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Q1: One source of bias emanating from the representativeness heuristic is the failure to take into account the ___, or the actual frequency with which events occur

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Answer: Base rate

Q2: One strategy that can greatly reduce the threat to external validity in causal comparative research is

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Answer: replicating the causal-comparative study

Q3: One strategy that can internal validity is using groups that are known to be homogeneous and similar to each other

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Answer: Correct – True

Q4: One way to decrease undesired worker behavior is to remove a positive consequence

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Answer: Correct – True

Q5: Only lower level managers may engage in political behavior to gain promotion or to influence organizational decision making in their favor

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q6: Only the brands that meet your criteria become part of your evoked set. This is also know as the

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Answer: consideration set

Q7: Only when newcomers to an organization have learned an organization’s values and act in accordance with its norms will longtime members accept them as insiders

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Answer: Correct – True

Q8: Operant conditioning is unrelated to how people learn to behave in a certain way to achieve certain consequences

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q9: Organizational behavior replaces ___with a well-researched body of theories and guidelines for managing behavior

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Answer: intuition

Q10: Organizational change is the movement of an organization away from its present state and toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness

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Answer: Correct – True

Q11: Organizational culture is shaped by the interaction of four main factors: the personal wealth of the people in the organization, organizational ethics, the nature of the employment relationship, and the design of its organizational structure

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q12: Organizational learning is

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Answer: The process through which managers instill in all members of an organization a desire to find new ways to improve organizational effectiveness.

Q13: Organizational markets in North America use fewer customer characteristics to segment their markets. The three major groups are

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Answer: geographic, behavioural and demographic

Q14: Organizations buy products and services for one main reason

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Answer: To help achieve objectives

Q15: Organizations do not need to be concerned with the effects of global economics and political forces on its activities

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q16: Organizations exist to provide goods and services that people want

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Answer: Correct – True

Q17: Organizations in which change happens rarely are likely candidates for revolutionary top-down change

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Answer: Correct – True

Q18: Organizations tend to be slow to change performance programs because doing things the way they have always been done in the past is easier than devising and implementing new procedures

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Answer: Correct – True

Q19: Our past experiences are organized into complex knowledge structures that are stored in memory, allowing us to organize and interpret information about a target of perception

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Answer: Correct – True

Q20: Outcomes and results are always positive when all members of the organization view opportunities and problems in the same way

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q21: Participation in action research can vary from

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Answer: providing information to designing the study

Q22: Participatory action research is one main type of action research

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Answer: Correct – True

Q23: Peers are generally considered a part of a consumer’s

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Answer: Reference group

Q24: People who believe in objective reality tend to believe that their own perceptions are accurate depictions of that reality

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Answer: Correct – True

Q25: People with ___power are liked because of who they are, not just because of their expertise or their ability to influence people, obtain resources, or achieve their own ends

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Answer: Referent power

Q26: Performance instruments are used to measure

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Answer: success on a task

Q27: Performance programs save ___

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Answer: Time

Q28: Personal selling involves the two-way flow of communication between a buyer and seller, often in a face-to-face encounter, designed to influence a person’s or a group’s

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Answer: purchase decision

Q29: Personality is a collection of traits that describe how the person generally tends to feel, think, and behave

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Answer: Correct – True

Q30: Personality is always a good predictor of a worker’s on-the-job behavior

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q31: Personality may be a good predictor of the on-the-job behavior of workers in which of the following jobs

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Answer: Professor of British Literature

Q32: Place or distribution is a major factor in developing a service marketing strategy because of the___of service from the producer

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Answer: inseparability

Q33: Politically astute managers cultivate people rather than information, thereby building up a network of personal contacts

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q34: Pooled task interdependence makes it difficult to identify individual performance of group members because each member makes a contribution to the same final product

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q35: Poor Latin American countries like Guatemala and Panama score low on power distance and high on individualism

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q36: Poor organizational design can lower the costs of operating the organization

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q37: Poor supply chain management practices can___an otherwise excellent marketing strategy

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Answer: seriously damage

Q38: Popularity created by consumer word of mouth is also known as

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Answer: buzz marketing

Q39: Population generalizability refers to

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Answer: the degree to which a sample represents the population of interest

Q40: Positive reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will occur by administering a positive consequence to employees who perform the behavior

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Answer: Correct – True

Q41: Positive reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will occur by administering negative consequences to employees who perform the behavior

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q42: Practical action research emphasizes the empowerment of groups

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q43: Preliminary research conducted to clarify the scope and nature of the marketing problem is called

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Answer: exploratory research

Q44: Price elasticity is important to marketing managers because of its relationships to

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Answer: total revenue

Q45: Pricing for some products are based on where tradition or other competition factor dictates. This is called

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Answer: customary pricing

Q46: Primary sources are those publications in which researchers report the results of their investigations

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Answer: Correct – True

Q47: Prioritizing and estimating techniques that allow employees to identify the most important tasks and fit them into their daily schedules is called role negotiation

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q48: Product managers are sometimes called___

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Answer: brand managers

Q49: Products fail because of both marketing and non-marketing factors. Which of the following is a non-marketing factor

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Answer: government restrictions are imposed

Q50: Products that are intangible items are called

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Answer: services.

