Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
nmims post
Objective Type Set
Online MCQ Assignment
Question Solution
Solved Question
Uncategorized

Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. FHR yields important information about the status of ________
a) fats
b) eye
c) fibrous joint
d) foetus

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The obstetrician is faced with the problem of having very few parameters available on which to base a diagnosis of foetal well-being or distress. In most cases, the condition of the foetus is assessed by studying the blood flow in the foetal heart and its heart rate. The foetal heart rate (FHR) yields important information about the status of the foetus, and therefore, has become a widely studied parameter in maternity cases.

2. Foetal Heart sounds are listened by digital stethoscope.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] False, Foetal heart rate monitoring in the labour ward has generally been carried out on an intermittent basis. It has been traditional to listen to the foetal heart sounds at intervals of up to every 15 minutes. This is done by using the Pinard stethoscope.

3. To listen to the foetal heart sounds at intervals of up to every _______ minutes is tradition.
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Foetal heart rate monitoring in the labour ward has generally been carried out on an intermittent basis. It has been traditional to listen to the foetal heart sounds at intervals of up to every 15 minutes. This is done by using the Pinard stethoscope.

4. How is assessment of the condition of foetus can be made during labour?
a) activity of sweat glands
b) baseline value of skin resistance
c) by foetal heart action
d) baseline value of breathing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An assessment of the condition of the foetus can be made during labour from the foetal heart action. Simultaneously, recording beat-to-beat foetal heart rate and uterine activity provides basic information for assessing the compensatory potential of the foetal circulatory system.

5. Which of the following instrument carries out a continuous and simultaneous recording of the instantaneous foetal heart rate and labour activity?
a) Electrocardiograph
b) Cardiotocograph
c) Electromyograph
d) Vectorcardiograph

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The instrument which carries out a continuous and simultaneous recording of the instantaneous foetal heart rate and labour activity is called cardiotocograph. In addition to detecting long-term bradycardia or tachycardia, this instrument helps in the evaluation of foetal heart rate response of the undisturbed circulatory system and response stimulated by uterine contractions.

6. Sensivity of _______ bpm/cm of recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorded FHR.
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cardiotocographs are designed to measure and record foetal heart rate on a beat-to-beat basis rather than on an average basis. Normally, an accuracy of measurement may be 2–3% for classification of responses. Sensitivity of 20 bpm/cm of recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorded FHR.

7. What is the used in Tocodynamometry to sense changes in uterine tension transmitted to abdominal skin surface?
a) U-Manometer
b) Barometer
c) Tocotonometer
d) Picometer

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Tocodynamometry is an indirect method to measure uterine contractionin cardiotographic monitoring during labour in which tocotonometer is used to sense changes in uterine tension transmitted to abdominal skin surface.

8. Which of the following is direct method for measuring foetal heart rate?
a) Abdominal foetal electrocardiogram
b) Foetal phonocardiogram
c) Ultrasound technique
d) Foetal ECG with scalp electrode

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Abdominal foetal electrocardiogram,foetal phonocardiogram and Ultrasound technique are indirect methods of measuring foetal heart rate where as Foetal ECG with scalp electrode is direct method as in it spiral,clip or suction electrode is attached to the presenting part of foetus.

9. Cardiotocographs are designed to measure and record foetal heart rate on an average basis.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] False, Cardiotocographs are designed to measure and record foetal heart rate on a beat-to-beat basis rather than on an average basis. Normally, an accuracy of measurement may be 2–3% for classification of responses.

10. What is accuracy of measurement for classification of responses?
a) 1-2%
b) 2-3%
c) 3-4%
d) 4-5%

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Cardiotocographs are designed to measure and record foetal heart rate on a beat-to-beat basis rather than on an average basis. Normally, an accuracy of measurement may be 2–3% for classification of responses.

Set 2

1. ______________ is not a piezo-electric material?
a) quartz
b) rochelle salt
c) aluminium
d) barium titanate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Quartz is the most stable natural crystal with high mechanical and thermal stability and has voulme resistivity higher than 10^4 ohm-cm and small internal electric loss. Barium titanate ceramic is a ferroelectric crystal and has small voltage output. Aluminium is not a piezo-electric material.

