Answer: a [Reason:] ωn1 and ωn2 are the two natural frequencies representing the coupled action (i.e., sliding along x-axis and rocking about y-axis).

## Set 2

1. When the water table is above the base of the footing, the submerged weight ‘γ’ can be used to compute__________
a) Effective pressure and Surcharge
b) Pore pressure
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] When the water table is above the base of the footing, the submerged weight ‘γ’ should be used for the soil below the water table for computing the effective pressure or the surcharge.

2. Which of the following is an essential difference between Vesic’s and Hansen’s procedure?
a) Different values of Nγ and Variation on some of Hansen inclination
b) Different value of Nq and Nc
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The essential difference in Vesic’s and Hansen’s procedure are i) use of slightly different values of Ny and ii) a variation on some of Hansen’s inclination, base and ground factors.

3. The equation Nc = (Nq – 1) cot φ, have been adopted by___________
a) Terzaghi and Peck
b) Hansen
c) Vesic
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The two equations Nc = (Nq – 1) cot φ and Nq = tan2 (45 + φ/2) ex tan φ have been adopted by i) Terzaghi and Peck ii) Hansen iii) Vesic iv) Meyerhof and Bureau of Indian standards.

4. Which of the following N factors has the widest range of values?
a) Nc
b) Nq
c) Nγ
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] The Nγ factor has the widest suggested range of any value of N factors. A literature value reveals that for φ = 40°, 38≤ Nγ≤192.

5. Which of the following term does not contribute to q f?
a) Nc
b) Nγ
c) Nq
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The Nγ term does not contribute significantly to qf so that almost any reasonable value can be used. Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) recommends using value of Nγ, given by Vesic.

6. Meyerhof’s extended the analysis of plastic equilibrium of a surface footing to__________
a) Shallow foundation and Deep foundation
b) Inclined foundation
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] M Meyerhof’s extended the analysis of plastic equilibrium of a surface footing to Shallow and Deep foundation according to both Terzaghi and Meyerhof analysis.

7. In the Bowl’s method for finding effect of water table, which of the following factor is used for soil in the wedge zone?
a) Water reduction factor
b) Effective unit weight
c) Overburden pressure
d) Average unit weight

Answer: b [Reason:] In the third method (Bowles, 1988), no water reduction factor is used, but effective unit weight (γe) is used for the soil in the wedge zone.

8. Which of the following equation has been recommended by Indian standard for finding reduction factor in water table?
a) R w =0.5 (1 + z w2 / B)
b) R w = ( 1 + z w2 / B)
c) R w = c Nc + σ̅. Nq + 0.5γBNγ
d) R w = z w2 / B

Answer: a [Reason:] Rw =Rw2 = 5 (1 + z w2 / B) has been recommended by Indian standard at a depth D1 below the ground level.

9. The value of Nc and Nq are same for, which of the following methods?
a) Meyerhof
b) Hansen
c) Vesic
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The value of Nc and Nq are same for Meyerhof, Hansen and Vesic method, while subscripts for Nγ identify the author, i.e. N γ(H) = valued by Hansen etc.

10. The factor N γ(M) identifies which of the following author?
a) Vesic
b) Meyerhof
c) Hansen
d) Terzaghi

Answer: b [Reason:] The factor N γ(M) gives values by Meyerhof, as it has the subscript (M) in it.

## Set 3

1. Which of the following factors affects compacted density?
a) Water content and Type of compaction
b) Degree of saturation
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Water content, type of soil, addition of admixtures, amount and type of compaction are the various factors which affect the compacted density.

2. The compacted density is increased when the water content of the soil is_________
a) Increased
b) Decreased
c) Constant
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] It has been seen from laboratory experiment that, as the water content is increased the compact density goes on increasing, until a maximum dry density is achieved after which further addition of water decreases the density.

3. The force which is responsible for withholding of soil particles, of lower content is__________
a) Vander Waals force
b) Electric force
c) Frictional force

Answer: b [Reason:] When only a relatively small amount of water is present in soil, it is firmly held by the electrical forces at the surface of soil particles with a high concentration of electrolyte.

