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Q1: What are the two main types of data that can be used in visual ethnography

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Answer: Extant and research-driven

Q2: What is the main difference between a focus group and a group interview

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Answer: Focus groups are used to study the ways people discuss a specific topic.

Q3: How have focus groups been used in market research studies

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Answer: To test new product and advertising concepts.

Q4: Why is it particularly difficult to get an accurate record and transcript of a focus group session

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Answer: Because there are many different voices to listen to at once.

Q5: When might it be useful to conduct a relatively large number of focus groups

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Answer: All of the above

Q6: What is the role of the moderator in a focus group

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Answer: To stimulate discussion and keep the conversation on track.

Q7: What are “natural groups” in the context of focus group research

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Answer: Groups of participants who already know each other.

Q8: What is a key advantage of a focus group

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Answer: It allows multiple participants’ perspectives

Q9: What are the two main forms of group interaction that Kitzinger identifies in focus group sessions

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Answer: Complementary and argumentative

Q10: Why have feminists argued that focus groups successfully avoid “decontextualizing” their participants

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Answer: Because they study the individual as part of a social context.

Q11: Which of the following is not a limitation of the focus group method

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Answer: It reveals the way social meanings are jointly constructed.

Q12: Conversation Analysis (CA) and Discourse Analysis (DA) differ from other qualitative research methods in that they treat language as

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Answer: a topic rather than a resource.

Q13: In CA, the term “indexicality” means that

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Answer: the meaning of an utterance depends on the context in which it is used.

Q14: Which of the following is one of the basic assumptions of CA

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Answer: Analysis is grounded in data

Q15: In a CA transcript, pauses and emphases are not to be regarded as

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Answer: Incidental or of little significance.

Q16: What is meant by the term “adjacency pair” in CA

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Answer: Two linked phases of conversation.

Q17: Heritage (1984, 1987) proposes that CA is governed by three basic assumptions, which are

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Answer: Talk is structured. Talk is forged contextually. Analysis is grounded in data.

Q18: What do discourse analysts study

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Answer: All of the above

Q19: What is meant by the term “ethnographic particulars”

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Answer: Factors outside the immediate context of an interaction.

Q20: Potter and Wetherell use the term “interpretative repertoires” to refer to

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Answer: the general resources people use to perform discursive acts.

Q21: The anti-realist inclination of many DA researchers is controversial because it leads them to claim that

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Answer: there is no pre-existing material reality that constrains individual action.

Q22: What are Scott’s four criteria for assessing the quality of documents

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Answer: Authenticity, credibility, representativeness, and meaning

Q23: What is a chief strength of semiotics

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Answer: It lets the researcher see beyond the everyday situations.

Q24: Why might a collection of personal letters from the early twentieth century be low in representativeness

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Answer: Because they were preserved by a small number of powerful companies only.

Q25: Why might business researchers be interested in analyzing photographs as a form of visual data

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Answer: All of the above

Q26: Which of the following is not an example of an official document

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Answer: A PhD student’s collection of interview transcripts.

Q27: Which of the following can be studied as a documentary source from the mass media

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Answer: Newspaper articles about a particular issue or event.

Q28: Why can it be difficult to establish the authenticity of virtual data

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Answer: Because we do not know who wrote the material on a web site.

Q29: Why is it important to study the way audiences “read” cultural documents

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Answer: Because their interpretation of it may differ from that intended by the author.

Q30: How does qualitative content analysis differ from quantitative content analysis

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Answer: It is less rigid, as researchers are constantly revising their concepts.

Q31: What is semiotics

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Answer: The science of signs.

Q32: In analytic induction, what happens if the researcher finds a deviant case

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Answer: They must either redefine or reformulate the hypothesis.

Q33: Which of the following is not a tool of grounded theory

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Answer: External validity

Q34: What do Strauss and Corbin mean by “open coding”

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Answer: Breaking data down and examining it to identify themes and concepts.

Q35: What is a “substantive theory” in Strauss and Corbin’s view

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Answer: One that relates to an empirical instance or substantive topic area.

