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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following is not a piezo-electric material?
a) quartz
b) rochelle salt
c) aluminium
d) barium titanate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Aluminium is not a piezo-electric material. Quartz is the most stable natural crystal with high mechanical and thermal stability and has voulme resistivity higher than 104 ohm-cm and small internal electric loss. Barium titanate ceramic is a ferroelectric crystal and has small voltage output.

2. Piezo-electricity is ____
a) sound electricity
b) pressure electricity
c) temperature electricity
d) photo electricity

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Piezo-electricity is pressure electricity. The piezo electric effect is a property of natural crystalline substance to develop electric potential along a crystallographic axis in response to the movement of charge as a result of mechanical deformation.

3. On applying electricity to piezo-electric material mechanical deformation occurs in the material.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Yes, on applying electricity to the piezo-electric material mechanical deformation occurs in the material. The piezo electric effect is a property of natural crystalline substance to develop electric potential along a crystallographic axis in response to the movement of charge as a result of mechanical deformation.

4. Which of the following is a material employed making diaphragm to measure pressure?
a) tourmaline
b) barium titanate
c) phosphor bronze
d) zirconate titanate

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Phosphor bronze is used to make diaphragm to measure pressure. The motion of diaphragm is measured in terms of electric signals. Tourmaline , barium titanate and zirconate titanate are piezo electric materials.

5. Principle behind strain gauge is _____________
a) variable resistance
b) variable inductance
c) variable capacitance
d) variable contact area

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The principle behind strain gaude is the variable resistance. The transducer is based upon the changed in resistance of a wire produced due to small mechanical displacement. A linear relation exists between the deformation and electrical resistance of a suitable selected gauge over a specified range.

6. On applying pressure to piezo-electric crystal, electricity is not generated.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] On applying pressure to piezo-electric crystal, electricity is generated. The piezo electric effect is a property of natural crystalline substance to develop electric potential along a crystallographic axis in response to the movement of charge as a result of mechanical deformation. Thus, piezo-electricity is pressure electricity.

7. The figure of merit which describes the overall behaviour of the wire under stress is determined from?
a) elastic modulus
b) gauge factor
c) elastic factor
d) gauge resistance

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The figure of merit which describes the overall behaviour of the wire under stress is determined from the gauge factor of the wire. Gauge factor gives information on the expected resistance change or output signal at maximum permissible elongation.the gauge factor determines to a large extent the sensitivity of the wire when it is made into a practical strain gauge.

8. Gauge factor is defined as _______________
a) (incremental change in resistance due to stress/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length)
b) (incremental change in resistance due to strain/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length)
c) (incremental change in resistance due to stress/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(incremental change in length/unstretched length of wire)
d) (resistance of an unstretched wire/incremental change in resistance due to stress)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length)l

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Gauge factor is defined as (incremental change in resistance due to stress/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length). Gauge factor gives information on the expected resistance change or output signal at maximum permissible elongation.the gauge factor determines to a large extent the sensitivity of the wire when it is made into a practical strain gauge.

9. Compensation for temperature variation in the leads can be provided by using ________ lead method.
a) six
b) four
c) three
d) two

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Compensation for temperature variation in the leads can be provided by using three lead method. In this method two of the leads are in the adjacent legs of the bridge which cancels their resistance changes and does not disturb the bridge balance. The third lead is in series with the power supply and is therefore independent of bridge balance.

10. Strain gauge is used to measure ______________
a) temperature
b) pressure
c) height
d) displacement

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Strain gauge is used to measure pressure. Its working principle is change in resistance. There are two type of strain gauges. Bounded strain gauge and unbounded strain gauge. Mostly used to measure the arterial and venous blood pressure in the body.

Set 2

1. Electrodes make a transfer from the __________ in the tissue to the electronic conduction which is necessary to make measurements.
a) electronic conduction
b) ionic conduction
c) electric conduction
d) impulsive conduction

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Electrodes make an exchange from the ionic conduction in the tissue to the electronic conduction which is important to make measurements. An electrolytic paste is applied between the electrodes and the skin to reduce skin contact impedance. The electrolyte also facilitates ionic conduction from the skin to the electrodes.

2. Surface electrodes damage the living tissues.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The surface electrodes pick up the potential difference from the tissue surface when placed over it without damaging the living tissues. They are placed above the skin and cause no harm to the living tissues. They capture the electrical activities of bunch of tissues together.

