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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. What is the output of this C code?

  1.     #include <stdio.h>
  2.     struct student
  3.     {
  4.         char *name;
  5.     };
  6.     struct student s;
  7.     struct student fun(void)
  8.     {
  9.         s.name = "newton";
  10.         printf("%sn", s.name);
  11.         s.name = "alan";
  12.         return s;
  13.     }
  14.     void main()
  15.     {
  16.         struct student m = fun();
  17.         printf("%sn", m.name);
  18.         m.name = "turing";
  19.         printf("%sn", s.name);
  20.     }

a) newton alan alan
b) alan newton alan
c) alan alan newton
d) Compile time error

View Answer

Answer: a

2. What is the output of this C code?

  1.     #include <stdio.h>
  2.     struct student
  3.     {
  4.         char *name;
  5.     };
  6.     void main()
  7.     {
  8.         struct student s, m;
  9.         s.name = "st";
  10.         m = s;
  11.         printf("%s%s", s.name, m.name);
  12.     }

a) Compile time error
b) Nothing
c) Junk values
d) st st

View Answer

Answer: d

3. Which of the following return-type cannot be used for a function in C?
a) char *
b) struct
c) void
d) none of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d

4. What’s the output of the following code?

  1.     #include <stdio.h>
  2.     struct temp
  3.     {
  4.         int a;
  5.     } s;
  6.     void func(struct temp s)
  7.     {
  8.         s.a = 10;
  9.         printf("%dt", s.a);
  10.     }
  11.     main()
  12.     {
  13.         func(s);
  14.         printf("%dt", s.a);
  15.     }

a) 10 (Garbage Value)
b) 0 10
c) 10 0
d) (Garbage Value) 10

View Answer

Answer: c

5. Which of the following is not possible under any scenario?
a) s1 = &s2;
b) s1 = s2;
c) (*s1).number = 10;
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d

6. Which of the following operation is illegal in structures?
a) Typecasting of structure
b) Pointer to a variable of same structure
c) Dynamic allocation of memory for structure
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a

7. Presence of code like “s.t.b = 10” indicate.
a) Syntax Error
b) structure
c) double data type
d) An ordinary variable name

View Answer

Answer: b

8. The output of the code below is

  1.     #include <stdio.h>
  2.     struct student
  3.     {
  4.         char *name;
  5.     };
  6.     struct student fun(void)
  7.     {
  8.         struct student s;
  9.         s.name = "alan";
  10.         return s;
  11.     }
  12.     void main()
  13.     {
  14.         struct student m = fun();
  15.         s.name = "turing";
  16.         printf("%s", m.name);
  17.     }

a) alan
b) Turing
c) Compile time error
d) Nothing

View Answer

Answer: c

Set 2

1. Which of the following design term is perfectly applicable to the below figure ?
data-science-questions-answers-analysis-experimental-design-q1
a) Correlation
b) Confounding
c) Causation
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Confounding can be dealt with either at the study design stage, or at the analysis stage.

2. Point out the correct statement:
a) If equations are known but the parameters are not,they may be inferred with data analysis
b) If equations are not known but the parameters are,they may be inferred with data analysis
c) If equations and parameter are not,they may be inferred with data analysis
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Usually the random component of data is measurement error.

3. Which of the following is the top most important thing in data science ?
a) answer
b) question
c) data
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The second most important is the data.

4. Which of the following approach should be used if you can’t fix the variable ?
a) randomize it
b) non stratify it
c) generalize it
d) none of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] If you can’t fix the variable,stratify it.

5. Point out the wrong statement:
a) Randomized studies are not used to identify causation
b) Complication approached exist for inferring causation
c) Causal relationships may not apply to every individual
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Randomized studies are usually used to identify causation.

6. Which of the following is good way of performing experiments in data science ?
a) Measure variability
b) Generalize to the problem
c) Have Replication
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Experiments on causal relationships investigate the effect of one or more variables on one or more outcome variables.

7. Which of the following is commonly referred to as ‘data fishing’ ?
a) Data bagging
b) Data booting
c) Data merging
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Data dredging is sometimes referred to as “data fishing”.

8. Which of the following data mining technique is used to uncover patterns in data ?
a) Data bagging
b) Data booting
c) Data merging
d) Data Dredging

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Data dredging, also called as data snooping, refers to the practice of misusing data mining techniques to show misleading scientific ‘research’.

9. Which of the following figure correctly shows approximate order of difficulty ?
a) data-science-questions-answers-analysis-experimental-design-q9a
b) data-science-questions-answers-analysis-experimental-design-q9b
c) data-science-questions-answers-analysis-experimental-design-q9c
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Predictive analysis is the practice of extracting information from existing data sets.

10. If X predicts Y,it does mean X causes Y.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] If X predicts Y,it does not mean X causes Y.

Set 3

1. Which of the following would be more appropriate to be replaced with question mark in the following figure ?
data-science-questions-answers-basics-q1
a) Data Analysis
b) Data Science
c) Descriptive Analytics
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Data Science is a multidisciplinary which involves extraction of knowledge from large volumes of data that are structured or unstructured.

2. Point out the correct statement:
a) Raw data is original source of data
b) Preprocessed data is original source of data
c) Raw data is the data obtained after processing steps
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Accounting programs are the prototypical examples of data processing applications.

