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A loop statement is one which repeatedly executes, ensuring a given condition to be true prior to execution of each iteration, to perform some computations/work. As the condition turns false, loop terminates.

In C programming Language, loops are while statement, for statement, do-while statement

In while and for loops, conditional expression is tested a priory the execution of each iteration while in the do-while loop, condition is tested after execution of each iteration. This means in do-while loop, first iteration always executes even if condition happens to be false in first iteration!

Syntax

    /*
     * In while, condition is tested in the beginning of each iteration
     */    
 
    while (condition) {                   
        statements;                                   
    }	                 				
 
    for	(initialization; condition; adjustment) { 
        statements; 						
    }
 
    /*
     * In do-while: condition is tested in the end of each iteration
     */
 
    do {
        statements;			 
    } while(condition);

Examples:

while loop

/* echo.c -- repeats input */
 
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    int ch;
 
    /*
     * 1. getchar() function reads-in one character from the keyboard
     *    at a time
     * 2. return type of getchar() is int
     * 3. getchar() returns integer value corresponding to char read
     *    from the keyboard
     */ 
 
    /* 
     * ch is checked if it is not same as '!', and as match occurs,
     * loop terminates.
     */
 
    while ((ch = getchar()) != '!')
        putchar(ch);
    return 0;
}

for loop

/* echo_eof.c --- repeating input to end-of-file */
 
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    int ch;
 
    /*
     * EOF is a character defined, as a Macro, in the stdio.h header file
     * EOF is a unique invisible character marks end of every file
     * adjustment statement not required so left blank
     */ 
 
    for (ch = getchar(); ch != EOF; ) {
        putchar();
        ch = getchar();
    }
    return 0;
}

do-while loop

/* echo.c -- repeats input */
 
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    int ch;
 
    /*
     * 1. ch is checked if it is not same as '!', as match occurs,
     *    loop terminates.
     * 2. Even if the first character reads-in is '!', it is printed
     *    on the screen & then loop terminates!
     */     
 
    do {
        ch = getchar();
        putchar(ch);
    } while(ch != '!')   
 
    return 0;
}

This is important to note that any Non-Zero value, integer, floating point values, as a condition is considered to be true while 0 is false! For examples:

while loop

/* echo.c -- repeats input Indefinitely */
 
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    int ch;
 
    /*
     * 1. getchar() function reads-in one character from the keyboard
     *    at a time
     * 2. return type of getchar() is int
     * 3. getchar() returns integer value corresponding to char read
     *    from the keyboard
     */ 
 
    /* 
     * Non-Zero value as a condition causes loop to Indefinitely
     * Iterate Over.
     * key-in ctrl+c on Linux to terminate the program.
     */
 
    while (500.345) {      
            ch = getchar();
            putchar(ch);
    }
 
    return 0;

for loop

/* echo_eof.c --- repeating input Indefinitely */
 
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    int ch;
 
    /*
     * 1. initialization & adjustment statements not required so left blank
     * 2. By default, initialization, conditional & adjustment statements,
     *    all three are Optional. If not given, they are considered TRUE.
     */
 
    for ( ; 200 ; ) {     
        putchar();
        ch = getchar();
    }
    return 0;
}

do-while loop

/* echo.c -- repeats input indefinitely */
 
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
    int ch;
 
    do {
        ch = getchar();
        putchar(ch);
    } while(1)   
 
    return 0;
}

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