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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Maximum Number of jets, generally, employed in an impulse turbine without jet interference can be?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 6

Answer: d [Reason:] Equating equations of initial jet velocity and energy of a turbine, we get the minimum number of jets to be 6.

2. The overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is the ratio of
a) Actual work available at the turbine to the energy imparted to the wheel
b) Work done on the wheel to the energy (or head of water) actually supplied to the turbine
c) Power produced by the turbine to the energy actually supplied by the turbine
d) Actual work available at the turbine to energy imparted to the wheel

Answer: a [Reason:] The overall efficiency of any turbine will be mechanical efficiency * hydraulic efficiency.

3. In a reaction turbine, the draft tube is used to _________
a) To increase the head of water by an amount that is equal to the height of the runner outlet above the tail race
b) To prevent air to enter the turbine
c) To increase pressure energy of water
d) To transport water to downstream

Answer: a [Reason:] A draft tube influences performance of a turbine. It is located below the runner to decelerate flow velocity.

4. In reaction turbine hydraulic efficiency is______________
a) Ratio of actual work at the turbine to the energy imparted to the wheel.
b) Ratio of work done on the wheel to energy that is supplied to the turbine.
c) Ratio of power produced by the turbine to the energy actually supplied by the turbine.
d) Ratio of Work done on the wheel to the energy (or head of water) actually supplied to the turbine.

Answer: b [Reason:] In turbines, overall efficiency is the product of hydraulic and mechanical efficiencies. Here the hydraulic efficiency is ratio of work done to head of water.

5. Consider an inward flow reaction turbine, here, water _______
a) Flows parallel to the axis of the wheel
b) Enters the wheel at the outer periphery and then flows towards the centre of the wheel
c) Flow is partly radial and partly axial
d) Enters at the centre of the wheel and then flows towards the outer periphery of the wheel

Answer: b [Reason:] In any inward reaction flow turbine, water enters the outer periphery towards the centre of the wheel.

6. The working of which of the following hydraulic units is based on Pascal’s law?
a) Air lift pump
b) Hydraulic coupling
c) Hydraulic press
d) Jet pump

Answer: c [Reason:] Pascal’s law can be described as the rate of flow of volume is constant. Hydraulic press uses similar principle.

7. Which kind of turbine is a Pelton Wheel turbine?
a) Tangential flow turbine.
b) Radial flow turbine
c) Outward flow turbine
d) Inward flow turbine

Answer: a [Reason:] Tangential turbine is one which water strikes runner in direction of the tangent to wheel of the turbine.

8. IN what type of turbine water enters in radial direction and leaves axial direction?
a) Tangential flow turbine
b) Axial flow turbine
c) Outward flow turbine
d) Mixed flow turbine

Answer: d [Reason:] Only in a mixed flow turbine, water enters in radial direction and leaves axial direction.

9. How many types of turbines can you classify on the basis of direction of flow through runner?
a) 6
b) 3
c) 4
d) 7

Answer: c [Reason:] There are 4 types of turbines, namely tangential, radial, axial , mixed flow turbines.

10. Into how many types can you classify radial flow turbines?
a) 4
b) 3
c) 6
d) 2

Answer: d [Reason:] We can classify radial flow turbines into 2 types, namely inward radial flow and outward radial flow.

11. Into how many types can you classify turbines on basis of head at inlet?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 6
d) 5

Answer: a [Reason:] We can classify turbines into 3 types on basis of head. Into high head, low head, medium head discharged.

## Set 2

1. A gear pump uses ___________
a) Petrochemical pumps
b) Meshing of gears
c) Froth pumps
d) Airlift pumps

Answer: b [Reason:] A gear pump uses meshing of gears. This meshing is done to pump fluid by displacement. Gear pumps are widely used in chemical installations.

