Multiple choice question for engineering
1. Modern track typically uses _____________with a profile of an asymmetrical rounded I-beam.
c) hot-rolled steel
d) alloy of aluminium
Answer: c [Reason:] Unlike some other uses of iron and steel, railway rails are subject to very high stresses and have to be made of very high-quality steel alloy. It took many decades to improve the quality of the materials, including the change from iron to steel. The stronger the rails and the rest of the trackwork, the heavier and faster the trains the track can carry.
2. Name the form of track, the rails are welded together by utilising flash butt welding to form one continuous rail that may be several kilometres long.
Answer: b [Reason:] The preferred process of flash butt welding involves an automated track-laying machine running a strong electric current through the touching ends of two unjoined rails. The ends become white hot due to electrical resistance and are then pressed together forming a strong weld. Thermite welding is used to repair or splice together existing CWR segments. This is a manual process requiring a reaction crucible and form to contain the molten iron. Thermite-bonded joints are seen as less reliable and more prone to fracture or break.
3. What does the weight of the rails depends upon?
a) Speed of train
b) Gauge of the tracks
c) Nature of traffic
d) Speed of train, gauge of tracks and nature of traffic
Answer: d [Reason:] The weight of a rail per length is an important factor in determining rails strength and hence axle loads and speeds.
Weights are measured in pounds per yard or kilograms per metre; the pounds-per-yard figure is almost exactly double the kilograms-per-metre figure. Rails in Canada, the United Kingdom and United States are described using imperial units. In Australia, metric units are used as in mainland Europe.
Commonly, in rail terminology Pound is a contraction of the expression pounds per yard and hence a 132–pound rail means a rail of 132 pounds per yard.
4. Minimum depth of ballast prescribed of B.G. trunk lines of Indian Railways, is _________
a) 15 cm
b) 10 cm
c) 50 cm
d) 25 cm
Answer: d [Reason:] Track ballast forms the tracked upon which railroad ties (sleepers) are laid. It is packed between, below, and around the ties. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate drainage of water, and also to keep down vegetation that might interfere with the track structure. This also serves to hold the track in place as the trains roll by.
5. How is the boxing of ballast done?
a) Under the rails
b) At the rails
c) In between two rails
d) In between two sleepers
Answer: b [Reason:] Boxing is the loose ballast provided around sleeper while packing is compacted ballast cushion as per gradation below sleeper, boxing provides lateral stability to sleeper.
6. Coal ash (or cinder) is used in initial stages of a new construction of railway for __________
a) wooden sleepers
b) steel sleepers
c) cast iron sleepers
d) iron sleepers
Answer: a [Reason:] For preventing of wooden sleepers from termite and fungus.
7. In India the rails are manufactured bywhom?
a) Open hearth process
b) Duplex process
c) Open hearth process and Duplex process
d) Iron sleepers
Answer: c [Reason:] Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel. Since steel is difficult to manufacture due to its high melting point, normal fuels and furnaces were insufficient and the open hearth furnace was developed to overcome this difficulty.
A duplex locomotive is a steam locomotive that divides the driving force on its wheels by using two pairs of cylinders rigidly mounted to a single locomotive frame; it is not an articulated locomotive.
8. To prevent percolation of water into formation, what is the use of moorum?
a) Black cotton soil
b) Sandy soil
c) Clayey soil
d) Red soil
Answer: a [Reason:] It is taken out from earth/hills/mountain & 4/5 type of moorum are available & of different colour brown, dark brown, yellow or grey.
Type of moorum depends on their grain size, liquid limit, Plastic limit, moisture density relationship based on these parameters its selected & laid in layers as filling material under road, plinth, tanks, runways etc.
9. Wooden sleepers used on the girders of bridges, are generally made of ____
Answer: b [Reason:] Teak is strong. It is naturally oily, which makes it a very good material make outside furniture from. We say that it is very durable material. It is highly resistant to moisture, fire, acid and alkalis. It can be cut and shaped very easily. It does not corrode iron and steel.
10. Dimensions of a plate girder, are _________
a) 551 mm x 454 mm
b) 111 mm x 94 mm
c) 81 mm x 54 mm
d) 851 mm x 254 mm
Answer: d [Reason:] A plate girder is a girder that has been fabricated by welding plates together to create the desired shape. The fabricator receives large plates of steel in the desired thickness, then cuts the flanges and web from the plate in the desired length and shape. Plate girders can have a greater height than rolled steel girders and are not limited to standardized shapes.
