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Q1: The term “secondary analysis” refers to the technique of

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Answer: analysing existing data that have been collected by another person or organization.

Q2: Why might secondary analysis be a particularly useful method for students

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Answer: It saves time and money.

Q3: Which of the following is not an advantage of secondary analysis

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Answer: It immerses the researcher in the field they are studying.

Q4: Which of the following is not a disadvantage of using secondary analysis

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Answer: It is a relatively expensive and time consuming process.

Q5: Which of the following provides official statistics that could be analysed as secondary data

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Answer: Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS)

Q6: Studying levels of labour disputes may provide unreliable and/or invalid data because

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Answer: All of the above

Q7: What is an outlier

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Answer: An extreme value at either end of a distribution.

Q8: What is meant by the term “grounded theory”

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Answer: Theoretical ideas and concepts should emerge from the data.

Q9: What is one of the main disadvantages of using the covert role in ethnography

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Answer: It is difficult to take notes without arousing suspicion.

Q10: What is the name of the role adopted by an ethnographer who joins in with the group’s activities but admits to being a researcher

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Answer: Participant-as-observer

Q11: What is meant by the term “theoretical saturation”

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Answer: The point at which a concept is so well developed that no further data collection is necessary.

Q12: Which of the following makes qualitative interviewing distinct from structured interviewing

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Answer: All of the above

Q13: Which of the following is not a type of qualitative interview

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Answer: Structured interview

Q14: Why is it helpful to prepare an interview guide before conducting semi-structured interviews

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Answer: So that the data from different interviewees will be comparable and relevant to your research questions.

Q15: Which of the following is not one of Kvale’s ten criteria of a successful interviewer

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Answer: Passive

Q16: What is a “probing question”

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Answer: One that encourages the interviewee to say more about a topic.

Q17: What can you do to reduce the time consuming nature of transcribing interviews

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Answer: All of the above

Q18: What is involved in “purposive sampling”

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Answer: Strategically selecting respondents who are likely to provide relevant data.

Q19: How does Oakley suggest that qualitative interviewing should be used as an explicitly feminist research method

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Answer: By creating a more equal relationship between interviewer and interviewee.

Q20: Which of the following is an advantage of qualitative interviewing relative to participant observation

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Answer: It allows you to find out about issues that are resistant to observation.

Q21: Which of the following is a disadvantage of qualitative interviewing relative to participant observation

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Answer: It may not provide access to deviant or hidden activities.

Q22: What should the moderator say in their introductory remarks

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Answer: All of the above

Q23: Which of the following is not one of the basic assumptions of CA

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Answer: Talk can be measured and predicted

Q24: In a CA transcript, what does the symbol “(.)”

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Answer: A slight pause

Q25: What have conversation analysts found that people generally do to “repair” the damage caused by a “dispreferred response”

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Answer: Provide accounts of their action.

Q26: The anti-realist inclination of many DA researchers is controversial because it leads them to assert that

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Answer: there is no pre-existing material reality that constrains individual action.

Q27: Why does Bryman raise questions about biographies of Walt Disney

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Answer: Because access to materials in the official Disney archives is tightly controlled.

Q28: How is CAQDAS different from quantitative data analysis software

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Answer: There is no industry leader.

Q29: Which of the following is not an advantage of using CAQDAS in social research

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Answer: It involves learning skills that are specific to each program.

Q30: In what format should you import your project documents from Word into NVivo

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Answer: .doc or .rtf

Q31: In which window can you read through, edit and code your documents

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Answer: Document Viewer

Q32: Which version of the debate about multi-strategy research suggests that quantitative and qualitative research are compatible

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Answer: Technical version

Q33: How might quantitative research facilitate qualitative research

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Answer: By identifying specific groups of people to be interviewed.

Q34: Whereas quantitative research tends to bring out a static picture of social life, qualitative research depicts it as

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Answer: processual

Q35: How might qualitative research help with the analysis of quantitative data

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Answer: By helping to explain the relationship between two variables.

