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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which among these is not the method of surface development?
a) Parallel-line development
c) Triangulation development
d) Geometric development

Answer: d [Reason:] There is nothing like Geometric development. The surface development methods are- Parallel-line Method: It is used for developing prisms and single curved surfaces like cylinders, in which all the edges/generation of lateral surfaces are parallel in each other. Radial-line Method: It is employed for pyramids and single curved surfaces like cones in which the apex is taken as centre and the slant edge or generator as radius of its development. Triangulation Method: It is used for developing transition pieces. Approximate Method: It is employed for double curved surfaces like spheres, as they are theoretically not possible to develop. The surface of the sphere is developed by approximate method. When the surface is cut by a series of cutting planes, the cut surfaces is called a zone.

2. The shape of the development of the surface shown will be as a _______________

a) Cube
b) Cuboid
c) Triangular prism
d) Cone

3. The front view obtained on the development of a square pyramid from its plan and front elevation which stands vertically on its base on H.P with one edge of the base parallel to V.P?
a) Square
b) Triangle
c) Trapezium
d) Rectangle

4. The top view obtained by the development of a square pyramid from its plan and front elevation which stands vertically on its base on H.P with one edge of the base parallel to V.P. will be?
a) Triangle
b) Square
c) Trapezium
d) Circle

5. For a cone, the front view will be a ___________with the slant edge showing the true length of the generator of the cone.
a) Square
b) Rectangle
c) Triangle
d) Circle

6. Which method is used for development of a sphere?
a) Parallel-line development
c) Triangulation development
d) Approximate method

Answer: d [Reason:] Approximate Method: It is employed for double curved surfaces like spheres, as they are theoretically not possible to develop. The surface of the sphere is developed by approximate method. When the surface is cut by a series of cutting planes, the cut surfaces is called a zone.

7. The development of cylinder is a _______
a) triangle
b) rectangle
c) square
d) trapezium

The figure above shows the development of a truncated rectangular prism. Step 1: Draw the stretch-out line in the front view, along the base of the prism and equal in length to the perimeter of the prism. Locate the fold lines on the pattern along the stretch-out line equal in length to the sides of the prism, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-1. Draw perpendicular construction lines at each of these points. Project the points 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the front view

Step 2: Darken lines 1-2-3 and 4-1. Construct the bottom and top, as shown and add the seam to one end of the development and the top and bottom.

8. Zone method is used to develop _____________
a) prism
b) pyramid
c) cone
d) sphere

Answer: d [Reason:] In this method the sphere is cut into a number of horizontal zones, each of which may be taken as frustum of a cone whose apex is at the extended chords. Now, develop each zone independently by radial line method. For example to develop the zone A, as it is a frustum of a rigid circular cone with its apex o, on the vertical axis of the sphere. Apply radial-line method and obtain the development of the zone.

9. The development of lateral surfaces of a pentagonal pyramid is ________
a) Five rectangles
b) Five squares
c) Five triangles
d) Five circles

Answer: c [Reason:] A pentagonal pyramid is a pyramid with a pentagonal base upon which are erected five triangular faces that meet at a point (the vertex). Like any pyramid, it is self-dual. The regular pentagonal pyramid has a base that is a regular pentagon and lateral faces that are equilateral triangles.

10. Rectangular prism is an example of __________
a) objects having isometric lines
b) object having non-isometric lines
c) object having curved surfaces
d) object having straight lines

Answer: a [Reason:] Isometric lines – Designating a method of projection (isometric projection) in which a three-dimensional object is represented by a drawing (isometric drawing) having the horizontal edges of the object drawn usually at a 30° angle and all verticals projected perpendicularly from a horizontal base, all lines being drawn to scale.

11. The nature of surface of sphere is ______________
a) plane surface
b) singly curved surface
c) singly or doubly curved surface
d) doubly curved surface

Answer: d [Reason:] Double-curved surfaces, such as a sphere do not produce true developments, because they do not contain any straight lines.

12. The method by which the development of surface of an oblique solid is obtained __________
b) parallel line
c) triangulation
d) approximation

Answer: c [Reason:] In this method, the lateral surfaces of the transition pieces are divided in to a number of triangles. By finding the true lengths of the sides of each triangle, the development is drawn by laying each one of the triangles in their true shapes adjoining each other.