11. Which is the best wood that can be used for wooden sleepers?
Answer: b [Reason:] Teak’s high oil content, high tensile strength and tight grain make it particularly suitable where weather resistance is desired. It is used in the manufacture of outdoor furniture and boat decks. It is also used for cutting boards, indoor flooring, countertops and as a veneer for indoor furnishings.
12. The type of switch generally used for B.G. and M.G. tracks, is _______
a) straight cut
b) over riding
Answer: b [Reason:] Metre gauge is the system of narrow gauge railways and tramways with a track gauge of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in). It has installations of around 95,000 kilometres (59,000 mi) in the world. It is the main gauge in some countries.
Broad gauge railways use a track gauge (distance between the rails) greater than the standard gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in).
13. What is coning of wheels?
a) Provide smooth running of trains
b) Prevent lateral movement of wheels
c) Avoid excessive wear of inner faces of rail
d) Provide smooth running of trains, prevent lateral movement of wheels and avoid excessive wear
Answer: d [Reason:] The coning of wheels helps to keep the vehicle centrally aligned on a straight and level track also. Slight irregularities in the track do occur as a result of moving loads and the vagaries of the weather. The wheels, therefore, move from side to side and therefore the vehicles sway. Due to the coning of wheels, this side movement results in the tread circumference of one wheel increasing over the other. As both the wheels have to traverse the same distance, this causes one wheel to slide. Due to the resistance caused by the sliding, any further side movement is prevented.
14. The sleepers which satisfy the requirements of an ideal sleeper are ___________
a) Cast iron sleepers
b) R.C.C sleepers
c) Steel sleepers
d) Wooden sleeper
Answer: d [Reason:] Wooden railway sleepers are also comparatively cheap, as well as light and easy to transport, install and maintain. The average timber railway sleeper weighs around 160lb-250lb, whereas an equivalent sleeper made of concrete could weigh anything up to 800lb. This means that wooden railway sleepers are quicker and easier to install initially and require little to no specialist equipment or vehicles for maintenance, which means cost-savings for rail operators.
15. At a rail joint, the ends of adjoining rails, are connected with a pair of fish plates and _______
a) 8 fish bolts
b) 4 fish bolts
c) 1 fish bolts
d) 2 fish bolts
Answer: b [Reason:] A fishplate, splice bar or joint bar is a metal bar that is bolted to the ends of two rails to join them together in a track. The name is derived from fish, a wooden bar with a curved profile used to strengthen a ship’s mast. The top and bottom edges are tapered inwards so the device wedges itself between the top and bottom of the rail when it is bolted into place.
1. A __________is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater, sewage flows for primary treatment.
a) drainage tank
b) pit latrine tank
c) harvesting water tank
d) septic tank
Answer: d [Reason:] Septic tank systems are a type of onsite sewage facility (OSSF). They can be used in areas that are not connected to a sewerage system, such as rural areas. The treated liquid effluent is commonly disposed in a septic drain field which provides further treatment. However, groundwater pollution may occur and can be a problem.
2. The term “septic” refers to ____________
a) anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank
b) refers to safety and precaution
c) drainage of waste materials
d) aerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank
Answer: a [Reason:] The term “septic” refers to the anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in the tank which decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank. Septic tanks can be coupled with other onsite wastewater treatment units such as biofilters or aerobic systems involving artificially forced aeration.
3. Figure shown below represents a symbol ‘A’, it signifies?
a) Septic tank
b) Soak pit
d) Water storing tank
Answer: a [Reason:] A septic tank collects and treats wastewater at a property that is not connected to the mains sewer system. Installed underground, a septic tank makes use of natural processes to treat the sewage it stores. Usually made up of two chambers or compartments, the tank receives wastewater from an inlet pipe. Wastewater enters the first chamber and separates over time, with solids settling at the bottom, oils and greases forming a layer of scum at the top, and a layer of relatively clear water remaining in the middle.
4. Septic tank is usually consists of brick wall in cement not less than _______
a) 20 cm
b) 100 cm
c) 80 cm
d) 200 cm
Answer: a [Reason:] Septic tank is usually consists of brick wall in cement not less than 20cm(9”) thick and the foundation floor are of cement concrete 1:3:6 or 1:2:4. Both inside and outside faces of wall and floor are plastered with a minimum thickness of 12mm thick cement mortar 1:3 and all inside corners are rounded.