4. The amount of compaction greatly affects___________
a) Water content and Maximum dry density
b) Saturation of soil
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The amount of compaction affects maximum dry density and optimum water content of a given soil. The effect of increasing the compactive energy results in an increase in the maximum dry density and decrease in the optimum water content.

5. Higher density and a lower optimum water content is easily achieved by_________
a) Coarse grained soil
b) Fine grained soil
c) Cohesion less soil
d) Saturated soil

Answer: a [Reason:] Well graded coarse-grained soil attains a much higher density and lower water optimum water content then fine grained soil which requires more water.

6. The dry density decreases in cohesion less soil with increase in water content due to which of the following reasons?
a) Capillary rise
b) Bulking of sand
c) Degree of saturation
d) Water content

Answer: b [Reason:] In case of cohesion less soil the dry density decreases with an increase in water content under a low compactive effect, this is due to bulking of sands where in the capillary tension resists the tendency of soil particles to take a density state.

7. The maximum density is reached in cohesion less soil when the soil is_________
a) Zero water content
b) Partially saturated
c) Fully saturated
d) Maximum specific surface

Answer: c [Reason:] The density reaches the maximum value when the cohesion less soil is fully saturated, on further addition of water, the dry density again increases.

8. The maximum bulking of sand occurs at a water content between___________
a) 4 to 5 %
b) 2 to 6 %
c) 4 to 8 %
d) 1 to 5 %

Answer: a [Reason:] The maximum bulking occurs at water content between 4 to 5 % .on further additions of water, the meniscus is destroyed and the soil particles are able to shift to a closer packing.

9. The initial decrease of dry density at lower water content is exhibited in____________type of soil.
a) Fine grained soil
b) Black cotton soil
c) Alluvial soil
d) Cohesion soil

Answer: b [Reason:] The initial decrease of dry density at lower water content is a characteristic feature of black cotton soils, high swelling clays and fat clays. The optimum water content for such soils ranges between 20 to 25 %.

10. The attainment of maximum density of soil at full saturation is due to__________
a) Lubrication action
b) Hydrostatic pressure
c) Bulking of sand
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The attainment of maximum density at full saturation is due to the reduction of effective pressure between soil particles by hydrostatic pressure.

## Set 4

1. Based on Allen Hazen experiments, permeability can be expressed as___________
a) K=CD102
b) K=CD210
c) K=DC210
d) K=DC102

Answer: a Explanation : In 1892 ,Allen Hazen based on his experiment on filter of sand particles between 0.1 and 3 mm ,found that the permeability can be expressed as K=CD102.

2. Which of the following factors affects the permeability of soil?
a) Grain size
b) Properties of pore fluid
c) Void ratio of soils
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Grain size, properties of pore fluid, structural soil arrangement of soil particles, entrapped air and foreign matter and adsorbed water.

3. Physical permeability of a soil KP is related to coefficient of permeability by the equation___________
a) KP=kɳ
b) KP=kɳ/γW
c) KP=k/ɳ
d) KP=k γW

Answer: b [Reason:] In 1937, Muskat pointed out a relationship between physical permeability and Darcy’s coefficient of permeability as KP=kɳ/γW.

4. Loudon’s experiments demonstrated the relationship between_____________
a) Permeability and specific surface
b) Permeability and grain size
d) Permeability and volume

Answer: a [Reason:] Loudon’s experiment demonstrated that, the permeability of coarse grained soils is inversely proportional to the specific surface at a given porosity.

5. What is the constant value of a and b in Loudon’s empirical formula “log10(KSs2) =a + bn”?
a) 1 and 0
b) 1.515 and 1.365
c) 1.365 and 1.515
d) 0 and 1

Answer: c [Reason:] Based on his experiments, Loudon found out the value of a and b s 1.365 and 1.515 for permeability of 10°c.