Set 2

1. To make out an estimate for a work the following data are necessary-Drawing, Specification and ___________
a) materials
b) rates
c) labours
d) transportation

Answer: b [Reason:] The rates per unit of various items of work, the rates of various materials to be used in the construction, and the wages of different category of labour, skilled or unskilled as mason, carpenter, mazdoor, bhishti etc. available for preparing estimate.

2. _________________ is required for preliminary studies of various aspects of a work or project.
a) Supplementary Estimate
b) Plinth Area Estimate
c) Revised Estimate
d) Abstract Estimate

Answer: d [Reason:] to decide the financial position and policy for administrative sanction by the competent administrative authority. In case of commercial projects as irrigation projects as irrigation projects, residential building projects and similar projects which earn revenue income, the probable income may be worked out.

3. Approximate cost of a hostel building for 100 students @Rs.10000/- per student works out as Rs. 10 lakhs.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Approx. cost of a bed hospital @ Rs.50000/- per bed comes to Rs.50 lakhs. Approx. cost of a barrack of 10 bays @10000/- per bay comes to Rs.1 lakh.

4. Per kilometre basis depending on the nature of road, for 10 km of a state highway approx. cost @ Rs. 50000/- per 1 km works out as Rs. 5 lakh.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Per kilometre basis depending on the nature of road, for 10 km of a state highway approx. cost @ Rs. 500000/- per 1 km works out as Rs. 50 lakh.

5. The approx. cost of 10 km length of irrigation channel of 3 cu m per sec. capacity @ Rs.70000/- per km works out as Rs.7 lakh.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] For an irrigation project having a commanded area 2000 hectares, approx. cost @ Rs.1000/- per hectare comes to Rs.20 lakhs.

6. Approx. cost of a bridge of 3 spans of 50 m each span @Rs.30000/- per running m of span comes to 3*50*30000= Rs. 45 lakhs.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Per running metre of span depending on the roadway, nature and depth of foundation, type of structure, etc. For small culverts approx. cost may also be per number of culverts of different spans.

7. Approximate cost of sewerage project for a population of one Rs. 10/- head works out as Rs. 10 lakh.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Approximate cost of sewerage project for a population of one Rs. 100/- head works out as Rs. 100 lakhs.

8. Cube rate estimate is less accurate as compared to the plinth area estimate as the height of the building is also compared.
a) False
b) True

Answer: b [Reason:] Cube rate estimate is most accurate as compared to the plinth area estimate as the height of the building is also compared.

9. For storeyed building plinth area estimate is not prepared for each storey separately.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] For storeyed building plinth area estimate is prepared for each storey separately.

10. __________ is prepared on the basis of plinth area of building, the rate being deducted from the cost of similar building having similar specification, heights and construction, in the locality.
a) Cube Rate Estimate
b) Supplementary Estimate
c) Maintenance Estimate
d) Plinth Area Estimate

Answer: d [Reason:] Plinth area estimate is calculated by finding the plinth area of the building and multiplying by the plinth area rate. The plinth area should be calculated for the covered area by taking external dimension of the building at the floor level.

11. ________________is the amount provided in the estimate and bill of quantities for some specialised work to be done by a specialised firm; whose details are not known at the time of preparing estimate.
a) Prime cost
b) Provisional sum
c) Capital cost
d) Building cost index

Answer: b [Reason:] The work like installation of refrigerating machine; installation of lift, air conditioning, etc., for which full information and details may not be known at the time of preparing estimate and entering into contract and are require to be installed by a specialised firm, a sum.

12. In this method approx. total length of walls is found in running metre and this total length multiplied by the rate per running metre of wall gives a fairly accurate cost.
a) Annual repair
b) Item rate estimate
c) Approximate quantity method estimate
d) Cubical content estimate

Answer: c [Reason:] For this method the structure may be divided into two parts viz. Foundation including plinth and Superstructure.

13._______________ estimate is a detailed estimate and is prepared to maintain the structure or work in proper order and safe condition.
a) Supplementary and revised estimate
b) Maintenance estimate
c) Item rate estimate
d) Revised estimate

Answer: b [Reason:] For building; this includes white washing, colour washing, painting, minor repairs etc. For road works the A.R. estimate provides for patch repairing, renewals, repair of culverts, etc.