3. Deep-seated electrodes indicates the electric potential difference arising ________ the living tissues or cells.
a) inside
b) outside
c) around
d) adjacent

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Deep-seated electrodes indicate the electric potential difference arising inside the living tissues or cells. Surface electrodes indicates the electric potentials arising outside the living tissues that is on the surface of the skin. Needle electrodes are example of deep seated electrodes.

4. Impedance pneumography is a commonly-used technique to monitor a person’s _______
a) respiration rate
b) heart rate
c) pulse rate
d) skin impedance

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Impedance pneumography is a commonly-used technique to monitor a person’s respiration rate, or breathing rate. It is implemented by using two electrodes or four electrodes. Skin impedance is the resistance between the skin and the electrode. Heart rate measurement is called ECG.

5. Electrode paste ____________
a) increases contact impedance
b) equates contact impedance
c) reduces contact impedance
d) absorbs contact impedance

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In order to obtain a clearly established contact (low contact impedance) an electrolyte or electrode paste is usually employed as an interface between the electrode and the surface of the source of the event. It is placed between the skin and the electrode. It helps to get better signal acquisition.

6. Heart wall is made up of __________ layers.
a) 2
b) 4
c) 3
d) 7

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Heart wall is made up of three layers. First pericardium which is the outer layer of the heart. Second is the myocardium which is the middle layer of the heart and finally endocardium which is the inner layer of the heart wall.

7. All electrode potentials are measured with respect to which reference electrode?
a) hydrogen electrode
b) platinum electrode
c) calomel electrode
d) hydrogen absorbed on platinum electrode

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All electrode potentials are measured with respect to a reference electrode, usually that of hydrogen absorbed on platinum black. Thus, considering potential of hydrogen absorbed on platinum electrode to be zero, other all have positive of negative potentials.

8. What is the frequency range of ECG?
a) 70-120 Hz
b) 0.05-120 Hz
c) 5-120 Hz
d) 12-120 Hz

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Primary signal characteristics of ECG are: Frequency range: 0.05-120 Hz. Signal amplitude: 0.1-5 mV. Typical signal: 1mV.

9. What is the signal amplitude of EEG?
a) 2-200 µV
b) 2-200mV
c) 2-2000 µV
d) 2-2000mV

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The signal amplitude of EEG is between 2-200 µV. It is very small and requires special type of electrodes namely scalp electrodes. EEGs are difficult to capture because its signal range in very small and motion artifacts are much greater.

10. Needle electrode is used to measure ____________
a) EKG
b) EEG
c) EOG
d) EMG

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] EMG stands of Electromyogram. For recording action potential for individual motor units of muscle fiber, needle electrodes are used for better diagnostic information. These electrodes fall in the category of deep seated electrodes.

11. From equipment point of view, the respiratory system in the human body is a _________ system.
a) hydraulic
b) pneumatic
c) mechanical
d) electrical

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Respiratory system is a pneumatic system in which an air pump (diaphragm) alternately creates negative and positive pressures in a sealed chamber (thoracic cavity) and causes air to be sucked into and forced out of a pair of elastic bags (lungs). Blood circulatory system is related to hydraulic system.

12. Off-set potential is _____________
a) difference in half-cell potentials between two electrodes
b) sum of half-cell potentials between two electrodes
c) average of half-cell potentials between two electrodes
d) complement of half-cell potentials between two electrodes

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The difference in half cell potential that exists between two electrodes is called off-set potential. The differential amplifies used to measure potentials between two electrodes are generally designed to cancel the electrode offset potential so that only the signals of interest are recorded.

13. Which of the following is not preferred for electrode making?
a) Ag-AgCl
b) Copper
c) Stainless-steel
d) Gold

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Stainless steel in contact with a saline electrolyte produce a potential difference of 10 mV between the electrodes which is much more than the limit (i.e 2.5 mV). Ad-AgCl electrodes give almost noise free characteristics. They are also found to be acceptable from the point of view of long term drift.

14. Which of the following statement is false about polarizable electrodes?
a) they are made using stainless steel
b) used for recording resting ECG
c) retain a residual charge when exposed to large pulse of energy
d) can transmit small bioelectric signals even after getting exposed to large pulse of energy.

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Polarizable electrodes usually employ stainless steel and are used for resting ECG or other situations where there is small likelihood that the electrode would be exposed to a large pulse of energy (such as defibrillation discharge) in which case they would retain a residual charge, become polarized, and will no longer transmit the relatively small bioelectric signals, thus become useless.