Q36: How can multi-strategy research help us to study different aspects of a phenomenon

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Answer: By revealing both the macro and the micro level.

Q37: An advantage of conducting an interview online rather than face-to-face is that

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Answer: All of the above

Q38: What is the main advantage of an attached email questionnaire over an embedded one

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Answer: It retains more of the original formatting and so tends to look more attractive.

Q39: Postmodernist theorists challenge the idea of objective truth by arguing that

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Answer: there are many possible ways of interpreting and representing social reality.

Q40: Apart from postmodernism, what other intellectual trend has stimulated an interest in the way social scientists use rhetorical devices in their writing

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Answer: Social studies of science

Q41: The three forms of ethnographic writing that Van Maanen (1988) identifies are

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Answer: Realist tales, confessional tales and impressionist tales

Q42: What is distinctive about “Mode 2” knowledge production

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Answer: It involves academics, policy makers and practitioners in problem solving.

Q43: An understanding of business research methods is important because

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Answer: it helps you to avoid the common pitfalls of research methods, it helps you to critically read others’ research, and it helps you to better understand your own topics of interest.

Q44: What implications do values have on research

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Answer: The influence the ethical decisions of the researcher.

Q45: What is distinctive about ‘Mode 1’ knowledge

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Answer: The knowledge is driven by the academic agenda.

Q46: How important are ethical issues to your project

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Answer: They are very important at many stages of the research process. They have implications for what and who can be researched and for how research can be conducted.

Q47: Denscombe outlines 6 types of research questions. Which of the following is a type of research question

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Answer: Empowerment

Q48: What sources of information contribute to evidence-based management

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Answer: Practitioner expertise and judgment; evidence from the local context; critical evaluation of the best available research evidence; perspectives of those who may be affected by a particular decision (Briner et al. 2009: 19).

Q49: A literature review is an important part of the research process because

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Answer: it allows you identify and read key books and articles by some of the main figures who have written in the field.

Q50: Having no research questions or poorly formulated research questions will lead to poor research because

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Answer: The research is likely to be unfocused and I am likely to be unsure what data to collect.

Q51: What is data collection

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Answer: Gathering the information (data) which will help you address your research question

Q52: Which two uses for the term ’empiricism’ are correct

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Answer: First, it is used to refer to an approach to the study of reality that suggests that only knowledge gained through experience and the senses is acceptable. Second, it refers to a belief that the accumulation of ‘facts’ is a legitimate goal in its own right.

Q53: Deductive theory is the most common view of the relationship between what and what

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Answer: Deductive theory is the most common view of the relationship between theory and research.

Q54: The deductive process is a very linear-one step follows the other in a clear, logical sequence. This statement is

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Answer: Not always the case.

Q55: How many types of reasoning in organizational research are there

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Answer: Three: Theory-testing research, inductive-case research and interpretive research.

Q56: What is abductive reasoning

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Answer: A process whereby the researcher selects the ‘best’ explanation from competing explanations or interpretations of the data (Mantere and Ketokivi 2013).

Q57: What is positivism

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Answer: Positivism is an epistemological position that advocates the application of the methods of the natural sciences to the study of social reality.

Q58: Complete the statement with the correct verb. Interpretivism is a ‘XXXX’ epistemology to positivism

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Answer: contrasting

Q59: What does the term ‘ontology’ mean

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Answer: The term ontology is concerned with the nature of social entities.

Q60: Another term for the word constructionism is

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Answer: Constructivism

Q61: A paradigm is

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Answer: a cluster of beliefs and dictates which for scientists in a particular discipline influence what should be studied, how research should be done, and how results should be interpreted.

Q62: Which of the following requirements for a dissertation may depend on your institution

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Answer: All of the above

Q63: The role of a project supervisor is to

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Answer: provide academic support, guidance and critical feedback on your work.

Q64: Why is it important to have well formulated research questions

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Answer: All of the above

Q65: What did Marx (1997) mean when he suggested that “intellectual puzzles and contradictions” can be a possible source of research questions

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Answer: The researcher may feel that there is a contradiction in the literature, presenting a “puzzle” to be solved.