5. Connecting pipe should be_______ mm minimum diameter.
Answer: a [Reason:] It may be of R.C.C, Hume pipe, cast iron pipe, S.W. Inlet and outlet may be made through T-junction pipe or baffle wall of precast R.C.C. may be provided at a distance 1/5 of length of the septic tank so that the inlet sewage may not disturb the working of the tank.
6. Soak pit shall not be less than ____________
a) 45 cm
b) 90 cm
c) 50 cm
d) 100 cm
Answer: b [Reason:] Soak pit shall not be less than 90 cm in diameter and not less than 1.5 m in depth below invert level of the inlet pipe. The pit is constructed with lining of dry brick or stone with open joints backed with at least 7.5 cm thick coarse aggregate.
7. A _________is a type of toilet that collects human faeces in a hole in the ground.
b) septic tank
c) pit toilet
Answer: c [Reason:] A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human faeces in a hole in the ground. They use either no water or one to three litres per flush with pour-flush pit latrines. When properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human faeces in the environment from open defecation. This decreases the transfer of pathogens between faeces and food by flies.
8. The pit is typically at least ____________deep and ___________across.
a) 14 meters, 10 m
b) 30 meters, 15 m
c) 3 meters, 1 m
d) 11 meters, 9 m
Answer: c [Reason:] The World Health Organization recommends they be built a reasonable distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell. The distance from groundwater and surface water should be as large as possible to decrease the risk of groundwater pollution. The hole in the slab should not be larger than 25 cm (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. This may require the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use.
9. The size of the faeces drop hole in the floor or slab should not be larger than ____________
b) 25 cm
c) 45 cm
d) 250 mm
Answer: b [Reason:] The user positions themself over the small drop hole during use. The size of the feces drop hole in the floor or slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. This requires the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. However, in practice, such a lid is not commonly used as it is easy to lose it or for the lid to get very filthy.
10. As of 2013 pit latrines are used by an estimated ____________people.
a) 1.77 billion
b) 2.77 million
c) 1.77 billion
d) 4.66 billion
Answer: c [Reason:] This is mostly in the developing world as well as in rural and wilderness areas. In 2011 about 2.5 billion people did not have access to a proper toilet and one billion resort to open defecation in their surroundings. Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have the poorest access to toilets. In developing countries the cost of a simple pit toilet is typically between 25 and 60 USD. Ongoing maintenance costs are between 1.5 and 4 USD per person per year which are often not taken into consideration.
11. As a very general guideline it is recommended that the bottom of the pit should be at least _______ above groundwater level.
a) 0.5 m
b) 2 m
c) 12 m
d) 20 m
Answer: b [Reason:] As a very general guideline it is recommended that the bottom of the pit should be at least 2 m above groundwater level, and a minimum horizontal distance of 30 m between a pit and a water source is normally recommended to limit exposure to microbial contamination.However, no general statement should be made regarding the minimum lateral separation distances required to prevent contamination of a well from a pit latrine. For example, even 50 m lateral separation distance might not be sufficient in a strongly karstified system with a down gradient supply well or spring, while 10 m lateral separation distance is completely sufficient if there is a well developed clay cover layer and the annular space of the groundwater well is well sealed.
12. A _____________ houses the squatting pan or toilet seat and provides privacy and protection from the weather for the user.
Answer: d [Reason:] A shelter, shed, small building or “super-structure” houses the squatting pan or toilet seat and provides privacy and protection from the weather for the user. Ideally, the shelter or small building should have hand washing facilities available inside or on the outside (e.g. supplied with water from a rainwater harvesting tank on the roof of the shelter) although this is unfortunately rarely the case in practice. In the shelter, anal cleansing materials (e.g. toilet paper) and a solid waste bin should also be available. A more substantial structure may also be built, commonly known as an outhouse.
1. During lime concreting in foundation coarse aggregate shall be of hard, well-burnt or over-burnt brick ballast of _____ mm gauge.
a) 80 mm
b) 10 mm
c) 40 mm
Answer: c [Reason:] It shall be deep cherry red or copper colour and shall be clean, free from dust, dirt, and other foreign matters. It shall be homogeneous in texture and rough cubical in shape. Ballast which appears porous or shows signs of saltpetre shall not be used.
2. For lime concreting in roof terracing the concrete shall be kept wet for _____________
a) 6 hours
b) 24 hours
c) 28 days
Answer: d [Reason:] The wetting should be done by covering with straw or sand and watering frequently by water-can or driving into squares by mud kiaries which shall be kept flooded with water.
