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Q1: The Internet and social media can open up new business and marketing opportunities for all businesses. Which of the following statements is not true

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Answer: Consumers will not be able to manage the information they receive.

Q2: Organizations today face more ethical quandaries than ever before. The growing transparency of corporate practices is

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Answer: putting pressures on organizations to be more socially responsible in the ways in which they discharge social responsibilities.

Q3: The management of knowledge occupies an important ground in contemporary management thinking for the following reasons except

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Answer: the increased computerization and automation in today’s organizations is fundamental to the organization’s knowledge base.

Q4: Managing key relationships is fundamental to an organization as

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Answer: many organizations no longer have sufficient skills, resources and time to operate on their own and pursue global market dominance.

Q5: The changing demographics of consumers globally present tremendous implications on the nature of opportunities for organizations. Which of the following is not true

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Answer: This can only be regarded as a major threat to the survival of today’s organizations as it will bring significant costs to them.

Q6: For any organizations, operating in the global market environment in the 21st century requires types of management competences. Which of the following is not one of the competences required

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Answer: Leadership competence to enforce regular downsizing and de-layering to maintain a high level of efficiency

Q7: Which of the following is not part of an organization’s global intermediate environment

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Answer: Global institutions

Q8: In a market where demand from customers is strong, but the organization faces acute shortages of staff, which element of its marketing environment is likely to be most important in corporate planning

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Answer: Internal environment

Q9: There are three types of political risks for organizations operating in the international market environment. These are

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Answer: Ownership risk, operating risk, and transfer risk

Q10: Which of the following is not a true statement about recent demographic change in the developed economies

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Answer: The birth rate is consistently rising quickly.

Q11: Which of the following is not true of changes in a firm’s technological environment

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Answer: New technology always leads to benefits for firms.

Q12: Local community groups, road safety campaigning organizations and government agencies are necessarily___a car manufacturer

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Answer: pressure groups on

Q13: Within the micro-environment, a channel of distribution can BEST be described as

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Answer: all of those people and organizations involved in the process of transferring a product from the producer to the consumer.

Q14: SLEPT is widely used by marketers in analyzing their marketing environment. It is an acronym for

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Answer: Socio, Legal, Economic, Political and Technology

Q15: A commercial company that explicitly takes into consideration the social consequences of its actions is most likely to be

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Answer: seeking to combine social benefits with business profitability.

Q16: Which of the following is not a benefit for conducting environmental analysis

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Answer: An increase in an organization’s exposure to politically unstable markets

Q17: In general, the discourses of globalization can be categorized into

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Answer: Political, Economic, Cultural and Technological

Q18: When we take a look at the world we live in today and the global presence of giant multinational corporations, there seems to be plenty of evidence in the existence of___globalization

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Answer: economic

Q19: With regard to the international distribution of power, economic power appears to be shifting away from the developed economies towards the developing economies due to

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Answer: increasing level of economic globalization.

Q20: The growing penetration of new communication technologies such as the internet and social media plays a role in the erosion of nation state’s sovereignty because

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Answer: Governments find it difficult to exercise control and censorship over the flow of information and images across national borders.

Q21: Which of the following is not an opportunity of globalization for organizations

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Answer: Rising communication and transportation costs

Q22: Globalization has been perceived as posing significant threats to businesses. Which of the following statement is TRUE

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Answer: The stability of global business environment is threatened due to the increasing vulnerability of national economies to global macroeconomic volatility.

Q23: The so-called ‘Champagne Glass’ phenomenon is used to reflect the pattern of

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Answer: inequality between the world’s rich and poor.

Q24: Human migration from poor to rich nations are very different in their implications from those that are the other way around because

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Answer: it can exacerbate ‘brain-drain’ problems for poor nations.

Q25: Current concerns with respect to environmental protection cover a range of issues apart from which of the following

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Answer: The human rights of indigenous peoples and their cultures.

Q26: Socially enlightened organizations see environmental protection as

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Answer: an essential business tool in gaining and sustaining competitive advantage.

Q27: Which of the following is not normally perceived as a component of culture

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Answer: Motivation

Q28: Which of the following levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is most likely to be associated with consumers’ purchase of items of ostentatious consumption, such as a brand of champagne which is widely advertised for its exclusiveness

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Answer: Social esteem

Q29: Models of buyer behaviour tend to be more complex for services compared with manufactured goods. The most important reason for this is

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Answer: the fact that an important part of evaluation takes place during consumption.

Q30: A number of levels of sociological influence on the buying process can be identified. Which of the following is not generally accepted as a sociological source of influence

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Answer: Marketing influences

Q31: The understanding of cultural impact on consumer behaviour is crucial to successful cross-cultural marketing. Which of the following statements is not true

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Answer: When the ability to pay is low, consumers may focus more heavily on luxury features in making product evaluations on purchase decisions to ensure value for money.

