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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which pattern is demonstrated in the following figure?
engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-pattern-making-q1
a) Split pattern
b) Skeleton pattern
c) Segmental pattern
d) Match plate pattern

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The important processes involved in the foundry are pattern making, mold making, and casting. A pattern is that part onto which the molten metal is poured to produce a casting. The given figure illustrates a split pattern type in pattern making process.

2. Why is split pattern preferred over solid pattern?
a) High structural strength
b) Simple geometry
c) High operable temperature
d) Requires lesser time

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A pattern having a complex geometry like one seen in the solid or single-piece pattern is difficult to remove from the mold. Therefore, split pattern eliminates the difficulty as different sections are produced separately.

3. How are the different sections of a split pattern joined?
a) Weld
b) Locknut
c) Dowel pin
d) Flange coupling

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A split pattern is preferred over a solid pattern as it is easier to remove from the mold. Two or three different sections are produced separately in this process. These separate sections are then joined together by using dowel pins.

4. A match plate is made of _________
a) Stainless steel
b) Wood
c) Copper
d) Teflon

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A match plate pattern is made in two halves mounted on both sides called match plate. This match plate is made of either aluminum or wood. The match plate is placed between the cope and the drag flasks by using locating pins.

5. What are sweep patterns used for?
a) Piston rings for IC engine
b) Circular castings in loam molding
c) Symmetrically shaped castings
d) Drainage fittings

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sweep patterns are used to generate surfaces of revolution like a cylinder and sphere. They are used to make large and circular castings in loam molding. Piston rings of IC engine can be made by match plate pattern, whereas drainage fittings can be made by using shell pattern.

6. What is the maximum allowable amount of moisture on wood?
a) 10%
b) 30%
c) 45%
d) 55%

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Wood is the most commonly used material for pattern making. It should not contain moisture of more than 10% in order to avoid warping and distortion. Metal spray coating up to 0.25 mm thick may be given on the pattern. Additionally, zinc and aluminum are used for coating the metals on the wooden surface.

7. What is the typical machining allowance for aluminum?
a) 0.5 mm
b) 1.6 mm
c) 2.4 mm
d) 3.0 mm

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The extra size given to a matter for machining purpose is called machining or finishing allowance. For aluminum of 0-300 mm, an allowance of 1.6 mm is permitted. For aluminum of 0-600 mm, the typical machining allowance is 3.2 mm.

8. Since wood is expensive for larger castings, __________ is used instead of a full pattern.
a) Loose piece pattern
b) Segmental pattern
c) Match plate pattern
d) Skeleton pattern

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] For larger casting of a simple shape in a solid pattern, a large amount of wood is required. This, therefore, increases the cost of operation. In such cases, skeleton pattern is used, which is simply a ribbed frame of the desired casting.

9. What kind of allowance is seen in this figure?
engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-pattern-making-q9
a) Drafting allowance
b) Camber allowance
c) Machining allowance
d) Shrinkage allowance

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The casting may distort or warp during cooking if it is an irregular shape. Due to this distortion, the casting may bend. To avoid this, the shape of the pattern is slightly bent into the opposite direction. This is the distortion or camber allowance.

Set 2

1. What is the primary component of crude oil?
a) Sulfur
b) Carbon
c) Hydrogen
d) Nitrogen

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Crude oil is greenish brown and viscous oil found on the earth’s surface. It is primarily composed of hydrocarbons (79.5-87.1%) followed by hydrogen (11.5-14.8%), sulfur (0.1-3.5%), and nitrogen and oxygen (0.1-0.5%).

2. How is crude oil separated?
a) Crystallization
b) Fractional distillation
c) Decantation
d) Sublimation

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Crude oil is usually suspended on a layer of brine with a deposit of gas over it. This form is usually not preferred for any useful applications. The crude oil is therefore separated by fractional distillation and converted into desired products.