Q36: What are memos

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Answer: All of the above

Q37: Why should you start coding your data as soon as possible

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Answer: To make sure that your initial theoretical ideas are imposed on the data.

Q38: Why are Coffey and Atkinson critical of the way coding fragments qualitative data

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Answer: Because it results in a loss of context and narrative flow.

Q39: What is the difference between a concept and a category in grounded theory

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Answer: Concepts are grouped into categories.

Q40: Why did Riessman (1993) have problems coding data using traditional qualitative methods

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Answer: Because narratives are unsuitable for coding.

Q41: What is one of the main ethical problems associated with conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data

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Answer: The participants may not have given informed consent to the reuse of their data.

Q42: What does the acronym “CAQDAS” stand for

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Answer: Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software

Q43: Which is the most effective CAQDAS programme

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Answer: There is no CAQDAS industry leader.

Q44: Which of the following is not a criticism of the use of CAQDAS in social research

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Answer: It is not very fast or efficient at retrieving sections of data.

Q45: Which of the following is a disadvantage of using multiple CAQDAS in different research projects

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Answer: It involves learning skills that are specific to each program.

Q46: What is the difference between a document and memo

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Answer: Memos are a type of document that enable you to record the insights, interpretations or understanding of the data. One feature of the grounded theory approach to qualitative data analysis is the use of memos in which ideas and illustrations might be stored by the researcher. A document is part of the data set.

Q47: In which window can you read through, edit, and code your documents

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Answer: Document Viewer

Q48: What are the two types of node used in NVivo

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Answer: Tree nodes and free nodes

Q49: You code your data in NVivo by

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Answer: applying nodes to segments of text.

Q50: Which of the following is a kind of search that can be carried out in NVivo

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Answer: All of the above

Q51: Which is the correct sequence for creating a memo in NVivo

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Answer: Sources, Memos, Create, New Memo in this folder

Q52: The natural sciences have often been characterized as being positivist in epistemological orientation. Which of the following has been proposed as an alternative account

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Answer: Realism

Q53: How is it argued that qualitative research can have “empiricist overtones”

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Answer: There is an emphasis on direct observation of people and social settings.

Q54: Why might we say that quantitative researchers also try to study social meanings

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Answer: Because surveys and questionnaires are used to examine attitudes and opinions.

Q55: Why does Bryman argue that research methods can be seen as relatively “free-floating” or autonomous

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Answer: Because there is no foreseeable connection between a researcher’s choice of method and their epistemological/ ontological beliefs.

Q56: Which of the following is not one of the contrasts that has been made to distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research

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Answer: Traditional versus modern

Q57: What does the term “quasi-quantification” refer to

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Answer: The use of words, such as, “many”, “some” or “often” in qualitative research.

Q58: Why is it argued that qualitative research may not really be “naturalistic”

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Answer: Because methods such as a focus groups constitute artificial social settings.

Q59: What is “ethnostatistics”

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Answer: The study of the way statistics are constructed, interpreted and represented.

Q60: In what way does the thematic analysis of interview data suggest quantification

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Answer: It involves establishing the frequency of particular words, phrases or themes.

Q61: How does quantification help the qualitative researcher avoid being accused of anecdotalism

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Answer: By providing an indication of the prevalence of an usual or striking response.

Q62: What is the name of one of the arguments that suggests that research methods are inextricably linked to epistemological commitments

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Answer: Embedded methods argument

Q63: Which version of the debate about multi-strategy research suggests that quantitative and qualitative research methods are compatible

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Answer: Technical version

Q64: What is triangulation

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Answer: Cross-checking the results found by different research strategies.

Q65: How might qualitative research facilitate quantitative research

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Answer: All of the above

Q66: How might quantitative research support qualitative research

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Answer: By identifying specific groups of people to be interviewed.

Q67: Quantitative research tends to bring out a static picture of social life. However, qualitative research depicts it as

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Answer: processual

Q68: How might qualitative research assist with the analysis of quantitative data

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Answer: By assisting the explanation of the relationship between two variables.