2. A pump that has low suction and moderate discharge of liquid is called ________
a) Airlift Pump
b) Vacuum pump
c) Turbine pump
d) Draft tube

Answer: a [Reason:] A pump that has low suction and moderate discharge of liquid is called airlift pump. It plays an essential role in pumping high pressure fluids.

3. The most common pump used for hydraulic fluid power application is __________
a) Centrifugal pumps
b) Gear pump
c) Froth pumps
d) Airlift pumps

Answer: b [Reason:] The most common pump used for hydraulic fluid power application is gear pump. A gear pump uses meshing of gears. This meshing is done to pump fluid by displacement. Gear pumps are widely used in chemical installations.

4. The main function of gear pumps are to ________
a) Transfer speed
b) Transfer pressure
c) Transfer temperature
d) Transfer energy

Answer: d [Reason:] The primary objective of a gear pump is to transfer energy. Gear pump is a turbomachinery. Turbomachines are machines that transfer energy between a rotor and a fluid, including both turbines and compressors. It is a mechanical device.

5. Centrifugal pumps transfer energy from _______
a) Rotor to fluid
b) Fluid to rotor
c) Draft to rotor
d) Rotor to draft

Answer: a [Reason:] Centrifugal pumps transfer energy from rotor to fluid. The primary objective of a centrifugal pump is to transfer energy. Centrifugal pump is a turbomachinery.

6. Gear pumps are mainly used in chemical installations because they pump ________
a) High viscosity fluids
b) High density fluids
c) High pressure fluids
d) High temperature fluids

Answer: a [Reason:] Gear pumps are mainly used in chemical installations because they pump high viscosity fluids. They use two external spur gears for this purpose.

7. Gear pumps convert rotational kinetic energy to hydrodynamic energy.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Gear pumps are used to transport fluids. They transport fluids by conversion of energies. Gear pumps transport fluids by converting rotational Kinetic energy to hydrodynamic energy.

8. The injection pumps used in most diesel engines can create up to ________
a) 300 psi
b) 3000 psi
c) 30000 psi
d) 3 psi

Answer: c [Reason:] The injection pumps used in most diesel engines can create up to 30000 psi. It needs to maintain at this pressure in order to operate the fuel injectors.

9. A pneumatic sewage ejector includes a tank for holding _________
a) Fluid sewage
b) Horizontally sewage
c) Axial sewage

Answer: a [Reason:] A pneumatic sewage ejector includes a tank for holding fluid sewage.

10. Gear pumps are used to transport ________
a) Pressure
b) Speed
c) Power
d) Fluid

Answer: d [Reason:] Gear pumps are used to transport fluids. They transport fluids by conversion of energies. A gear pump uses meshing of gears. This meshing is done to pump fluid by displacement. Gear pumps are widely used in chemical installations.

11. Centrifugal pumps transport fluids by converting _________
a) Kinetic energy to hydrodynamic energy
b) Hydrodynamic energy to kinetic energy
c) Mechanical energy to kinetic energy
d) Mechanical energy to Hydrodynamic energy

Answer: a [Reason:] Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids. They transport fluids by conversion of energies. Centrifugal pumps transport fluids by converting rotational Kinetic energy to hydrodynamic energy.

12. With the increase in load, Energy in the turbine ________
a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Remains same
d) Independent

Answer: a [Reason:] When there is an increase in the load, the energy in the turbine is drained off. Thus, to increase the energy, the by pass valve is opened to increase the amount of fresh steam entry. This increases the energy in the turbine.

13. The rotational kinetic energy comes from ______
a) Engine motor
b) Pump
c) Tank
d) Draft tube

Answer: a [Reason:] Centrifugal pumps transport fluids by converting rotational Kinetic energy to hydrodynamic energy. The rotational kinetic energy comes from engine or electrical motor.

14. When the balancing of the turbine is disturbed, we use ________
a) Throttle governing
b) Steam governing
c) Nozzle governing
d) Emergency governing

Answer: d [Reason:] When the balancing of the turbine is disturbed, we use emergency governing. These governors come into action only when there are emergencies in the turbine.