6. What is the relationship between permeability and viscosity of water?
a) Directly proportional
b) Inversely proportional
c) Both are equal
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] From Poiseuille’s law, K=Ds2 γw /ɳ It is found that permeability is directly proportional to the unit weight of water and inversely proportional to its viscosity.

7. What is the effect of adsorbed water on permeability of soil?
a) Structural arrangement is varied
b) Reduced degree of saturation
c) Size of the particles is diminished
d) Reduces the pore size

Answer: d [Reason:] The adsorbed water surrounding the fine soil particles is not free to move, and reduces the effective pore space available for the passage of water.

8. What is the approximate value, which can be taken as void ratio occupied by adsorbed water?
a) 1
b) 0
c) 0.1
d) 10

Answer: c [Reason:] According to approximation value after casagrande, 0.1 may be taken as the void ratio occupied by adsorbed water.

9. The effect of structural disturbance is on permeability is more in_____________
a) Fine-grained soil
b) Coarse grained soil
c) Clay soil
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The effect of structural disturbance on permeability is much pronounced in fine-grained soil than any other.

10. The structural arrangement of soil Particle vary depending upon______________
a) Method of deposition and Compacting the soil mass
b) Degree of saturation
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The structural arrangement of the particle may vary, at the same void ratio, depending upon the method of deposition or compacting the soil mass.

11. How do degree of saturation effect permeability of soil?
a) By reducing the pore size
b) By entrapping air in the voids
c) Not allowing soil particles to move freely
d) By changing the void ratio

Answer: b [Reason:] By entrapping the air in the voids present in soil, the permeability is greatly reduced, thus reducing the degree of saturation.

## Set 5

1. The number of layers of soil compaction depends on___________
a) Type of soil and Amount of compaction required
b) Water content of soil
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The number of soil layers and number of tamps per layers depend upon the type of soil and the amount of compaction required.

2. The rolling equipment’s are of__________types.
a) 5
b) 4
c) 2
d) 3

Answer: a [Reason:] the rolling equipment’s are of five types: 1. Smooth level rollers 2. Pneumatic tyred rollers 3. Sheep foot rollers 4. Pneumatic tyred construction plant 5. Track laying vehicles.

3. Sheep-foot-rollers is most suitable for compacting____________
a) Fine-grained soil
b) Cohesive soil
c) Cohesion-less soil
d) Clay soil

Answer: b [Reason:] Sheet-foot-rollers are recommended for compacting cohesive soils, but are not considered effective on coarse grained cohesion-less soil.

4. The tyre pressures in the smaller rollers are in the order of____________
a) 250 kN/m2
b) 400 kN/m2
c) 500 kN/m2
d) 100 kN/m2

Answer: a [Reason:] Smaller rollers are having a tyre load of about 7.5kN and pressure in the order of 250 kN/m2.

5. Which of the following rollers have wheels, mounted at slight angle with respect to axle?
a) Sheep foot roller
b) Smooth wheel roller
c) Wobble wheel roller
d) Tandem roller

Answer: c [Reason:] To provide a kneading action, the wobble wheel rollers have wheels mounted at slight angle with respect to the axle.

6. The performance of a compaction equipment depends on_____________
a) Soil type
b) Water type
c) Particle size distribution
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The performance of compaction equipment depends on the soil type, its particle distribution and its water content.

7. Which of the following type of vibrating unit used in a vibrator?
a) Out-of balance weight type and Pulsating hydraulic type
b) Piston hydraulic type
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The vibrators consist of vibrating unit of either the out-balance weight type or a pulsating hydraulic type mounted on a screed, plate or roller.

8. Jumping rammers that are used for compacting the soil is also known as____________
a) Frog rammers
b) Combustion rammers
c) Pneumatic rammers
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Internal combustion type jumping rammers are also known as frog rammers. They weigh up to 10 tons.

9. Pneumatic tyred rollers are best suited for____________
a) Cohesion-less sand
b) Cohesive soils
c) Cohesion-less gravels
d) All of the mentioned