3. For ideal work, plastering should be applied in three coats- the rendering or first coat of 10 mm, the _____________________and finishing coat of 5 to 6 mm having a total minimum thickness of 20 mm.
a) scrubbing or second coat of 10 mm to 6 mm
b) floating or second coat of 10 mm to 6 mm
c) painting or second coat of 10 mm to 6 mm
d) layering or second coat of 10 mm to 6 mm
Answer: b [Reason:] The first coat shall be applied on the prepared raked cleaned and wetted surface by dashing the mortar and floated roughly with wooden float. It shall be kept damp for at least two days. When the first coat has sufficiently set, the surface shall be wetted and a second coat of plaster shall be applied and brought to true even surface and then lightly roughened with a wooden float to provide bond for the finished coat.
4. The detailed specification of an item of work specifies the qualities and quantities of materials, the proportion of mortar, workmanship, the method of preparation.
Answer: a [Reason:] The detailed specification of different items of work are prepared separately, and describe what the works should be and how they shall be executed and constructed. Detailed specification are written to express the requirements clearly in a concise form avoiding repetition and ambiguity.
5. If the soil is not good and does not permit vertical sides, the sides should be sloped back or protected with timber shoring. Excavated earth shall not be placed within 12m of the edge of trench.
Answer: b [Reason:] If the soil is not good and does not permit vertical sides, the sides should be sloped back or protected with timber shoring. Excavated earth shall not be placed within 1m of the edge of trench.
6. Any treasure and valuables or materials found during the excavation, shall be the property of the excavator.
Answer: b [Reason:] Any treasure and valuables or materials found during the excavation, shall be the property of the government.
7. Water, if any accumulates in the trench, should be bailed or pumped out without any extra payment.
Answer: a [Reason:] Water, if any accumulates in the trench, should be bailed or pumped out without any extra payment and necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent surface water to enter into the trench.
8. During lime concreting in foundation fine aggregate shall be of surkhi or sand or cinder as specified, and clean and free from dust, dirt, and foreign matters.
Answer: a [Reason:] Surkhi shall be made of well burnt bricks or brick bats and shall pass through a sieve of 2.5 meshes per sq cm. Surkhi is preferable for better concrete.
9. During lime concreting in foundation the concrete shall consists of 10 cu m of brick ballast, 0.92 cu m of surkhi and 0.6 cu m of white lime in the proportion of 100:32:16 by volume.
Answer: b [Reason:] During lime concreting in foundation the concrete shall consists of 1 cu m of brick ballast, 0.32 cu m of surkhi and 0.16 cu m of white lime in the proportion of 100:32:16 by volume.
10. During lime concreting in foundation if kankar lime is used 0.35 cu m of kanakar lime shall be used with 20 cu m ballast and no surkhi or sand or cinder shall be added.
Answer: b [Reason:] During lime concreting in foundation if kankar lime is used 0.35 cu m of kanakar lime shall be used with 1 cu m ballast and no surkhi or sand or cinder shall be added. When brick ballast is not available, in hill areas, stone ballast 40 mm gauge, sand and white lime may be used in the same proportion as above.
11. For controlling the amount of water in cement regular moisture test should be carried out to maintain the required consistency.
Answer: b [Reason:] For controlling the amount of water in cement regular slump test should be carried out to maintain the required consistency. A slump of 7.5 cm to 10 cm may be allowed for building work, and 4 cm to 3 cm may be allowed for road work.
12. Steel reinforcing bars shall be of mild steel or deformed steel of standard specifications.
Answer: a [Reason:] It shall be free from corrosions, loose rust scales, oil, grease, paint, etc. The steel bar shall be round and capable of being bent without fracture. Bars shall be hooked and bent accurately and placed in positions as peer design and drawing and bound together tight with 20 S.W.G. annealed steel wire at their point of intersection.
13. 1st class brick shall be soaked in clean water by submerging in a tank for a period of 2 hours immediately before use.
Answer: b [Reason:] 1st class brick shall be soaked in clean water by submerging in a tank for a period of 12 hours immediately before use. Soaking shall be continued till air bubbling is ceased.
14. Bricks shall be well bonded and laid in English bond unless otherwise specified.
Answer: a [Reason:] Every course shall be truly horizontal and wall shall been truly in plumb. Vertical joints of consecutive course shall not come directly over one another. Vertical joints in alternate course shall come directly over one another. No damaged or broken bricks shall be used.