14. A large work or project may consists of several building or small works and each of these work is known as___________
a) sub-work
b) sub-project
d) sub-construction

Answer: a [Reason:] Detailed estimate of each sub-work is prepared separately and accounts of expenditure are kept sub-work wise.

15. The term ______________ is used to denote a procedure of costing or valuing an item of work on the basis of actual labourers and materials required.
a) prime cost
b) hour-work
c) day-work
d) sub-work

Answer: c [Reason:] Certain items of work which cannot be measured as- a design in the plaster work, front architectural finish of a building, work under water, etc. are valued and paid by ‘day work’. In such cases the schedule of rates of materials and different classes of labourers likely to be engaged in th work should be included in the tender and in contract agreement.

Set 3

1. _______________are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth’s surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.
a) Surfacework
b) Landwork
c) Earthworks
d) Hosework

Answer: c [Reason:] Typical earthworks include roads, railway beds, causeways, dams, levees, canals, and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes.

2. An ___________________beam is one in which the tension capacity of the tensile reinforcement is smaller than the combined compression capacity of the concrete and the compression steel (under-reinforced at tensile face).
a) extra-reinforced
b) less-reinforced
c) under-reinforced
d) over-reinforced

Answer: c [Reason:] When the reinforced concrete element is subject to increasing bending moment, the tension steel yields while the concrete does not reach its ultimate failure condition. As the tension steel yields and stretches, an “under-reinforced” concrete also yields in a ductile manner, exhibiting a large deformation and warning before its ultimate failure. In this case the yield stress of the steel governs the design.

3. When aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid _________that is easily poured and moulded into shape.
a) curry
b) furry
c) slurry
d) gel

Answer: c [Reason:] A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk. Slurries behave in some ways like thick fluids, flowing under gravity and are also capable of being pumped if not too thick.

4. Excavation may be classified by type of material- Earth excavation, _________ excavation, rock excavation, muck excavation, unclassified excavation.
a) bottom soil
b) sub-soil
c) topsoil
d) surface soil

Answer: c [Reason:] Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top 2 inches (5.1 cm) to 8 inches (20 cm). It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and is where most of the Earth’s biological soil activity occurs. Four elements constitute the composition of soil. Those elements are mineral particles, organic matter, water, and air. The volume of top soil consists of 50 to 80% of these particles which form the skeletal structure of most soils.

5. Heavy construction equipment is usually used due to the amounts of material to be moved – up to millions of cubic metres.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Earthwork construction was revolutionized by the development of the (Fresno) scraper and other earth-moving machines such as the loader, the dump truck, the grader, the bulldozer, the backhoe, and the dragline excavator.

6. In the past, earthwork excavating calculations were done by hand using a slide rule and with methods such as Simpson’s rule.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] In numerical analysis, Simpson’s rule is a method for numerical integration, the numerical approximation of definite integrals. The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer. The slide rule is used primarily for multiplication and division, and also for functions such as exponents, roots, logarithms and trigonometry, but typically not for addition or subtraction.

7. A mixture of bentonite and water used to make slurry walls.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. It was named by Wilbur C. Knight in 1898 after the Cretaceous Benton Shale near Rock River, Wyoming.

8. Manure slurry, a mixture of animal waste, organic matter, and sometimes water often known simply as “slurry” in agricultural use, used as fertilizer after ageing in a slurry pit.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] A slurry pit, also known as a farm slurry pit, slurry tank, slurry lagoon or slurry store, is a hole, dam, or circular concrete structure where farmers gather all their animal waste together with other unusable organic matter, such as hay and water run off from washing down dairies, stables, and barns, in order to convert it, over a lengthy period of time, into fertilizer that can eventually be reused on their lands to fertilize crops.

9. Chemical admixture may accelerate or slow down the rate at which the concrete hardens.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Chemical admixtures are added to achieve varied properties. These ingredients may accelerate or slow down the rate at which the concrete hardens, and impart many other useful properties including increased tensile strength, entrainment of air and water resistance.

10. Concrete can be formulated with high tensile strength, but always has lower compressive strength.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Reinforcement is often included in concrete. Concrete can be formulated with high compressive strength, but always has lower tensile strength. For this reason it is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension, typically steel rebar.