3. Which of the following is performed by Data Scientist ?
a) Define the question
b) Create reproducible code
c) Challenge results
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A data scientist is a job title for an employee or business intelligence (BI) consultant who excels at analyzing data, particularly large amounts of data.

4. Which of the following is most important language for Data Science ?
a) Java
b) Ruby
c) R
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] R is free software for statistical computing and analysis.

5. Point out the wrong statement:
a) Merging concerns combining datasets on the same observations to produce a result with more variables
b) Data visualization is the organization of information according to preset specifications
c) Subsetting can be used to select and exclude variables and observations
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Data formatting is the organization of information according to preset specifications.

6. Which of the following approach should be used to ask Data Analysis question ?
a) Find only one solution for particular problem
b) Find out the question which is to be answered
c) Find out answer from dataset without asking question
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches.

7. Which of the following is one of the key data science skill ?
a) Statistics
b) Machine Learning
c) Data Visualization
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Data visualization is the presentation of data in a pictorial or graphical format.

8. Which of the following is key characteristic of hacker ?
a) Afraid to say they don’t know the answer
b) Willing to find answers on their own
c) Not Willing to find answers on their own
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hacker is an expert at programming and solving problems with a computer.

9. Which of the following is characteristic of Processed Data ?
a) Data is not ready for analysis
b) All steps should be noted
c) Hard to use for data analysis
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Processing include merging,summarizing and subsetting data.

10. Raw data should be processed only one time.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Raw data may only need to be processed once.

Set 4

1. Which of the following clustering type has characteristic shown in the below figure ?
data-science-questions-answers-clustering-q1
a) Partitional
b) Hierarchical
c) Naive Bayes
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hierarchical clustering groups data over a variety of scales by creating a cluster tree or dendrogram.

2. Point out the correct statement:
a) The choice of an appropriate metric will influence the shape of the clusters
b) Hierarchical clustering is also called HCA
c) In general, the merges and splits are determined in a greedy manner
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Some elements may be close to one another according to one distance and farther away according to another.

3. Which of the following is finally produced by Hierarchical Clustering ?
a) final estimate of cluster centroids
b) tree showing how close things are to each other
c) assignment of each point to clusters
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hierarchical clustering is an agglomerative approach.

4. Which of the following is required by K-means clustering ?
a) defined distance metric
b) number of clusters
c) initial guess as to cluster centroids
d) all of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] K-means clustering follows partitioning approach.

5. Point out the wrong statement:
a) k-means clustering is a method of vector quantization
b) k-means clustering aims to partition n observations into k clusters
c) k-nearest neighbor is same as k-means
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] k-nearest neighbor has nothing to do with k-means.

6. Which of the following combination is incorrect ?
a) Continuous – euclidean distance
b) Continuous – correlation similarity
c) Binary – manhattan distance
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] You should choose a distance/similarity that makes sense for your problem.

7. Hierarchical clustering should be primarily used for exploration.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hierarchical clustering is deterministic.

8. Which of the following function is used for k-means clustering ?
a) k-means
b) k-mean
c) heatmap
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] K-means requires a number of clusters.

9. Which of the following clustering requires merging approach ?
a) Partitional
b) Hierarchical
c) Naive Bayes
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hierarchical clustering requires a defined distance as well.

10. K-means is not deterministic and it also consist of number of iterations.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] K-means clustering produces final estimate of cluster centroids.

Set 5

1. Which of the following goal is incorrectly represented in the below figure ?
data-science-questions-answers-common-distribution-q1
a) Relationship between variables
b) Distribution of variables
c) Inference about relationships
d) Causal

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Causal is not directly related to goal of statistical modelling.

2. Point out the correct statement:
a) The exponent of a normally distributed random variables follows what is called the log-normal distribution
b) Sums of normally distributed random variables are again normally distributed even if the variables are dependent
c) The square of a standard normal random variable follows what is called chi-squared distribution
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Many random variables, properly normalized, limit to a normal distribution.

3. Which of the following is incorrect with respect to use of Poisson distribution ?
a) Modeling event/time data
b) Modeling bounded count data
c) Modeling contingency tables
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Poisson distribution is used for modeling unbounded count data.

4. __________ random variables are used to model rates.
a) Empirical
b) Binomial
c) Poisson
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Poisson distribution is used to model counts.

5. Point out the wrong statement:
a) The normal distribution is asymmetric and peaked about its mode
b) A constant times a normally distributed random variable is also normally distributed
c) Sample means of normally distributed random variables are again normally distributed
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The normal distribution is symmetric and peaked about its mean.

6. Which of the following form the basis for frequency interpretation of probabilities ?
a) Asymptotics
b) Symptotics
c) Asymmetry
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Asymptotics is the term for the behavior of statistics as the sample size.

7. Bernoulli random variables take (only) the values 1 and 0.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Bernoulli distribution arises as the result of a binary outcome.

8. The _________ basically states that the sample mean is consistent.
a) LAN
b) LLN
c) LWN
d) None of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] LLN stands for law of large numbers.

9. Which of the following theorem states that the distribution of averages of iid variables, properly normalized, becomes that of a standard normal as the sample size increases ?
a) Central Limit Theorem
b) Central Mean Theorem
c) Centroid Limit Theorem
d) All of the Mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is one of the most important theorems in statistics.

10. The binomial random variables are obtained as the sum of iid Gaussian trials.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The binomial random variables are obtained as the sum of iid Bernoulli trials.