15. Which electrodes can work even after being induced to large electric discharge such as defibrillation?
a) polarizing electrodes
b) magnetic electrodes
c) non-polarizing electrodes
d) electrolytic electrodes

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Non-polarizing electrodes are designed to rapidly dissipate any charge imbalance induced by powerful electric discharges such as a defibrillation procedure. Rapid depolarization enables the immediate reappearance of bioelectric signals on the monitor after defibrillation. For this reason, non-polarizing electrodes have become the electrodes of choice for monitoring in the intensive care units and stress testing procedures.

Set 3

1. Which of the following is not a fundamental block in recording systems?
a) electrodes and transducers
b) signal conditioner
c) analysis for the output
d) writing system

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Analysis of the output id not a fundamental block on the recording system. First the signals are collected from the host. Then they are sent for signal conditioning where they are amplified to desirable range and then the writing system prints the signals.

2. In medical recorders, the signal of interest are of the order of _______
a) nanovolts
b) microvolts
c) megavolts
d) volts

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The signals of interest in medical recorders are in the range of micro volts. They are captured by the help of sensitive electrodes and transducers and then amplified to certain higher level. After the amplification further processing is carried out.

3. In medical devices the amplifiers that are used for the amplification purpose of the input signal must have ___________
a) low frequency response
b) high frequency response
c) average frequency response
d) frequency response has no role to play in it.

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The bioelectric signals in medical science contains components of extremely low frequency. Thus the amplifiers must also have a low frequency response. The response should be down to less than one hertz which is a very frequent requirement.

4. To achieve the low frequency response for medical applications, the amplifier configuration must contain?
a) higher resistance
b) higher capacitance
c) lower resistance
d) lower capacitance

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] To achieve the low frequency response required for medical applications, the amplifier must have large values of coupling capacitance. In all RC-coupled amplifiers, low frequency response is limited by reluctance of the coupling capacitors. The response should be down to less than one hertz which is a very frequent requirement.

5. Filter that amplifies frequency above certain value is called?
a) low pass filter
b) high pass filter
c) band pass filter
d) band stop filter

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] High pass filter amplifies signal above a certain frequency. Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency. Band pass filter amplifies frequencies with in a certain band. Band stop filter amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band.

6. ____________ filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency.
a) band stop filter
b) high pass filter
c) band pass filter
d) low pass filter

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency. Band pass filter amplifies frequencies with in a certain band. Band stop filter amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band. High pass filter amplifies signal above a certain frequency.

7. Which of the following filter amplifies frequencies with a certain band?
a) band pass filter
b) band stop filter
c) low pass filter
d) high pass filter

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Band pass filter amplifies frequencies with in a certain band. Band stop filter amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band. High pass filter amplifies signal above a certain frequency. Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency.

8. ________________ amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band.
a) high pass filter
b) low pass filter
c) band pass filter
d) band stop filter

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Band stop filter amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band. High pass filter amplifies signal above a certain frequency. Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency. Band pass filter amplifies frequencies with in a certain band.

9. Active filters use opamps in addition to passive components in order to obtain better performance.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True. Active filters use opamps in addition to passive components in order to obtain better performance. Operational amplifiers are frequently used as the gain blocks in active filters. Passive components are resistors capacitors and inductors.

10. Which of the following component is not a part of passive filter?
a) resistor
b) operational amplifier
c) capacitor
d) inductor

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Operational amplifier is not a part of passive filters. It is a part of an active filter. Passive components are resistors capacitors and inductors. Active filters use opamps in addition to passive components in order to obtain better performance.

Set 4

1. Which of the following operators has an associativity from Right to Left?
a) <=
b) <<
c) ==
d) +=

View Answer

Answer: d

2. Which operators of the following have same precedence?

P. "!=", Q. "+=", R. "<<="

a) P and Q
b) Q and R
c) P and R
d) P, Q and R

View Answer

Answer: b

3. Comment on the following statement?

 n = 1;
   printf("%d, %dn", 3*n, n++);

a) Output will be 3, 2
b) Output will be 3, 1
c) Output will be 6, 1
d) Output is compiler dependent

View Answer

Answer: d

4. Which of the following option is the correct representation of the following code?

e = a * b + c / d * f;

a) e = (a * (b +(c /(d * f))));
b) e = ((a * b) + (c / (d * f)));
c) e = ((a * b) + ((c / d)* f));
d) Both e = ((a * b) + (c / (d * f))); and e = ((a * b) + ((c / d)* f));

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Verified by e = 1 * 2 + 3 / 4 * 5; and then using respective braces according to the option.