15. Gear pumps are ___________
a) Tangential flow pumps
b) Positive displacement pumps
c) Negative displacement pumps

Answer: a [Reason:] Gear pumps are positive displacement pumps or fixed displacement pumps. This means that they pump at a constant amount of fluid each revolution.

## Set 3

1. The outward radial flow reaction turbine is a turbine in which direction of water flow is ___________
d) Axial direction

Answer: c [Reason:] The name itself indicates that flow is in radial direction and flowing from center towards outer periphery.

2. Outward flow reaction turbine is used in practical applications
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] There are several limitations of outward flow reaction turbine hence it is used in practical applications.

3. The energy available at inlet for outward reaction flow turbine is ____________
a) Potential
b) Kinetic energy
c) Pressure energy
d) Pressure energy and Kinetic energy

Answer: d [Reason:] Since it is reaction turbine energy available at inlet consists of both pressure energy and kinetic energy.

4. Centrifugal head in Outward flow reaction turbine _____________
a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Remains constant

Answer: a [Reason:] Because centrifugal head is proportional to difference of outlet blade velocity and inlet blade velocity . Here, u1<u2 so centrifugal head increases.

5. Discharge in outward flow reaction turbine ____________
a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Remains constant

Answer: a [Reason:] Discharge in outward flow reaction turbine increase because area increases to keep velocity constant.

6. Speed control of Outward flow reaction turbine is _____________
a) Easy
b) Moderate
c) Difficult
d) Very difficult

7. Tendency of wheel to race is predominant in____________turbine
a) Inward flow reaction turbine
b) Outward flow reaction turbine
c) Impulse turbine
d) Axial flow turbine

8. Outward flow reaction turbine will quite suitable for_____________

Answer: b [Reason:] Since it is radial flow reaction turbine which is operated under medium head and medium discharge.

9. In outward flow reaction turbine tangential velocity at inlet is always__________than outlet velocity.
a) Equal
b) Less
c) More
d) Constant

Answer: b [Reason:] Though runner has same angular velocity, diameter of outer periphery is large when compared to inner diameter.

10. In outward radial flow reaction turbine if angle made by absolute velocity with its tangent is 90 degrees and component of whirl is zero at inlet is _______________
a) Radial inlet discharge
b) Radial outlet discharge
c) Flow ratio
d) Speed ratio

Answer: a [Reason:] if angle made by absolute velocity with its tangent is 90 degrees and component of whirl is zero at inlet in radial flow reaction then total velocity will be flow velocity.

11. In outward radial flow reaction turbine if thickness is considered then discharge is ____________
a) (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1
b) (P2-n*t)*b2*Vf2
c) (P1-n*t)*b2*Vf2
d) Both (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1 & (P2-n*t)*b2*Vf2
Where, P1= perimeter of runner at inlet, P2= perimeter of runner at outlet, b= width, Vf= flow velocity, n= number of blades and t= thickness of blades

Answer: d [Reason:] Discharge of radial flow reaction turbine is product of perimeter of runner, thickness, whirl velocity, at inlet as well as outlet runner vanes. If n blades of thickness t is considered then discharge is (P1-n*t)*b1*Vf1 .

12. The main difference between reaction turbine and outward radial flow reaction turbine is water flows __________
d) Axial direction

Answer: b [Reason:] The name itself indicates the type of flow that is radial direction but the thing that is unknown is whether it is radially inward or outwards.

13. In outward radial flow reaction turbine the ratio of tangential wheel at inlet to given velocity of jet is known as ___________
a) Speed ratio
b) Flow ratio
c) Discharge

Answer: b [Reason:] Flow ratio is known as ratio of tangential wheel at inlet to given velocity of jet and it is scalar quantity.