Q69: How might multi-strategy research assist with the study of different aspects of a phenomenon

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Answer: By revealing both the macro and the micro level.

Q70: When might unplanned multi-stage research be described as a “salvage operation”

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Answer: When the second research strategy is used to explain unexpected or puzzling results.

Q71: Which of the following is not a feature of multi-strategy research

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Answer: It is inherently superior to mono-strategy research.

Q72: Which of the following is not a problem associated with using websites as sources of data

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Answer: It is difficult to find any websites about most topics in business research.

Q73: What is distinctive about asynchronous online communication

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Answer: The interviewer and their respondents write at different times.

Q74: What is a virtual ethnography

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Answer: An ethnographic study of an online community or social setting.

Q75: Which of the following is a practical problem associated with asynchronous focus groups

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Answer: Moderators cannot be available online 24 hours a day.

Q76: An advantage of conducting an interview via Skype rather than face-to-face is that

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Answer: All of the above

Q77: Which of the following is not a disadvantage of conducting focus groups online

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Answer: Normally shy participants may find it easier to “speak” in this setting.

Q78: The two ways of distributing on-line surveys are

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Answer: By email and via the World Wide Web

Q79: What is the main advantage of an attached email questionnaire over an online social survey

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Answer: It retains more of the original formatting and so tends to look more attractive.

Q80: Why is it argued that samples recruited online are not representative of the general population

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Answer: Because Internet users are most likely to be white, young and middle class.

Q81: What is the advantage of using Internet surveys to supplement traditional postal questionnaires

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Answer: It boosts response rates by allowing people to respond in the way that is most convenient for them.

Q82: What is rhetoric

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Answer: The attempt to persuade or convince an audience, often through writing.

Q83: Which of the following is not usually found in a report of a quantitative study

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Answer: Confession

Q84: The introductory section of a research report should aim to

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Answer: All of the above

Q85: What is the purpose of the conclusion in a research report

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Answer: It summarizes the key findings in relation to the research questions.

Q86: In a report of quantitative research, an empiricist repertoire serves to

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Answer: give the impression that the results were objective and logically inevitable.

Q87: Which of the following is not normally included in a written account of qualitative research

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Answer: A decision to accept or reject the hypothesis.

Q88: What is a benefit of reflexivity

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Answer: It allows the researcher to be more self-aware

Q89: What is a key concept related to postmodernism

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Answer: Reflexivity

Q90: A reflexive business researcher will be inclined to write about

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Answer: The effects that their values, biases and theoretical leanings might have had upon the data collection and analysis.

Q91: Which of the following can be a problem when writing journal articles

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Answer: All of the above

Q92: Which of the following is not true about a cash budget

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Answer: Cash budgets include personal cash receipts and expenses.

Q93: A cash budget for the six months ended 30 September 2017 shows an anticipated overdraft of approximately £9,500. Which of the following would reduce the expected overdraft

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Answer: Assets being leased, rather than purchased for cash, in 2017.

Q94: Mark sells goods at a gross profit margin of 30%. Which of the following statements is true

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Answer: Goods sold for £800 will have cost Mark £560.

Q95: James sells bicycles at a gross profit margin of 40%. Which one of the following statements is true

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Answer: Bicycles costing £500 will be sold for £833.33.

Q96: Which of the following statements are not true

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Answer: Credit purchases are where the goods or services have not yet been received by the business and payment has not yet been made.

Q97: Izzy sells chocolate cakes at £6 each and each one costs her £4 to produce. During June 2017, Izzy made 200 cakes and sold 180 cakes. Her expenses amounted to £120 for the month. How much net profit did Izzy make in June 2017

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Answer: £240

Q98: Which of the following statements regarding trade payables is not true

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Answer: Trade payables owe money to the business.

Q99: Which of the following payments is revenue expenditure

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Answer: Cost of servicing the motor van

Q100: Which of the following is a capital expense

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Answer: Purchase of a motor van