Q51: Professionally managed and centrally coordinated marketing channels designed to achieve channel economies and maximum marketing impact are called

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Answer: vertical marketing systems (vms)

Q52: Professionally successful workers in ___countries amass wealth and pass it on to their children

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Answer: High-power distance

Q53: Promotion for services should stress availability, location, consistent quality, and efficient,___

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Answer: courteous service

Q54: Providing information to customers and suppliers, including competitive conditions and trends is an example of a___function

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Answer: facilitating

Q55: Purchasing products for resale or as an agent for supply of a product is an example of a___function

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Answer: transactional

Q56: Qualitative and quantitative research methods are never used together in a study

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q57: Qualitative data are collected mainly in the form of words or pictures and seldom involve numbers. Content analysis is a primary method of data analysis

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Answer: Correct – True

Q58: Qualitative research involves obtaining a holistic picture of what goes on in a particular situation or setting. Two of the most common forms of qualitative research are ethnographic research and case studies

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Answer: Correct – True

Q59: Qualitative research refers to research investigations of the quality of relationships, activities, situations, or materials

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Answer: Correct – True

Q60: Qualitative researchers generally formulate a hypothesis beforehand and then seek to test it

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q61: Qualitative researchers usually base their work on the assumption that

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Answer: the world is made up of multiple realities, socially constructed by different individual views of the same situation

Q62: Qualitative researchers view changes in procedures during a study as

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Answer: a good thing

Q63: Quantitative and qualitative researchers are in agreement on philosophical assumptions

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q64: Quantitative researchers usually base their work on the belief that

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Answer: facts and feelings can be separated and that the world is made up of facts that can be discovered

Q65: Quantity discounts are of two general kinds

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Answer: noncumulative and cumulative

Q66: Questions 7 to 9 refer to the following research situation: A researcher who wanted to determine the benefits of using a new beginning algebra study technique obtained permission from a school district to select 50 high school students. The researcher selected 50 beginning algebra students at random. The researcher selected 25 of these 50 students to participate in the new study program. The researcher gave a training session on traditional study techniques to the other 25 students and asked them to use these methods

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Answer: all algebra students

Q67: Questions such as, “What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?” are and example of what type of post-test

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Answer: unaided recall

Q68: Rail has the largest shipping capacity compared to all except

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Answer: water carrier

Q69: Recording specific information from the individual being interviewed is a paramount expectation in any proper interview

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q70: Redesigning human resource policies and introducing new training, promotion, and incentive systems can alter an organization’s culture by changing its instrumental values and norms

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Answer: Correct – True

Q71: Regression to the mean is most likely to be a threat to internal validity when

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Answer: participants are selected on the basis of extreme scores

Q72: Regulations protect

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Answer: consumers and companies

Q73: Research data is information obtained only through directly testing the subjects of a study

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q74: Research designed to describe the basic characteristics of a given population or to profile particular marketing situations is called

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Answer: descriptive research

Q75: Research designed to identify cause-and-effect relationships among variables is called

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Answer: causal research

Q76: Research found on the World Wide Web is often unreliable

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Answer: Correct – True

Q77: Research generally shows that gasoline is price___

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Answer: Inelastic

Q78: Research has shown that subordinates of leaders who are concerned about people (consideration structure) have high levels of job satisfaction and subordinates of leaders who are concerned about production (initiating structure) have high levels of job performance

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q79: Research has shown that women tend to lead in a more democratic style and men tend to lead in a more autocratic style. The potential explanations for why women are more democratic than men when occupying leadership roles in organizations are all of the following EXCEPT

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Answer: Women have less experience in leadership roles than do men and therefore need more input from others to assist them in making decisions.

Q80: Research indicates that one of the main reasons for an organizations’ inability to change in response to changing environmental conditions is which of the following

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Answer: None of these—Ethical dilemmasFinancial difficulties

Q81: Research methodologies are generally vague and unclassifiable

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q82: Research on salesperson motivation suggests that what produces motivated salespeople is: (1) a clear job description, (2) effective sales management practice, (3) a sense of achievement, and (4)

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Answer: proper incentives and rewards

Q83: Research on transactional leadership suggests that transactional leadership is positively related to subordinate job satisfaction and job performance

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q84: Research questions always suggest a relationship to be investigated

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q85: Research shows groups can ___by allowing members who deviate from the norms to air their views

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Answer: Benefit

Q86: Research shows that personality is not determined by nature or biological heritage. Life experiences determine personality and that is why a person’s personality can change over time

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q87: Research suggests that genetic factors determine ___of the variation observed in people’s personalities

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Answer: About half

Q88: Research suggests that the only Type A employees who experience high levels of stress are those who are very hostile

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Answer: Correct – True

Q89: Researchers are not given the right of privileged communications that is afforded by law to attorneys, physicians, and members of the clergy

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Answer: Correct – True

Q90: Researchers consider the scientific method to be one of many ways to produce reliable and accurate knowledge

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q91: Researchers doing qualitative observational research usually use a random sample

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q92: Researchers need to be familiar with these three basic types of sources

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Answer: general references, primary resources, and secondary resources

Q93: Researchers study just one individual, classroom, school, or program in which approach to qualitative research

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Answer: case study

Q94: Researchers use a variety of instruments in ethnographic studies to collect data and to check validity. This is referred to as triangulation

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Answer: Correct – True

Q95: Researchers who focus on the study of culture take which approach to qualitative research

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Answer: ethnography

Q96: Researchers who study various reactions to or perceptions of a particular phenomenon take which approach to qualitative research

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Answer: phenomenology

Q97: Restrictions placed on the amount of a product allowed to enter or leave a country are called

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Answer: quotas

Q98: Role conflict is a job-related stressor related to the uncertainty that occurs when employees are not sure what is expected of them and how they should perform their jobs

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Answer: Wrong – False

Q99: Sales activities occurring before and after the sale itself, consisting of six stages and are known as the

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Answer: partnership selling process

Q100: Sales of sneakers for the teenage/college or university-aged segment represent what fraction of total sales

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Answer: one-third