2. Which of the following is the correction option in relation to piezo-electricity?
a) sound electricity
b) pressure electricity
c) temperature electricity
d) photo electricity

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Piezo-electricity is pressure electricity. The piezo electric effect is a property of natural crystalline substance to develop electric potential along a crystallographic axis in response to the movement of charge as a result of mechanical deformation.

3. Mechanical deformation occurs in the piezo-electric material material on applying electricity.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is True. The piezo electric effect is a property of natural crystalline substance to develop electric potential along a crystallographic axis in response to the movement of charge as a result of mechanical deformation. On applying electricity to the piezo-electric material mechanical deformation occurs in the material.

4. ________________ material employed for making diaphragm to measure pressure.
a) zirconate titanate
b) barium titanate
c) tourmaline
d) phosphor bronze

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The motion of diaphragm is measured in terms of electric signals. Tourmaline , barium titanate and zirconate titanate are piezo electric materials. Phosphor bronze is used to make diaphragm to measure pressure.

5. Which of the following is the principle behind strain gauge?
a) variable contact area
b) variable inductance
c) variable capacitance
d) variable resistance

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The principle behind strain gaude is the variable resistance. A linear relation exists between the deformation and electrical resistance of a suitable selected gauge over a specified range. The transducer is based upon the changed in resistance of a wire produced due to small mechanical displacement.

6. Electricity is generated by a piezo-electric crystal on applying pressure to it.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is True. On applying pressure to piezo-electric crystal, electricity is generated. The piezo electric effect is a property of natural crystalline substance to develop electric potential along a crystallographic axis in response to the movement of charge as a result of mechanical deformation. Thus, piezo-electricity is pressure electricity.

7. ________________ is used to describe the figure of merit which determines the overall behaviour of the wire under stress .
a) gauge resistance
b) elastic factor
c) gauge factor
d) elastic modulus

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Gauge factor gives information on the expected resistance change or output signal at maximum permissible elongation.the gauge factor determines to a large extent the sensitivity of the wire when it is made into a practical strain gauge. The figure of merit which describes the overall behaviour of the wire under stress is determined from the gauge factor of the wire.

8. Which of the following s correct definition for Gauge factor?
a) (incremental change in resistance due to strain/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length)
b) (resistance of an unstretched wire/incremental change in resistance due to stress)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length)
c) (incremental change in resistance due to stress/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(incremental change in length/unstretched length of wire)
d) (incremental change in resistance due to stress/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length)

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Gauge factor is defined as (incremental change in resistance due to stress/resistance of an unstretched wire)*(unstretched length of wire/incremental change in length). Gauge factor gives information on the expected resistance change or output signal at maximum permissible elongation.the gauge factor determines to a large extent the sensitivity of the wire when it is made into a practical strain gauge.

9. Which lead method is employed to compensate for temperature variation in the leads?
a) hree
b) eight
c) sixt
d) two

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The third lead is in series with the power supply and is therefore independent of bridge balance. Compensation for temperature variation in the leads can be provided by using three lead method. In this method two of the leads are in the adjacent legs of the bridge which cancels their resistance changes and does not disturb the bridge balance.

10. Which of the following parameter is measured by strain gauge?
a) temperature
b) displacement
c) height
d) pressure

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Strain gauge is used to measure pressure. There are two type of strain gauges. Bounded strain gauge and unbounded strain gauge. Its working principle is change in resistance.Mostly used to measure the arterial and venous blood pressure in the body.

Set 3

1. The total amount of glomerular filtrate is about ____________ per day.
a) 180 liters
b) 18 liters
c) 18 ml
d) 180 ml

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The total amount of glomerular filtrate is about 180 litres per day, whereas the amount of urine formed from it is only 1–1.5l. This means that very large amounts of water, and other substances, are re-absorbed by the kidney tubules.

2. The amount of urine formed by an average kidney in one day is ________
a) 10-10.5 L
b) 10-15 ml
c) 1-1.5 L
d) 5 L

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The amount of urine formed by an average kidney in one day is 1-1.5 L. The total amount of glomerular filtrate is about 180 litres per day. Very large amounts of water, and other substances, are re-absorbed by the kidney tubules.