14. Conical diffuser draft tube is also called_______
a) Straight divergent tube
b) Simple elbow tube
c) Thermal tube
d) Elbow tube with varying cross section

Answer: a [Reason:] Conical diffuser draft tube is one of the most commonly used drafts tubes in the Kaplan turbine. It works as an outlet at the Kaplan turbine. Conical diffuser draft tube is also called straight divergent tube.

15. Steam turbine converts energy into________
a) Electrical work
b) Mechanical work
c) Chemical work
d) Thermal work

Answer: b [Reason:] Turbine extracts energy and converts it into useful work. Turbine is a vortex related device. It means turbulence. Steam turbine converts energy into mechanical work by extracting thermal energy from pressurized steam.

16. Most common application of steam turbine is _______
a) Motor
b) Generator
c) Pump
d) Filter

Answer: b [Reason:] Since the turbine generates rotary motion, it is best suited for the use of electrical generator. It is used to drive an electrical generator. Now a days, the maximum usage for generation of electricity is done by using an electrical generator.

17. Conical diffuser draft tube consists of conical diffuser with angles of______
a) 10 degrees
b) 20 degrees
c) 30 degrees
d) 40 degrees

Answer: a [Reason:] Conical diffuser draft tube is one of the most commonly used drafts tubes in the Kaplan turbine. Conical diffuser draft tube consists of conical diffuser with angles less than or equal to 10 degrees.

18. What is the purpose of a conical diffuser?
a) To prevent flow separation
b) To avoid Pressure drag
c) To prevent rejection of heat
d) To increase efficiency

Answer: a [Reason:] Conical diffuser draft tube is one of the most commonly used drafts tubes in the Kaplan turbine. It is called so because it consists of a conical diffuser. The main function of the diffuser is to prevent flow separation.

19. What is the efficiency of conical diffuser draft tube?
a) 30
b) 50
c) 70
d) 90

Answer: d [Reason:] Conical diffuser draft tube is one of the most commonly used drafts tubes in the Kaplan turbine. It is called so because it consists of a conical diffuser. The main function of the diffuser is to prevent flow separation. The efficiency of conical diffuser draft tube is 90 percent.

20. The simple elbow draft tube is placed close to the_______
b) Tail race
c) Tank
d) Nozzle

Answer: b [Reason:] The simple elbow draft tube is placed close to the tail race. It consists of an extended elbow type tube. It is mainly used in the Kaplan turbine. It is placed close to the tail race of the turbine.

21. Turbine that consists of moving nozzles and with fixed nozzles is called as__________
a) Impulse turbine
b) Curtis turbine
c) Rateau turbine
d) Reaction turbine

Answer: d [Reason:] A turbine that consists of moving nozzles which are alternating with the fixed nozzles is called as a reaction turbine. When the steam hits the nozzle, the pressure is decreased and the temperature is increased.

22. An example of reaction turbine is________
a) Parsons turbine
b) Curtis turbine
c) Rateau turbine
d) Pelton wheel

Answer: a [Reason:] A turbine that consists of moving nozzles which are alternating with the fixed nozzles is called as a reaction turbine. When the steam hits the nozzle, the pressure is decreased and the temperature is increased. It is also called as Parson’s turbine.

23. When we arrange turbine blades in multiple stages it is called ________
a) Pressure change
b) Vane deviation
c) Compounding
d) Pressure ratio

Answer: c [Reason:] When we arrange turbine blades in multiple stages it is called as compounding. Compounding plays an essential role in turbines. It has various plus points.

24. Compounding is needed to ___________
a) Increase Pressure
b) Decrease temperature
c) Change volume
d) Increase efficiency

Answer: d [Reason:] Compounding is needed to improve efficiencies at low speeds. When we arrange turbine blades in multiple stages it is called as compounding. Compounding plays an essential role in turbines.

25. Which among the following is not a type of compounding?
a) Pressure
b) Temperature
c) Pressure velocity
d) Velocity

Answer: b [Reason:] Temperature is not a type of compounding. The three important types of compounding are pressure compounding, velocity compounding and pressure- velocity compounding.