3. What type of gas is LPG?
a) Gasoline
b) Kerosene
c) Uncondensed
d) Heavy oil

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Crude oil separated by fractional distillation is made into a number of products such as uncondensed gas. This gas is used for domestic and industrial applications by the name liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

4. What is the boiling temperature of petrol?
a) 40-120oC
b) 120-180oC
c) 180-250oC
d) 250-320oC

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Petrol, otherwise known as gasoline, is commonly used as motor fuel. It may also be used as a solvent and in dry cleaning applications. Petrol has a boiling temperature range of 120-180oC.

5. Which fuel/oil is used for obtaining gasoline?
a) Kerosene
b) Diesel
c) Heavy
d) Naphtha

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Heavy oil is a crude oil product used for acquiring gasoline by cracking process. It has a boiling temperature range of 250-320oC. This gasoline, in turn, is used for motor fuel.

6. Which of the following is not used as a lubricant?
a) Lubricating oil
b) Grease
c) Asphalt
d) Petroleum jelly

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Lubricating oils and grease are primarily used as lubricating agents, while petroleum jelly is used for lubrication as well as in cosmetics and medicines. Asphalt is a residue type product used for waterproofing of roofs and to make roads.

7. What is the function of petroleum coke?
a) Lubrication
b) In candles
c) As fuel
d) As solvent

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Petroleum coke is a carbon-rich group of products used as fuel. Petcoke is one such type of the product, which is derived from cracking process. Raw coke is referred to as green coke.

8. Carbon black and hydrogen can be manufactured using ________
a) Natural gas
b) Coal gas
c) Oil gas
d) Water gas

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Natural gas is obtained from wells in oil-rich regions. It acts as a domestic fuel and is also used to manufacture carbon black and hydrogen. Carbon black is used as a filler for rubber, whereas hydrogen is used in ammonia synthesis.

9. Coal gas is attained from to a process carried out at ________
a) 300oC
b) 700oC
c) 900oC
d) 1300oC

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Coal gas is produced by heating the coal at 1300oC when there is a lack of air. It is usually done in coke ovens or gas making retorts. This gas is colorless and is lighter than air.

10. Oil gas is obtaining by the cracking of ________
a) Kerosene oil
b) Diesel oil
c) Heavy oil
d) Gasoline

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Creating oil gas is a permanent process. This is done by breaking of complex hydrocarbons of kerosene into simpler forms. This process is known as cracking. Oil finds its application as a laboratory gas.

11. Which of these gases is used for heating open-hearth furnaces?
a) Oil gas
b) Producer gas
c) Biogas
d) Water gas

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Producer gas is known as a combination of combustible gases, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. This gas finds its application in the heating of open-hearth furnaces, muffle furnaces, and retorts used in the production of coke. Also, it can be used as a reducing means in metallurgical practices.

12. A process of production of water gas is carried out at ________
a) 140-200oC
b) 200-400oC
c) 650-750oC
d) 900-1000oC

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Water gas is formed by allowing steam and air to flow through hot coal and coke alternatively. This is maintained at about 900-1000oC in a steel vessel reactor. This gas is used a source of hydrogen and fuel gas, as well as an illuminating gas.

13. How is biogas prepared?
a) Decantation
b) Filtration
c) Fermentation
d) Sublimation

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Biogas is a cheap and convenient fuel used for cooking and for lighting. It is prepared by the anaerobic fermentation of cattle dung.

Set 3

1. Which of the following is not a name for phases present in a system of material in various conditions?
a) Phase diagram
b) Equilibrium diagram
c) Interstitial diagram
d) Constitutional diagram

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the phases present in the system of materials at various temperatures, pressures, and compositions. These diagrams show the constitution of alloys as a function of temperature under equilibrium conditions. They are otherwise also known as equilibrium or constitutional diagrams.

2. Which of the following cannot be obtained using a phase diagram?
a) Melting temperatures of various phases
b) Temperature range for solidification
c) Equilibrium solid solubility
d) Purity of materials

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the phases present in the system of materials at various temperatures, pressures, and compositions. It can be used to determine the melting temperature of various phases, the range of solidification, and equilibrium solid solubility of one element in another.

3. A specific body of material or a series of alloys with the same compositions is/are known as _________
a) Component
b) System
c) Alloy
d) Solute

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A component is considered as a pure metal or compound of an alloy, whereas alloys are mixtures of two or more metals or non-metals. The system may be defined as either a specific body of material or a series of possible alloys consisting of the same components.