15. For brickwork in mud mortar the bond of brickwork shall be of English bond.
Answer: a [Reason:] The mud should be made of selected earth of tenacious nature so that it sticks and binds bricks. The earth should be soaked in water at least one day before and then worked up with water by labourer trading it, until it is perfectly free from lumps and forms a thick plastic mix.
1. __________ is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.
a) Lime mortar
Answer: a [Reason:] Lime mortar today is primarily used in the conservation of buildings originally built using lime mortar, but may be used as an alternative to ordinary portland cement. It is made principally of lime (hydraulic, or non hydraulic), water and an aggregate such as sand.
2. The minimum cube strength of concrete used for a prestressed member, is ________
a) 50 kg/cm2
b) 150 kg/cm2
c) 350 kg/cm2
d) 100 kg/cm2
Answer: c [Reason:] M35 is minimum required concrete for prestressed concrete.
Here 35 is in N/mm2. So convert it into kg/cm2.
N/mm2 = 10 kg/cm2.
So 35 N/mm2 = 350 Kg/cm2.
3. Calculate the quantity of metal required for a 3.70 m wide Macadam road for one kilometre length for one layer of 8 cm compacted thickness.
a) 444 cu m
b) 565 cu m
c) 454 cu m
d) 765 cu m
Answer: a [Reason:] Quantity of metal (loose) = 1000 m*3.70m *12 cm= 1000*3.70*.12=444 cu m
Volume of loose metal gets reduced 1/3 on compaction.
4. Calculate the number of standard modular bricks required for flat brick soiling for one kilometre length of 4.00 m wide road.
a) 2.4 Lakhs of bricks
b) 2.2 Lakhs of bricks
c) 6.3 Lakhs of bricks
d) 7.7 Lakhs of bricks
Answer: b [Reason:] No. of bricks for flat soling =1000*4.00 *55= 220,000 nos.= 2.2 Lakhs of nos. per sq m. For Traditional bricks 22.9*11.4*7.6(9”*4 1/2”*3”).
5. Thickness of a pavement may be reduced considerably by________
a) Drainage of soil
b) Stabilisation of soil
c) Compaction of soil
d) Drainage of soil, Stabilisation of soil and Compaction of soil
Answer: d [Reason:] The major factors which governs the thickness of the pavement are ‘Traffic’ and ‘subgrade soil strength’ apart from climatic conditions ( frost action etc.), material characteristics etc.
However, there were no options related to the above discussed.
Option (A) affects the thickness because the subgrade soil strength (measured in CBR (%)) changes with the density of the soil.
Option (B) also affects the thickness because the stabilized soils do possess higher soil strength/desired properties than the unstabilized.
Option (C) deals with the drainage of the soils. Drainage affects the performance of the pavement. If the pavement results in a poor performance under drainage condition, an additional “drainage layer” should be provided (IRC 37:2012) and also while strengthening the roads, it is expected to get more characteristic deflection results in providing more thickness than the properly drained pavement.
6. The usual width of parapet walls along Highways in hilly region, is ____________
a) 60 cm
b) 20 cm
c) 70 cm
d) 40 cm
Answer: a [Reason:] A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure. The word comes ultimately from the Italian parapetto. The German equivalent Brustwehr has the same meaning. Where extending above a roof, a parapet may simply be the portion of an exterior wall that continues above the line of the roof surface, or may be a continuation of a vertical feature beneath the roof such as a fire wall or party wall.
7. The road foundation for modern highways construction, was developed by ____________
d) Telford and Macadam simultaneously.
Answer: d [Reason:] Thomas Telford, born in Dumfriesshire Scotland, was a surveyor and engineer who applied Tresaguet’s road building theories. In 1801 Telford worked for the British Commission of Highlands Roads and Bridges. He became director of the Holyhead Road Commission between 1815 and 1830. Telford extended Tresaguet’s theories, but emphasized high-quality stone. He recognized that some of the road problems of the French could be avoided by using cubical stone blocks.
John Loudon McAdam was born in Ayr, Scotland in 1756. In 1787 he became a trustee of the Ayrshire Turnpike in the Scottish Lowlands and during the next seven years this hobby became an obsession. He moved to Bristol, England in 1802 and became a Commissioner for Paving in 1806. On 15 January 1816 he was elected Surveyor-General of roads for the Turnpike Trust, and was now responsible for 149 miles of road. McAdam first put his ideas about road construction into major practice, the first ‘macadamised’ stretch of road being Marsh Road at Ashton Gate, Bristol.