3. Which hormone of the pitutary gland helps to automatically reabsorb water from kidney.
a) Anti-diuretic hormone
b) Diuretic hormone
c) Pro-diuretic hormone
d) Pseudo-diuretic hormone

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The re-absorption is partly an automatic process, because the absorption of water is accurately controlled by the anti-diuretic hormone of the pituitary gland, in relation to the body’s need for water. The absorption of electrolytes such as sodium and potassium is partly controlled by the supra-renal gland and the concentration of others, like chloride and bicarbonate, is related to the acid-base balance.

4. The total blood flow through the kidneys is about _____________
a) 120 ml/min
b) 1200 ml/min
c) 200 ml/min
d) 10 ml/min

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The total blood flow through the kidneys is about 1200 ml/min. The absorption of electrolytes such as sodium and potassium is partly controlled by the supra-renal gland and the concentration of others, like chloride and bicarbonate, is related to the acid-base balance. Some of the re-absorption from the glomerular filtrate is also a passive, automatic process of diffusion depending upon pressure gradients.

5. The total extra-cellular fluid amounts to about _________
a) 1 litres
b) 15 milli-litres
c) 15 litres
d) 150 litres

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The total extra-cellular fluid amounts to about 15 litres. Some of the re-absorption from the glomerular filtrate is also a passive, automatic process of diffusion depending upon pressure gradients. The total blood flow through the kidneys is about 1200 ml/min.

6. Kidneys has no role maintaining the acid-base balance.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is false. Kidney plays an important role in maintaining the acid-base balance. . The water and electrolyte content of the blood plasma and, therefore, indirectly of the extra-cellular fluid are closely controlled by the kidneys. The blood plasma and the extra-cellular fluid are in equilibrium with each other and, therefore, an amount of blood equivalent to all the extra-cellular fluid can pass through the kidneys once every 15 minutes.

7. The symptoms and signs of profound renal malfunction are known as uremia .
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The symptoms and signs of profound renal malfunction are known as uremia, meaning urine in the blood. Since most urinary contents are water-soluble, they reach high concentrations in blood, and result in deranged body parts and their physiology.

8. Chronic renal failure results in changes in the body fluids which occur due to a _____________
a) progressive increase in the number of functioning nephrons
b) progressive decrease in the number of functioning nephrons
c) progressive decrease in the number of functioning neurons
d) progressive increase in the number of functioning neurons

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Chronic renal failure results in changes in the body fluids which occur due to a progressive decrease in the number of functioning nephrons. With the decrease in functional nephrons, the clearance of urea, creatinine and other metabolic waste products will decrease proportionally. In consequence, the plasma concentrations of these substances will rise.

9. Uremia is the clinical state resulting from _____________
a) renal failure
b) liver failure
c) kidney failure
d) lung failure

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Uremia is the clinical state resulting from renal failure. The signs and symptoms of uremia are extremely diverse and frequently appear to point to disease of other organs. Uremia affects every organ of the body as certain substances that accumulate in uremia are clearly toxic.

10. Dialysis takes place across a membrane of cellophane.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is true. The dialysate is an electrolyte solution of suitable composition and the dialysis takes place across a membrane of cellophane. The return of the dialyzed blood is by another plastic tube to an appropriate vein.

Set 4

1. What is the amount of blood in the average adult?
a) 5-10 liters
b) 10-15 liters
c) 5-6 liters
d) 5-15 liters

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The blood constitutes 5–10% of the total body weight and in the average adult, it amounts to 5–6 l. Blood consists of corpuscles suspended in a fluid called plasma in the proportion of 45 parts of corpuscles (cells) to 55 parts of plasma.

2. Which of the following is not the type of blood cell?
a) Erythrocytes
b) Thrombocytes
c) Leukocytes
d) Eosinocytes

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The percentage of cells in the blood is called the haematocrit value or packed cell volume (PCV). The majority of the corpuscles in blood are red blood cells (erythrocytes), others being white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).