Q32: Hofstede has identified 5 dimensions of culture which consist of

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Answer: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity and Confucian dynamism.

Q33: According to Hall, the context of culture can be identified as either ‘high’ or ‘low’ context depending on

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Answer: the clarity of the spoken word and they ways in which communication are influenced by the surrounding.

Q34: Fang (2003) sees the study of culture incorporating three elements

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Answer: conditions in China, Confucianism and Chinese Stratagems.

Q35: Which of the following consequences is MOST likely to lead to an organizational buyer putting a greater emphasis on reliability and performance than on price

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Answer: Failure of the product could lead to lost sales or production for the company.

Q36: There are generally three types of business-to-business (B2B) buying

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Answer: Commodity trading, organizational buying and government procurement.

Q37: Corporate social responsibility can be defined as

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Answer: a commitment to improve community well-being through discretionary business practices and contributions of corporate resources.

Q38: Sustainable marketing (SM) involves principled marketing predicated on the tenets of the triple bottom lines, which cover

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Answer: Social, environmental and economic responsibilities

Q39: The following are the dangers of engaging in sustainable marketing except

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Answer: Enhanced corporate image and clout

Q40: Marketers are concerned about being ecologically responsible for the following reasons except

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Answer: there is a growing problem of obesity in adults and children globally.

Q41: Corporate codes of ethics are

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Answer: create guidelines for employees to work by.

Q42: Greenwashing refers to the practice of

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Answer: The attempt to create a false impression of environmental friendliness

Q43: Corruption can be defined as the abuse of public office for private gain and covers a wide range of local practices including

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Answer: bribery, fraud, money laundering, extortion and embezzlement.

Q44: Corruption may damage a country’s future business potential by

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Answer: directing scarce entrepreneurial talent away from the leading of growth and development activities into unproductive activities of little benefit to the countries concerned.

Q45: Ethical investment

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Answer: normally matches the performance of traditional investmentAndAn investment according to value principles

Q46: Socially responsible practice (SRP) is a major activity undertaken by a business organization to

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Answer: support social causes and to fulfill commitments to corporate social responsibility.

Q47: When a company collects data from national media, trade and technical press, government statistics and trade association information to learn more about an international market, it is utilizing

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Answer: Secondary data

Q48: An International hotel chain undertakes research into its customers’ perceptions of its service quality. To be effective, it should develop a programme of research which is

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Answer: All of the above

Q49: Competitive market advantage is most likely to go to the business organization which

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Answer: makes best use of the information available.

Q50: Which of the following BEST describes the role of international marketing research

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Answer: It is essentially about keeping in touch with customers and the broader marketing environment.

Q51: Which of the following statements about data collection techniques and use within companies is TRUE

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Answer: The range of techniques is increasing and companies often find themselves with more information than they can sensibly use.

Q52: The process of segmentation is essentially about

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Answer: identifying groups of buyers within a market place who have needs which are distinctive in the way that they deviate from the ‘average’ consumer.

Q53: As individuals pass through various lifecycles stages, which of the following statements is likely to be most generally TRUE

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Answer: Their ability to pay and preferences change.

Q54: Once the relevant segmentation criteria are selected, the marketer should then

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Answer: develop the appropriate segments.

Q55: Behaviour variables of segmentation may include

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Answer: All of the above

Q56: In selecting markets for targeting, the factors which affect choice of market concentration vs. Market diversification are

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Answer: Product, company, market and marketing factors

Q57: In making international market entry decision, the marketing ‘environmentals’ which need to be considered include

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Answer: Political, socio-economic, competitive, legal, technological and ethical factors

Q58: The incrementalist approach to making international market entry is more suitable to___businesses as it allows time to developed key relationships with customers and business partners

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Answer: inexperienced

Q59: Transactional Cost Analysis (TCA) Theory is based on the premise that an organization will internationalize if it can perform at a___transaction cost that if it exported or entered into a contractual arrangement with a local partner

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Answer: lower

Q60: Eclectic or Contingency Theory of Internationalization is built on three factors, which are

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Answer: ownership specific, location and internationalization.

Q61: The Bargaining Power (BP) approach to internationalization sees the choice of market entry mode as the outcome of negotiations between the___and the___of the host country

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Answer: organization; government

Q62: International Business Models are

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Answer: the basic business formula.

Q63: Which of the following statements best describes what exporting is

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Answer: Exporting is where a company sells its physical products that are manufactured outside the target country to the target country.

Q64: The choice and importance of the market entry mode depends on a number of factors. Which of the following is normally not a relevant factor

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Answer: Demographics

Q65: International franchising has become a driving force to internationalization for many industries EXCEPT___

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Answer: fresh cut flowers

Q66: Which of the following market entry modes allows the organization to exercise the highest levels of involvement and control

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Answer: Wholly owned subsidiaries

Q67: A sound analysis of the___competitors for a firm is critical in delivering the business mission of an organization

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Answer: direct and indirect

Q68: According to Porter (1985, 1990), the competitiveness of an industry is determined at the microeconomic level which rests on two interrelated areas i.e. the sophistication of business operations and strategy; and

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Answer: the quality of the microeconomic business environment.