5. What care must be taken during swapping 2 numbers?

   b = (b / a);
    a = a * b;
    b = a / b;

a) Data type should be either of short, int and long
b) Data type should be either of float and double
c) All data types are accepted except for (char *)
d) This code doesn’t swap 2 numbers

View Answer

Answer: b

6. What should be the output of the following program:

  1.     #include<stdio.h>
  2.     int main()
  3.     {
  4.         int a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 4, e;
  5.         e = c + d = b * a;
  6.         printf("%d, %dn", e, d);
  7.     }

a) 7, 4
b) 7, 2
c) 5, 2
d) Syntax error

View Answer

Answer: d

7. Which of the following is the correct order of evaluation for the given expression?

a = w % x / y * z;

a) % / * =
b) / * % =
c) = % * /
d) * % / =

View Answer

Answer: a

8. Which function in the following expression will be called first?

a = func3(6) - func2(4, 5) / func1(1, 2, 3);

a) func1();
b) func2();
c) func3();
d) Cannot be predicted

View Answer

Answer: d

9. Which of the following operator has the highest precedence in the following?
a) ()
b) sizeof
c) *
d) +

View Answer

Answer: a

10. Which of the following is a ternary operator?
a) &&
b) >>=
c) ?:
d) ->

View Answer

Answer: c

Set 5

1. What does the following statement mean?
    int (*fp)(char*)
a) pointer to a pointer
b) pointer to an array of chars
c) pointer to function taking a char* argument and returns an int
d) function taking a char* argument and returning a pointer to int

View Answer

Answer: c

2. The operator used for dereferencing or indirection is ____
a) *
b) &
c) ->
d) –>>

View Answer

Answer: a

3. Choose the right option
    string* x, y;
a) x is a pointer to a string, y is a string
b) y is a pointer to a string, x is a string
c) both x and y are pointer to string types
d) none of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] * is to be grouped with the variables not the data types.

4. Which one of the following is not a possible state for a pointer.
a) hold the address of the specific object
b) point one past the end of an object
c) zero
d) point to a tye

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A pointer can be in only 3 states a,b and c.

5. Which of the following is illegal?
a) int *ip;
b) string s, *sp = 0;
c) int i; double* dp = &i;
d) int *pi = 0;

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] dp is initialized int value of i.

6. What will happen in this code?

  1.    int a = 100, b = 200;
  2.    int *p = &a, *q = &b;
  3.    p = q;

a) b is assigned to a
b) p now points to b
c) a is assigned to b
d) q now points to a

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Assigning to refrence changes the object to which the refrence is bound.

7. What is the output of this program?

  1.     #include <iostream>
  2.     using namespace std;
  3.     int main()
  4.     {
  5.         int a = 5, b = 10, c = 15;
  6.         int *arr[ ] = {&a, &b, &c};
  7.         cout << arr[1];
  8.         return 0;
  9.     }

a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) it will return some random number

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Array element cannot be address of auto variable. It can be address of static or extern variables.

8. The correct statement for a function that takes pointer to a float, a pointer to a pointer to a char and returns a pointer to a pointer to a integer is
a) int **fun(float**, char**)
b) int *fun(float*, char*)
c) int ***fun(float*, char**)
d) int ***fun(*float, **char)

View Answer

Answer: c

9. What is the output of this program?

  1.     #include <iostream>
  2.     using namespace std;
  3.     int main()
  4.     {
  5.         char arr[20];
  6.         int i;
  7.         for(i = 0; i < 10; i++)
  8.             *(arr + i) = 65 + i;
  9.         *(arr + i) = ' ';
  10.         cout << arr;
  11.         return(0);
  12.     }

a) ABCDEFGHIJ
b) AAAAAAAAAA
c) JJJJJJJJ
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Each time we are assigning 65 + i. In first iteration i = 0 and 65 is assigned. So it will print from A to J. $ g++ point1.cpp $ a.out ABCDEFGHIJ

10. What is the output of this program?

  1.     #include <iostream>
  2.     using namespace std;
  3.     int main()
  4.     {
  5.         char *ptr;
  6.         char Str[] = "abcdefg";
  7.         ptr = Str;
  8.         ptr += 5;
  9.         cout << ptr;
  10.         return 0;
  11.     }

a) fg
b) cdef
c) defg
d) abcd

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pointer ptr points to string ‘fg’. So it prints fg. Output: $ g++ point.cpp $ a.out fg