4. How many types of systems are applicable for phase diagrams?
a) One
b) Two
c) Three
d) Four

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] System may be defined as either a specific body of material or a series of possible alloys consisting of the same components. A system having one component is called as a unary system. Similarly, two, three, and four component systems are called binary, ternary, and quaternary systems respectively.

5. The maximum concentration of solute that can be added is defined as ____________
a) Solution limit
b) Solubility limit
c) Concentration
d) Degrees of freedom

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Solubility limit is defined as the maximum concentration of solute that may be added without the formation of a new phase. An excess addition may result in the formation of another solid solution or compound. Degrees of freedom is defined as the number of independent variables that can be changed independently without changes in the phases of the system.

6. In this figure, what does O denote?
engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-phases-phase-diagrams-q9
a) Melting point
b) Boiling point
c) Triple point
d) Vaporization point

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] This graph illustrates the pressure-temperature diagram for a one-component phase diagram of the H2O system. The point O is marked as the triple point, which is the point at which three phases exist at the same time.

7. What is the triple point of water?
a) 0.0022oC
b) 0.0098oC
c) 0.022oC
d) 0.098oC

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The triple point is defined as the point at which three phases (liquid, solid, and vapor) exist at the same time. The triple point of water is 0.0098oC at pressure 4.58 mm of Hg.

8. How is Gibb’s phase rule defined?
a) C+P+1
b) C+P+2
c) C-P+2
d) C-P

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The number of phases present in an alloy depends on the number of elements of which it is composed. The Gibb’s phase rule is given by the equation F = C – P + 2. Here, F is the degrees of freedom, C is the number of components, and P is the number of phases.

9. What is the line QR in this fooling curve known as?
engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-phases-phase-diagrams-q9-1
a) Latent heating line
b) Eutectic compound system
c) Binary solid
d) Horizontal thermal arrest

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cooling curves are obtained by plotting the measured temperatures at equal intervals during the cooling period of a melt to a solid. This diagram shows the cooling curve for a pure metal or compound. PQ is a uniform curve, whereas QR is known as the horizontal thermal arrest.

10. Separation of single-phase solid regions from two-phase solid regions is done by _________
a) Solidus line
b) Liquidus line
c) Solvus line
d) Eutectic point

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The liquidus line separates liquid and liquid+solid phase regions, whereas solidus line separates solid and solid+liquid phase regions. A solvus line separates single-phase solid regions from two-phase solid regions.

11. The point at which two liquidus lines meet is known as __ ________
a) Eutectic point
b) Isothermal point
c) Solvus point
d) Peritectic point

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The liquidus line separates liquid and liquid+solid phase regions. Two liquidus lines meet at a point defined as the eutectic point. The corresponding temperature and composition are defined as eutectic temperature and eutectic composition.

12. Which reaction does this equation denote?
Liquid + Solid 1 → Solid 2
a) Eutectic
b) Peritectic
c) Eutectoid
d) Peritectoid

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In peritectic reactions, a solid and a liquid, due to the action of cooling, transform isothermally and reversibly into a solid with another composition. It is also known as an upside-down eutectic reaction.

13. Which reaction does this equation denote?
Solid 1 + Solid 2 →Solid 3
a) Eutectic
b) Peritectic
c) Eutectoid
d) Peritectoid

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In peritectoid reactions, two solid phases isothermally and reversibly transform into a solid with a third and different composition. It is also known as an upside-down eutectoid reaction. Such reactions are commonly found in Ni-Zn, Fe-Nb, Cu-Sn, and other systems.

Set 4

1. Which of the following represents the slip mode of plastic deformation?
a) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-plastic-deformation-q1a
b) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-plastic-deformation-q1b
c) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-plastic-deformation-q1c
d) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-plastic-deformation-q1d

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The first image shows an ordinary crystal lattice. The second image shows the mechanism of slip where a part of the crystal slides over another. The third image shows the twinning mode of plastic deformation in which the atoms rearrange themselves to form a mirror image. The last image shows a defect.