3. Which of the following is the Red Blood Cells?
a) Erythrocytes
b) Leukocytes
c) Basophils
d) Monocytes

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells): Red blood cells have the form of a bi-concave disc with a mean diameter of about 7.5 m and thickness of about 1.7 m. The mean surface area of the cell is about 134mm2. There are about 5.5 million of them in every cubic millimetre of blood in men and nearly 5 million in women.

4.The normal red cell lasts approximately ______ before it is destroyed.
a) 90 days
b) 210 days
c) 120 days
d) 60 days

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In the whole body, there are about 25 billion erythrocytes and they are constantly being destroyed and replaced at a rate of about 9000 million per hour. The normal red cell lasts approximately 120 days before it is destroyed.

5. Who is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs?
a) Basophils
b) Eosinophils
c) RBC
d) Thrombocytes

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The erythrocytes have no nucleus. They are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Anaemia (reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood) can develop from a change in the number, volume or Hb concentration of erythrocytes, caused by bone marrow dysfunction resulting in the poor production rate of RBCs.

6. The main two types of leukocytes are ____________
a) The neutrophils and the thrombophils
b) The lymphocytes and the neutrophils
c) The neutrophils and the monophils
d) The lymphocytes and the monophils

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Leucocytes form the defence mechanism of the body against infection. They are of two main types: the neutrophils and the lymphocytes. Neutrophils ingest bacteria and lymphocytes are concerned with immunological response.

7. ______ play an important role in the blood coagulation process.
a) Platelets
b) Leukocytes
c) RBC
d) Neutrophils

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Platelets are usually tiny, round, oblong or irregularly shaped cells of the blood with an average diameter of approximately 2 m. They play an important role in the blood coagulation process. There are usually 250,000–750,000 platelets in every cubic mm of blood.

8. Which of the following is not the method of cell counting?
a) Microscopic method
b) Electrical conductivity method
c) Automatic optical method
d) Electroscopic method

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] There are three methods of cell counting: i) Microscopic method, ii) Automatic optical method, iii) Electrical conductivity method.

9. What is the difference of measuring accuracy between microscopic counting and electronic counters?
a) + or – 20 %
b) + or – 17%
c) + or – 3%
d) + or – 23%

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Agoston and Zillich (1971) compared the results of microscopic counting with those made by electronic counters. It may be observed that instead of the + 0r – 20% measuring accuracy in microscopic counting, the electronic counters can provide an accuracy of + or – 3%.

10. What is the ratio of sample of red blood cells in dilute blood?
a) 500:1
b) 50000:1
c) 1:500
d) 1:50000

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The method is based on collecting scattered light from the blood cells and converting it into electrical pulses for counting. A sample of dilute blood (1:500 for white cells and 1:50,000 for red cells) is taken in a glass container. It is drawn through a counting chamber in which the blood stream is reduced in cross-section by a concentric high velocity liquid sheath.

11. The instrument of optical method of counting cells, that require about _____ of blood sample.
a) 100 ml
b) 1 liter
c) 1 ml
d) 10 ml

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Instruments based on optical technique take about 30 s for completing the count. An accuracy of 2% is attainable. The instruments require about 1 ml of blood sample.

12. 1 f/l = ____
a) 1018
b) 1015
c) 10-18
d) 10-15

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] f/l = Femolitres

1f/l = 10-15.

13. _______ will be calculated if the value of PCV and Hb per deciliters are known.
a) MCV
b) MCHC
c) MCH
d) PCT

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It can be calculated if PCV and Hb per dl are known. For example, if PCV is 0.45 and there are 15 g Hb per dl of blood, then MCHC = (15 /0.45) g/dl = 33.3 g/dl

14. PDW index is related to the size range covered by those platelets lying between _______ and _______ percentile.
a) 20th and 84th percentile
b) 16th and 20th percentile
c) 16th and 84th percentile
d) 20th and 80th percentile

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Platelet Distribution Width (PDW): This index is related to the size range covered by those platelets lying between the sixteenth and eighty fourth percentile. This is the conventional geometric standard deviation of the mean platelet size and is derived from the distribution curve based on the data in a 64-channel pulse height analyzer.

