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1. Which procedure is used as key element in a backward chaining algorithm?
a) Matching
b) Unification matching
c) Verification
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The unification matching procedure is a key element in a backward chaining.

2. What is the way of expressing an ordinary expression in terms of bits?
a) Datum
b) Data
c) Manipulation
d) Verification

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The process of expressing an ordinary expression in terms of bits is called datum.

3. What is the name of elements present in patterns?
a) Variables
b) Patterns
c) Pattern variables
d) Pattern elements

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Patterns can contain elements called pattern variables.

4. Which keeps variable binding on an association list?
a) Match
b) Compare
c) Equal
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Match keeps variables bindings on an association list.

5. Which is used to compare patterns and datums element by element?
a) Procedure
b) Compare
c) Equal
d) Matching

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] None.

6. What is the output of the given statement?

span class="sy0"> * (setf pattern-variable-expression '(? x))
* (setf datum 'apple)
* (setf bindings '((y red)))
* (second pattern-variable-expression)

a) X
b) Red
c) Apple
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The result will be x because the second element is referred in pattern. Output: X

7. What is the output of the given statement?

span class="sy0"> * (setf pattern-variable-expression '(? x))
* (setf datum 'apple)
* (setf bindings '((y red)))
* (list (second pattern-variable-expression) datum)

a) x
b) Y
c) Apple
d) Both x & Apple

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The elements from the given list is listed using the given statement. Output: (X APPLE)

8. What is the output of the given statement?

span class="sy0"> * (cons (list (second pattern-variable-expression) datum) bindings)

a) (X apple)
b) (Y orange)
c) (X apple) (Y orange)
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] This statement will list all the elements in datum and bindings. Output: ((X APPLE) (Y RED))

9. What is the output of the given statement?

span class="sy0"> * (defun add-binding (pattern-variable-expression datum bindings) 
  (if (eq '_ (extract-variable pattern-variable-expression)) bindings (cons 
  (make-binding (extract-variable pattern-variable-expression) datum) bindings)))
* (add-binding '(? _) 'apple '((y red)))

a) X
b) Y
c) (X apple)
d) (Y red)

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] This statement is used for adding a binding in the pattern. Output: ((Y RED))

10. What is the output of the given statement?

span class="sy0"> * (defun find-binding (pattern-variable-expression binding)
  (unless (eq '_(extract-variable pattern-variable-expression))
  (assoc (extract-variable pattern-variable-expression) binding)))
* (find-binding '(? _) '((x apple) (y red)))

a) X
b) Apple
c) T
d) Nil

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] This statement is used to find a binding in the given pattern. Output: NIL