2. What is the SI unit for the stress of a material?
a) N
b) N m
c) N m-1
d) N m-2

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Stress is defined as the internal forces acting in a material. The various types of stresses are shear, tensile, yield, and ultimate tensile strength. All these stresses are defined as Newton/meganewton per square meter.

3.The process of increasing strength of a material by changing grain size known as __________
a) Grain boundary strengthening
b) Work hardening
c) Solid solution hardening
d) Precipitation hardening

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Grain-boundary strengthening is the technique of increasing the strength of materials by changing their average crystallite size. This is otherwise known as Hall-Petch method. The Hall-Petch constant is written in the form of MN m-3/2.

4. What is the value of Boltzmann’s constant?
a) 8.314
b) 1.38 * 10-23
c) 1.38
d) 8.314 * 10-23

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Boltzmann’s constant is associated with the kinetic energy of gas particles. It is denoted as gas constant divided by Avogadro’s number. The value of Boltzmann’s constant is 1.38 * 10-23 J K-1 and that of the gas constant is 8.314 J mol-1 K-1.

5. At what value of the index of strain rate sensitivity does the material behave superplastically?
a) 0
b) 0.2
c) 0.4 – 0.9
d) 1.0 – 1.2

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The relationship between stress and strain rate can be expressed as σ = A ϵm. Here, m represents the index of strain rate sensitivity. For m = 0.4 – 0.9, the material exhibits superplastic behavior.

6. What is the slip plane for an FCC crystal?
a) {110}
b) {111}
c) {112}
d) {123}

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A slip plane and a slip direction constitute a slip system of the material. FCC crystal exhibits slip plane {111} in the slip direction <110>.

7. How many slip systems are present in a NaCl crystal?
a) 3
b) 6
c) 12
d) 18

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A slip plane and a slip direction constitute a slip system of the material. Both FCC and BCC crystals have 12 slip systems, while HCP crystals have only 3 slip systems. A NaCl crystal has 6 slip systems.

8. According to ________ five independent systems are required to maintain the reliability of grain boundaries.
a) Hal-Petch principle
b) Mohr-Coulomb theory
c) Tresca criterion
d) Von Mises criterion

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In polycrystalline materials, a slip must be accommodated by a slip in adjacent crystals so that the grain boundaries remain continuous. According to the Von Mises criterion, at least five independent slip systems are required to maintain the integrity of grain boundaries during plastic deformation.

9. What is the CRSS value of a copper crystal?
a) 0.5
b) 0.75
c) 5
d) 15

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] CRSS is defined as the critical resolved shear stress of a material. For a copper crystal, it has an FCC structure and a CRSS value of 0.5. The CRSS values for aluminum, nickel, and iron and 0.75, 5, and 15 correspondingly.

10. What is the Hall-Petch constant for Iron?
a) 0.068
b) 0.11
c) 0.71
d) 1.77

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The grain-boundary strengthening method is otherwise known as Hall-Petch method. The Hall-Petch constant is denoted as k and has a constant value of 0.71 for Iron. This constant for aluminum, copper, and molybdenum is 0.068, 0.11, and 1.77 in that order.

Set 5

1. What is the value of dielectric constant of free space?
a) 8.854 * 10-9 F m-1
b) 8.854 * 10-12 F -1
c) 8.854 * 10-15 F -1
d) 8.854 * 10-6 F -1

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The dielectric constant is that value which designates the capacity of a material to store electrical energy. It is denoted by and has a value of 8.854 * 10-12 F m-1. Dielectric constant is denoted as Farad per meter.

2. What is the unit of polarization?
a) Cm
b) Vm-1
c) Cm-2
d) Fm2

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The unit of Polarization (P) and the Saturation Polarization (Ps) is given as coulomb per square meter (Cm-2). Coulomb meter (Cm) is used to denote the dipole moment, whereas farad meter square (Fm2) is used to denote electronic polarizability.

3. How is the dielectric strength denoted as?
a) s-1
b) Vm-1
c) Fm2
d) CV-1

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The dielectric strength of a material is defined as the maximum amount of electric field that it can withstand without a fracture. It is denoted as volt per meter (Vm-1) or newton per coulomb (NC-1). Dielectric strength can alternatively be referred to as electric field strength (E).