26. Newtons second law describes the transfer of energy through impulse turbines.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Before the fluid reaches the turbine, the pressure head is converted into its velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Thus, Newtons second law describes the transfer of energy through impulse turbines.

27. Inner radial flow extracts energy from _____
b) Moving fluid
c) Pressure change
d) Temperature increase

Answer: b [Reason:] Inner radial flow extracts energy from moving fluid of a turbine. It also helps in determine the efficiency of the turbine blades.

28. Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluids pressure or mass.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluids pressure or mass. The pressure or the gas of a fluid changes during this as it contains the working fluid acts on the turbine stages.

## Set 4

1. The mechanical energy can be measured by ______
b) Isentropic compression
d) Isentropic expansion

Answer: b [Reason:] The mechanical energy in a centrifugal pump that is driven by the impeller mounted on a shaft is measured by isentropic compression. Thus, the correct choice is isentropic compression.

2. How many impellers does a multistage centrifugal pump have?
a) Zero
b) One
c) Exactly two
d) Two and more

Answer: d [Reason:] The centrifugal pump consists of two or more impellers. The impeller is mounted on one shaft or different shaft. A multistage centrifugal pump has more than two impellers. The multistage centrifugal is similar to the centrifugal pumps working.

3. The energy usage in pumping installation is determined by _______
a) Friction characteristics
b) Pipe diameter
c) Surface tension
d) Thermal expansion

Answer: a [Reason:] At each stage in the centrifugal pump, the fluid is directed to towards the centre. The energy usage in pumping installation is determined by Friction characteristics. Thus, it is the most suitable option.

4. Which among the following is a friction factor?
a) Newtons factor
b) Darcy’s factor
c) Transfer temperature
d) Heizenberg’s factor

Answer: b [Reason:] From the above, the factor that involves friction is determined by Darcy’s friction factor. The energy usage in pumping installation is determined by Friction characteristics. Thus, it is used in energy calculations in a pump.

5. What is the dimension for Darcy’s friction factor?
a) kg/m
b) N/mm
c) kg
d) Dimensionless

Answer: d [Reason:] Darcy’s friction factor is dimensionless. It is one of the major applications in Fluid dynamics. The energy usage in pumping installation is determined by Friction characteristics. Thus, it is dimensionless.

6. Formation of bubbles in an impeller is called ______
a) Cavities
b) Defects
c) Friction
d) Heat burn

Answer: a [Reason:] Formation of bubbles in an impeller is called as its as its cavities. These cavities develop intense shockwaves in the impeller.

7. Centrifugal pump works by imparting _______
a) Potential energy
b) Kinetic energy
c) Heat energy
d) Electrical energy

Answer: b [Reason:] Centrifugal pump works by imparting kinetic energy to the liquid for rotating the impeller rotor.

8. What is the full form of NPSH in a pump?
a) Net pressure suction head
b) Net positive suction head
c) Non-pressure suction head
d) Net pressure super head

Answer: b [Reason:] The full form of NPSH is Net positive suction head. The head added by the pump is a sum of static lift. Thus, corresponds to the efficient working of the pump. Higher the NPSH, more efficient the pump is.

9. When the NPSH is low, it leads to ________
a) Breaking
b) Wear
c) Corrosion
d) Cavitation

Answer: d [Reason:] When the NPSH is low, it leads to cavitation. Cavitation is one of the major drawbacks that are seen in a centrifugal pump. There are various other problems as well. But, cavitation is due to low NPSH.

10. Wear of impeller can be worsened by __________
a) Draft tube
b) Pump pressure
c) Suspended solenoids

Answer: c [Reason:] Wear of impeller can be worsened by suspended solenoids. Wear and tear is one of the major drawbacks that are seen in a centrifugal pump. It affects the working of the impeller, thus resulting in an inefficient working.