15. Instruments based on the automatic optical technique take about _____ for completing the count blood cells.
a) 30 sec
b) 120 sec
c) 60 sec
d) 90 sec

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Instruments based on this automatic optical technique take about 30 s for completing the count. An accuracy of 2% is attainable. The instruments require about 1 ml of blood sample.

Set 5

1. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the chest-wall movements over the apex of heart?
a) Apexcardiograph
b) Ballistocardiograph
c) Electro-oculograph
d) Electro-retinograph

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] An apexcardiograph records the chest-wall movements over the apex of the heart. These movements are in the form of vibrations having a frequency range of 0.1 to about 20 Hz.

2. The transducer required for recording these movements in apexcardiograph is similar to electrocardiograph.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] False, The transducer required for recording these movements in apexcardiograph is similar to that employed for a phonocardiograph (PCG) but which has a frequency response much below the audio range. It can be an aircoupled microphone or a contact microphone. They are further categorized into crystal type or dynamic type based on their principle of operation. The crystal microphone contains a wafer of piezo-electric material, which generates potentials when subjected to mechanical stresses due to heart sounds.The dynamic type microphone consists of a moving coil having a fixed magnetic core inside it. The coil moves with the heart sounds and produces a voltage because of its interaction with the magnetic flux.

3. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the movements imparted to the body with each beat of heart cycle?
a) Apexcardiograph
b) Ballistocardiograph
c) Electro-oculograph
d) Electro-retinograph

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A ballistocardiograph is a machine that records the movement imparted to the body with each beat of the heart cycle. These movements occur during the ventricular contraction of the heart muscle when the blood is ejected with sufficient force.

4. What is mounted on table to convert the movements into corresponding electrical signals in BCG?
a) Oscilloscope
b) Sensing device
c) Pramplifier
d) Tape recorder

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In BCG, the patient is made to lie on a table top which is spring suspended or otherwise mounted to respond to very slight movements along the head axis. Sensing devices are mounted on the table to convert these movements into corresponding electrical signals. The sensors usually are piezo-electric crystals, resistive elements or permanent magnets, moving with respect to fixed coils.

5. ________________ is the recording of the bio-potentials generated by the movement of eye ball.
a) Apexcardiography
b) Electro-oculography
c) Electro-retinography
d) Ballistocardiography

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Electro-oculography is the recording of the bio-potentials generated by the movement of the eyeball. The EOG potentials are picked up by small surface electrodes placed on the skin near the eye.

6. What is used to pick EOG potentials?
a) Oscilloscope
b) Tape Recorder
c) Surface Electrodes
d) Preamplifier

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Electro-oculography is the recording of the bio-potentials generated by the movement of the eyeball. The EOG potentials are picked up by small surface electrodes placed on the skin near the eye.

7. What is the frequency range of Chest-wall movements?
a) 0.025 to 0.05 Hz
b) 0.05 to 0.1 Hz
c) 0.1 to 20 Hz
d) 20 to 100 Hz

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An apexcardiograph records the chest-wall movements over the apex of the heart. These movements are in the form of vibrations having a frequency range of 0.1 to about 20 Hz.

8. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the change in potential when light falls on eye?
a) Apexcardiography
b) Ballistocardiography
c) Electro-oculography
d) Electro-retinography

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] It is found that an electrical potential exists between the cornea and the back of the eye. This potential changes when the eye is illuminated. The process of recording the change in potential when light falls on the eye is called electroretinography.

9. One of the electrode is mounted on contact lens and the other is placed to the skin adjacent to the outer cornea of the eye.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] True, ERG potentials can be recorded with a pair of electrodes. One of the electrodes is mounted on a contact lens and is in direct contact with the cornea and the other electrode is placed on the skin adjacent to the outer corner of the eye as it is found that an electrical potential exists between the cornea and the back of the eye. This potential changes when the eye is illuminated. A reference electrode may be placed on the forehead.

10. Which of the following is useful in the diagnosis of the enlargement of the heart chambers and some type of valvular disorders?
a) Apexcardiograph
b) Ballistocardiograph
c) Electro-oculograph
d) Electro-retinograph

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The apexcardiograph has limited applications. It is, however, useful in the diagnosis of the enlargement of the heart chambers and some type of valvular disorders.

.woocommerce-message { background-color: #98C391 !important; }