4. What is the charge of an electron?
a) 1.602 * 10-16
b) 1.602 * 10-17
c) 1.602 * 10-18
d) 1.602 * 10-19

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] An electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle having a mass of 9.1 * 10-31. It has an electronic charge of 1.602 * 10-19 C which is denoted by e or e-.

5. Which of the following factors are relevant for change in dielectric strength?
a) Decreases with a decrease in thickness
b) Decreases with a decrease in temperature
c) Decreases with an increase in humidity
d) Decreases with a decrease in frequency

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Dielectric strength is defined as the minimum applied voltage that would result in a fracture. The dielectric strength decreases with increase in thickness of the sample, operating temperature, and the frequency. Increased humidity decreases the dielectric strength in case of gases and air.

6. What is the dielectric constant of free space?
engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q6

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The dielectric constant is that value which denotes the capacity of a material to store electrical energy. It is denoted by engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q6a. It has a constant value of 8.854 * 10-12 Fm-1.

7. What is the electric polarizability of helium?
a) 0.18 * 10-40 Fm2
b) 0.35 * 10-40 Fm2
c) 1.43 * 10-40 Fm2
d) 3.54 * 10-40 Fm2

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The constant of proportionality of electric dipole moment is defined as electric polarizability. The polarizability increases with increasing volume of the atom. The electric polarizability of helium is 0.18 * 10-40 Fm2 and has the value of 0.35 * 10-40, Fm2 1.43 * 10-40 Fm2, and 3.54 * 10-40 Fm2 for neon, argon, and xenon in that order.

8. Which polarization process does this figure represent?
engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q8
a) Ionic
b) Electronic
c) Orientation
d) Space charge

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Atoms require an excess charge (either positive or negative) during chemical bonding. When an electric field is passed for this, the cations and anions may get displaced. The displacement for this electronic polarization is illustrated in the figure.

9. Which if the following shows space charge polarization?
a) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q9
b) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q9a
c) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q8
d) engineering-materials-metallurgy-questions-answers-polarisation-dielectrics-q9d

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In some instances, the materials begin to accumulate the charges at the electrode or interface. The diffusion of ions occurs over a distance, which causes a rearrangement or the dielectric medium. Such a reorganization is seen as the space charge polarization.

10. Polarization occurring due to magnetic moment is known as ______
a) Ionic
b) Electronic
c) Orientation
d) Space charge

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] When an electric field is applied to molecules having a dipole moment, they tend to rearrange themselves. This is due to the effect of applied magnetic field, which gives rise to paramagnetism.

11. What is the dielectric strength of mica?
a) 10 * 106 Vm-1
b) 100 * 106 Vm-1
c) 25 * 106 Vm-1
d) 15 * 106 Vm-1

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Dielectric strength is defined as the least amount of applied voltage that would result in a rupture. Mica is an important dielectric material having a dielectric strength of 100 * 106 Vm-1 and a dielectric constant of 8 at 60 Hz. The dielectric strength of fused silica, vulcanized rubber, and Bakelite are 10 * 106 Vm-1, 25 * 106 Vm-1, and 15 * 106 Vm-1 correspondingly.

12. What is the dielectric constant of Nylon 6, 6 at 60 Hz?
a) 3.5
b) 4
c) 7
d) 8

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The dielectric constant is that value which denotes the ability of a material to accumulate electrical energy. Nylon 6, 6 is an important dielectric material having a dielectric strength of 15 * 106 Vm-1 and a dielectric constant of 8 at 60 Hz, or 3.5 at 106 Hz. The dielectric constants of plasticized polyvinyl chloride and mica are 7 and 8 respectively.

13. The electrical response of a crystal is known as _______
a) Dielectric strength
b) Dielectric constant
c) Piezoelectric effect
d) Hysteresis

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The mechanical response of a ferroelectric crystal on the application of an electric field is known as the piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric effect can be seen in ferroelectric crystals. BaTiO3 is a common ferroelectric crystal, which is used for its piezoelectric properties in microphones, strain gauges, and sonar devices.

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