Q69: Changing lifestyles and cultural practices, an aging population, HIV/AIDS infection rates, religion, rising education standards and other socio-economic factors have all led to

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Answer: the emergence of new segments and emergent patterns of consumption.

Q70: Which of the following is not a contributing factor to the increasing sophistication of business operations and strategy

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Answer: Customer perception of manufacturing techniques

Q71: A strategy is the comprehensive master plan stating how the organization will achieve its mission and objectives. In understanding a strategy, organizations aim to

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Answer: maximize competitive advantage and minimize weaknesses.

Q72: Total Customer Value = Perceptions of Benefits minus___

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Answer: Total cost of ownership

Q73: Which of the following is not a facet of competitive advantage according to Ma (1999)

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Answer: Technique

Q74: The resource-based theory of competitive advantage emphasizes on___as the foundation for developing competitive advantage

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Answer: the organization’s resources and capabilities.

Q75: The ways in which organizations discharge their moral and ethical responsibilities is increasingly being scrutinized because

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Answer: the economic activities of many multinational organizations impact on the lives of global citizens and the physical environments.

Q76: Which of the following is not a benefit of using the new electronic media in international marketing

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Answer: Due to increase of electronic communication, it inevitably creates more wasteful, unwanted and unselective advertising.

Q77: The components of a product or service offer include

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Answer: core benefits, attributes or features, support and services, and potential benefits.

Q78: The new product development process involves a number of stages. The best estimate of the new product’s likely profitability is likely to be made at which of these stages

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Answer: Market testing

Q79: Which of the following is NOT a benefit of product standardization in international markets

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Answer: Greater motivation by local management

Q80: An organization embarks on an international product strategy depending on a decision on a number of factors, which include

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Answer: All of the above

Q81: Which stage of the product lifecycle is marked by falling costs and rising revenues

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Answer: Growth stage

Q82: At which stage in the International Trade Cycle does a country usually import foreign goods

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Answer: Introduction stage

Q83: To have value, a brand must offer which one of the following

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Answer: Consistency, a reduced level of perceived risk for the buyer, and a range of functional and emotional attributes which are of value to buyers.

Q84: Choosing a suitable international brand name is an important, but often difficult, part of the process that creates a strong and distinctive brand. Which of the following statements about choosing a name for a new soft drink is UNTRUE

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Answer: The brand name must be modern and contemporary.

Q85: According to Holt et.al. (2004), the dimensions of global brand are

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Answer: Perceived value, global recognition and brand awareness

Q86: One approach to branding is to use the same brand name for everything a company produces. However there are several drawbacks to this approach. Which of the following is not an identified drawback to this approach

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Answer: It is more expensive as the company has to spend money promoting all its product and also itself.

Q87: Services today occupy a vital and growing role in the global marketplace due to the following contributing factors

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Answer: All of the above

Q88: The customer is an active participant in the service delivery processes. Therefore, the___of services results in customer-producer encounters being high contact in nature

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Answer: inseparability

Q89: Which of the following offers the best opportunity for an airline to recover from service failure associated with a cancelled flight

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Answer: Rapid diagnosis of customer needs and appropriate solution to problem.

Q90: Which of the following is not generally accepted as being part of the extended marketing mix for services

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Answer: Practice

Q91: Compared with low-contact services, customers of high-contact services are more likely to judge service quality on the basis of

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Answer: processes used in carrying out the service.

Q92: New communication technologies and social media are dramatically influencing services internationalization due to

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Answer: All of the above

Q93: In international services marketing,___is the approach that aims to achieve uniformity in service delivery wherever it is consumed; whereas___aims to develop ad deliver services as a tailor-made solution to the customer

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Answer: standardization; customization

Q94: In the extended 3Ps for services marketing mix, the___of a service may be a set of procedures, systems, mechanisms and/or a flow of activities that make up the entire service product

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Answer: process

Q95: In the absence of a physical product, service providers need to consider the use of___that enable customers to make a judgment on the service quality

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Answer: tangible cues

Q96: The providers of services with___can normally rely on export and import agents to manage the international service delivery without getting directly involved in the process

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Answer: high degree of tangibility

Q97: Two important trends affecting marketing communication planning are

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Answer: markets are increasingly becoming more fragmented and media availability and choice are growing.

Q98: Which of the following statements about marketing communication planning is UNTRUE

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Answer: One communication channel is chosen for all messages.

Q99: In general, at what point does the communication process finish

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Answer: It doesn’t – it is an ongoing process.

Q100: In principle, Public Relations activity should be designed to

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Answer: protect and improve the image of an organization and its products.