Q66: Which of the following is a criterion for a good research question

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Answer: Questions should connect with established theory and research.

Q67: Which of the following should be included in a research proposal

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Answer: Your choice of research methods and reasons for choosing them.

Q68: Which of the following should you think about when preparing your research

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Answer: All of the above

Q69: Why is it helpful to keep a research diary or log book while you are conducting your project

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Answer: To keep a record of what you did and what happened throughout the research process.

Q70: Which of the following are sampling considerations

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Answer: All of the above

Q71: What practical steps can you take before you actually start your research

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Answer: All of the above

Q72: Why do you need to review the existing literature

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Answer: To find out what is already known about your area of interest.

Q73: To read the literature critically means

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Answer: evaluating what you read in terms of your own research questions.

Q74: What can a researcher use the literature to achieve

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Answer: All of the above

Q75: A systematic literature review is

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Answer: a replicable, scientific, and transparent process.

Q76: Which of the follow is a benefit of a systematic review

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Answer: It reduces researcher bias and demands the researcher is comprehensive of their approach.

Q77: What is a limitation of systematic review

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Answer: The research cannot be defined into the impact of a single variable.

Q78: What is distinctive about a narrative literature review

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Answer: It serves as a means of gaining an initial impression of a topic, which you will understand more fully as you conduct your research.

Q79: When accessing the internet, which of these steps is the most essential

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Answer: They are all equally important

Q80: According to the Harvard referencing convention, pick out the correct version of showing this book in a bibliography

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Answer: Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011, 3e) Business Research Methods, Oxford; Oxford University Press

Q81: Which of the following statements about plagiarism is most accurate

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Answer: Any suggestion that we have written what another actually wrote is morally wrong. The whole point of a literature review is to show what we have read and what we thought about it.

Q82: What are some of the frequent frustrations in writing or reading about research ethics

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Answer: All of the above

Q83: Which of the following ideas is not associated with the stance of situation ethics

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Answer: Anything goes

Q84: How many categories of ethical principles do Diener and Crandell refer to

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Answer: Four: harm to participants; lack of informed consent; invasion of privacy; involvement of deception

Q85: Which of the following is a form of harm that might be suffered by research participants

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Answer: All of the above

Q86: Why is it important that personal data about research participants are kept within secure, confidential records

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Answer: In case individuals, places, or organizations can be harmed through identification or disclosure of personal information.

Q87: Which method is most commonly associated with a lack of informed consent

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Answer: Covert observation

Q88: Why is it “easier said than done” to ensure that the principle of informed consent is adhered to

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Answer: All of the above

Q89: Apart from the fact that it is “not a nice thing to do”, what is an important ethical disadvantage of deceiving participants

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Answer: It can damage the professional reputation of the researcher and their discipline.

Q90: Which of the following is an example of deception in business research

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Answer: The researcher representing their research as being about a different topic.

Q91: What problem does a research organization face when drawing up an ethical code

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Answer: Reflecting the difficulty of making truly ethical decisions.

Q92: An operational definition is

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Answer: a definition of a concept in terms of specific, empirical measures.

Q93: The difference between a measure and an indicator is that

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Answer: measures are unambiguous quantities, whereas indicators are devised from common sense understandings.

Q94: One of the preoccupations of quantitative researchers is with generalization, which is an indicator of

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Answer: External validity

Q95: Quantitative research has been criticized because

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Answer: the measurement process suggests a false and artificial sense of accuracy

Q96: A sampling frame is

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Answer: a list of all the units in the population from which a sample will be selected.

Q97: A simple random sample is one in which

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Answer: every unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

Q98: It is helpful to use a multi-stage cluster sample when

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Answer: All of the above

Q99: The standard error is a statistical measure of

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Answer: the extent to which a sample mean is likely to differ from the population mean.

Q100: What effect does increasing the sample size have upon the sampling error

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Answer: It reduces the sampling error.
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