11. Reinforced concrete (RC) is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not.

12. Reinforced concrete can be classified as precast or postcast concrete.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Reinforced concrete can be classified as precast or cast-in-place concrete. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor system is key to creating optimal building structures. Small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a building.

13. The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is very small to that of steel, eliminating large internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is similar to that of steel, eliminating large internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction.

14. The reinforcement in a RC structure, such as a steel bar, has to undergo the same strain or deformation as the surrounding concrete in order to prevent discontinuity, slip or separation of the two materials under load.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Maintaining composite action requires transfer of load between the concrete and steel. The direct stress is transferred from the concrete to the bar interface so as to change the tensile stress in the reinforcing bar along its length, this load transfer is achieved by means of bond (anchorage) and is idealized as a continuous stress field that develops in the vicinity of the steel-concrete interface.

15. Prestressing concrete is a technique that decreases the load-bearing strength of concrete beams.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Prestressing concrete is a technique that greatly increases the load-bearing strength of concrete beams.

Set 4

1. ___________is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
a) Cultivation
b) Plantation
c) Watering
d) Irrigation

Answer: d [Reason:] Irrigation helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.

2. Name the type of irrigation, which is the oldest form of irrigation and has been in use for thousands of years.
a) Sub-surface irrigation
b) Surface irrigation
c) Canal irrigation
d) Rainwater irrigation

Answer: b [Reason:] In surface (furrow, flood, or level basin) irrigation systems, water moves across the surface of an agricultural lands, in an order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation. It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land.

3.____________ sometimes also called as localized irrigation, low volume irrigation, or trickle irrigation.
a) Macro-irrigation
b) Surface irrigation
c) Micro-irrigation
d) Farrow irrigation

Answer: c [Reason:] It is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Traditional drip irrigation using individual emitters, subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), micro-spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation, and mini-bubbler irrigation all belong to this category of irrigation methods.

4. Name the system, where water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots and water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop.
a) Pipe irrigation
b) Drop irrigation
c) Drip irrigation
d) Sprinkler

Answer: c [Reason:] This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, if managed properly, evaporation and runoff are minimized. The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly.

5. ___________is the injection of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other water-soluble products into an irrigation system.
a) Fertilization
b) Hybridization
c) Fertigation
d) Modification

Answer: c [Reason:] The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably however chemigation is generally a more controlled and regulated process due to the nature of the chemicals used. Chemigation often involves pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides, some of which pose health threat to humans, animals, and the environment.

6. In __________ irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns
a) sprinkler
b) drip
c) shallow
d) rotary

Answer: a [Reason:] A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

7. Subirrigation has been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from below the plants’ root zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table.

8. Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a technology designed specifically for subirrigation in only desert sands and heavy clays.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a technology designed specifically for subirrigation in all soil textures from desert sands to heavy clays. A typical subsurface textile irrigation system has an impermeable base layer (usually polyethylene or polypropylene), a drip line running along that base, a layer of geotextile on top of the drip line and, finally, a narrow impermeable layer on top of the geotextile.

9. Around 30% of wastewater produced globally remains untreated, causing widespread water pollution.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Around 90% of wastewater produced globally remains untreated, causing widespread water pollution. Increasingly, agriculture uses untreated wastewater as a source of irrigation water. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers.

10. Water use efficiency in the field can be determined as follows:
Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop x Water Applied to Field) % 100
a) False
b) True

Answer: a [Reason:] Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop %Water Applied to Field) x 100.

11. Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may improve the soil structure owing to the formation of fertile soil.
a) False
b) True

Answer: a [Reason:] Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure owing to the formation of alkaline soil.

12. What does IWMI stand for ?
a) International Water Management Institute
b) International Weather Management Institute
c) Irrigation Water Management Institute
d) International Waste Management Institute

Answer: a [Reason:] The International Water Management Institute IWMI is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia. Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.

Set 5

1. Metalling of road usually consists of ______ layers of coats.
a) 5
b) 3
c) 2
d) 6

Answer: b [Reason:] The soiling coat, inter coat and top coat. The metal may be stone ballast, brick ballast, kankar, etc. The inter coat and top coat are made with 12 cm (4 1/2 ”) thick layer loose compacted to 8 cm (3”). The soiling coat may be of brick flat or brick on edge, or of stone boulder or of same type as for the inter or top coat if the sub-soil is good, or may be of greater. The top or wearing coat may also be of cement concrete bituminous.