8. In water bound macadam roads, binding material, is __________
a) stone dust
c) brick dust
Answer: a [Reason:] Stone dust is like a darker, coarser version of sand. It is a byproduct of running stones through a crushing machine to make crushed stone. Its exact composition will obviously depend on what kind of stone was run through the machine. For instance, sometimes granite is run through such a machine; in other cases, it could be limestone, for example. The machine has a screen that traps the larger material (that is, the crushed stone). The smaller material or “screenings” falls through the screen. Depending on the size of the holes in the screen used, it can be so fine in texture that it is basically a powder.
9. The distance travelled by revolving the wheel of a vehicle more than its circumferential movement, is known as __________
c) slip and skid
Answer: b [Reason:] An automobile skid is an automobile handling condition where one or more tires are slipping relative to the road, and the overall handling of the vehicle has been affected.
In (automotive) vehicle dynamics, slip is the relative motion between a tire and the road surface it is moving on. This slip can be generated either by the tire’s rotational speed being greater or less than the free-rolling speed (usually described as percent slip), or by the tire’s plane of rotation being at an angle to its direction of motion.
10. The type of transition curves generally provided on hill roads, is ________
b) cubic parabola
Answer: d [Reason:] In case of transition curves, if traffic condition is mixed then provision of speed is limited to 60% of max. speed of vehicle. One side of curve will higher then the other side for the case of accident of traffic.
Ideal Transition curve : Spiral or clothoid (Lemniscate for modern roads).
Valley curve : Cubic parabola.
Vertical curve : Parabola.
1. Total project time is the shortest project time in which the project can be completed.
Answer: a [Reason:] This is determined by a sequence of activities and known as ‘’Critical path’’. Activities which are not on the critical path are important but not critical akin to the activities falling within the critical path.
2. Critical path is represented by a thin line indicates the line of sequence of activity which must be completed on schedule.
Answer: b [Reason:] Critical path is represented by a thick line indicates the line of sequence of activity which must be completed on schedule.
3. The basic purpose of drawing a network diagram and its analysis is to control the activities strictly limited to time and sequence of events.
Answer: a [Reason:] In actual execution there is every likelihood of deviation from the fixed days due to circumstances. Deviation from the estimated dates and actuals have to be analysed critically and steps immediately taken to correct the same so that other linked events are not affected.
4. When a project has too many structures then it is prepared separately keeping in view the whole, and a combined critical path of the whole project is prepared linking one another.
Answer: a [Reason:] The critical path of the whole combination gives a complete picture of the whole project at a glance and helps the management to detect and to locate the bottlenecks of different works under different organisations and under different agencies and to take remedial actions well in advance and to exercise an overall control.
5. In developing a network diagram time flows from right to left.
Answer: b [Reason:] This flow is represented by an arrow, it can be defined as the sequence of activity on completion of which the entire project can be completed. In developing a network diagram succeeding events have a number higher than that of the preceding events.
6. ___________ is defined as a job or action to be completed, between two events within a project.
Answer: c [Reason:] The activity consumes time and money and is represented by an arrow indicating the sequence in which the events occur. Each activity is independent, and indicates such work as preparation of designs, scrutiny of tenders, laying of pipes, foundations, erections of frame, install mill work etc.
7. A ____________ is defined as accomplishment in planning a project.
Answer: b [Reason:] The Event is recognisable as a particular instant of time and not a passage of time and is represented by a geometrical figure such as circle, rectangle, square, etc. Beginning and end of a job or number of jobs are events.
8. Once a project is planned in terms of ‘events’ and ‘activities’ what next is important?
Answer: a [Reason:] Time required for completing each job has to be fixed with reference to attainable factors. A too short time or a too long time will prove unrealistic. Time duration has to be fixed with reference to experience, general availability of men and materials and completion of procedures.
9. ___________are a set of drawings or two-dimensional diagrams used to describe a place or object, or to communicate building or fabrication instructions.
Answer: b [Reason:] Plans are often for technical purposes such as architecture, engineering, or planning. Their purpose in these disciplines is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a site, building, product or component. Plans can also be for presentation or orientation purposes, and as such are often less detailed versions of the former.
10. This type of estimate is prepared by calculating building area and then multiplying area by predefined unit cost.
a) Unit Based Estimate
b) Model estimate
c) Project Comparison Estimate
d) Parametric estimate
Answer: a [Reason:] This type of estimate is prepared by calculating building area and then multiplying area by predefined unit cost. And then adjusted the cost by considering building height, length, width and other necessary building components. Required documents for preparing this type of estimate is a simple floor plan with measurement and key elevation of the building.