2. Calculate the quantity of metal required for a 3.70 m wide Macadam road for one kilometre length for one layer of 8 cm compacted thickness.
a) 444 cu m
b) 565 cu m
c) 454 cu m
d) 765 cu m

Answer: a [Reason:] Quantity of metal (loose) = 1000 m*3.70m *12 cm= 1000*3.70*.12=444 cu m Volume of loose metal gets reduced 1/3 on compaction.

3. Calculate the quantity of cement concrete for cement concreting one kilometre length of 3.70 m wide road for 8 cm thick layer. Also calculate cost at the rate of Rs.375.00 per cu m.
a) Rs.134440.00
b) Rs.191000.00
c) Rs.111000.00
d) Rs.211000.00

Answer: c [Reason:] Quantity of cement concrete = 1000*3.70*0.80=296 cu m Cost per kilometre of road =296*375.00=Rs.111000.00.

4. Calculate the number of standard modular bricks required for flat brick soiling for one kilometre length of 4.00 m wide road.
a) 2.4 Lakhs of bricks
b) 2.2 Lakhs of bricks
c) 6.3 Lakhs of bricks
d) 7.7 Lakhs of bricks

Answer: b [Reason:] No. of bricks for flat soling =1000*4.00 *55= 220,000 nos.= 2.2 Lakhs of nos. per sq m. For Traditional bricks 22.9*11.4*7.6(9”*4 1/2”*3”).

5. Find the area of permanent land required for a State Highway for one kilometre length, the width of permanent land being 30 m.
a) 0.5 hectare
b) 3 hectare
c) 4 hectare
d) 6 hectare

Answer: b [Reason:] Permanent land= 1000 *300=30000 sq m=30000/10000=3 hectare.

6. Find the area of temporary land required for one kilometre length of a road from the following data.
a) 32.50 m
b) 76.89 m
c) 39.50 m
d) 45.50 m

Answer: a [Reason:] Quantity of earthwork in embankment =(Bd+sd2)*length = (10*1.5+2*1.52)*1000=19.5*1000=19500 Area of temporary in embankment land=(19500)/(depth of borrowpit)=19500/0.30=65000 sq m 65000/10000=6.5 hectare Width of temporary land= Area /Length=65000 sq m/10000=65 m Width of temporary land on either side =65/2=32.50 m.

7. Below symbols refer to ____________

b) cautionary sign
c) mandatory sign
d) informative sign

Answer: c [Reason:] Mandatory signs are road signs which are used to set the obligations of all traffic which use a specific area of road. Unlike prohibitory signs, mandatory signs tell traffic what it must do, rather than must not do. Most mandatory road signs are circular, may use white symbols on a blue background with white border or black symbols on a white background with a red border, although the latter is also associated with prohibitory signs.

8. A road junction where typically three or more roads are joined by a circular section of road is called _________
a) intersection
b) merging
c) circulation

Answer: d [Reason:] A roundabout, also called a traffic circle, road circle, rotary, rotunda or island, is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island. So-called “modern” roundabouts require entering traffic to give way to traffic already in the circle and optimally observe various design rules to increase safety.

9. Road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side and falling away on the other is called _________
a) hill
b) corniche
c) cliff
d) cone

Answer: b [Reason:] A corniche is a road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side of the road and falling away on the other. The word comes from the French route à corniche or “road on a ledge”.

10. Symbol shown below represents ______sign.

a) power
b) police
c) parking
d) peace

Answer: c [Reason:] An information sign is a very legibly printed and very noticeable placard that informs people of the purpose of an object, or gives them instruction on the use of something. An example is a traffic sign such as a stop sign Information signs have been growing in visibility due to the explosion of sign technologies.

11. _____________curves are curves which, when viewed from the side, are concave upwards. This includes vertical curves at valley bottoms, but it also includes locations where an uphill grade becomes steeper, or a downhill grade becomes less steep.
a) Sag horizontal
b) Hog horizontal
c) Sag vertical
d) Hog vertical