11. Which pump is the most efficient centrifugal pump?
a) Electrical pump
b) Reciprocating pump
c) Heat pump
d) Pressure pump

Answer: b [Reason:] Reciprocating pump is the most efficient centrifugal pump because as the pressure increases, the flow rate remains constant.

12. Corrosion in the pump is developed due to _______
a) Pressure of air
b) Fluid properties
c) Draft tube
d) Tank dimensions

Answer: b [Reason:] Corrosion in the pump is developed due to fluid properties. The flow of fluid plays a major role in determining the corrosion developed. Fluid flow can broadly be classified into laminar and turbulent depending on its Reynolds number.

13. Over heating is a major problem faced in a pump.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Over heating is a major problem faced in a pump. The temperature in a centrifugal pump is increases mainly due to the presence of low flow. Thus, by heating the fluid, the velocity of fluid flow increases.

14. What is the effect of cavitation in boat propeller?
a) It recirculates air
b) The pressurizes the air
c) It leads to fast spinning
d) It breaks the bubbles

Answer: c [Reason:] Cavitation in a boat propeller or a ship propeller leads to fast spinning due to the formation of bubbles.

15. Lack of prime is a problem faced in centrifugal pump.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Yes, Lack of prime is a problem faced in centrifugal pump. It means that the centrifugal pump must be filled in order to operate in an effective way. The fluid must be filled in such a way so that it can pump.

## Set 5

1. In a positive displacement pump, what gets displaced?
a) Fluid
b) Volume
c) Pressure
d) Temperature

Answer: b [Reason:] Reciprocation pump is a type of positive displacement pump. It has a piston pump, plunger and diaphragm. Reciprocating pumps have a good life provided that they are not left untouched. The fluid gets displaced in a positive displacement pump.

2. What happens to the reciprocating pump when left untouched?
a) Efficiency decreases
b) Wear and tear
c) Surface expansion
d) Pressure change

Answer: c [Reason:] When left untouched over a period of time, the reciprocating pump undergoes wear and tear. Reciprocating pumps have a good life provided that they are not left untouched.

3. Positive displacement pumps are capable of developing ______ pressures, in _______ suction pressure.
a) High, low
b) Low, high
c) High, high
d) Low, low

Answer: a [Reason:] Positive displacement pumps are capable of developing high pressures, in low suction pressure. Reciprocation pump is a type of positive displacement pump.

4. When is a reciprocating pump used?
a) When quantity of liquid is small
b) When quantity of liquid is large
c) To pump high pressure
d) To pump low pressure

Answer: a [Reason:] Reciprocating pump is more favourable for small liquid quantities. As the chamber in the liquid is trapped, it has a stationary cylinder which contains a piston and a plunger.

5. Positive displacement pumps are also called as__________
a) Constant pressure pump
b) Pressure drag pumps
c) Constant volume pumps
d) Constant head pumps

Answer: c [Reason:] Positive displacement pumps are also called as constant volume pumps. Positive displacement pumps are capable of developing high pressures, in low suction pressure. Reciprocation pump is a type of positive displacement pump.

6. At high pressure, the voids can generate ______
a) Drag force
b) Mass density
c) Shock waves
d) Flow speed

Answer: c [Reason:] At high pressure, the voids can generate shock waves. Cavitation usually occurs due to the changes in pressure. The pressure change is so rapid that it leads to formation of liquid free layers or cavities that start to affect the overall performance.

7. In centrifugal pumps, their capacity is affected due to___________
a) Drag force
b) Cyclic stress
c) Shock waves
d) Pressure

Answer: d [Reason:] In centrifugal pumps, their capacity is affected due to the presence of pressure that works against the pump they operate.

8. A quantity of fluid that leaks from a higher pressure discharge to a lower pressure discharge is called______
a) Slip
b) Heat
c) Friction
d) Enthalpy

Answer: a [Reason:] Slip is defined as the quantity of fluid that leaks from a higher pressure discharge to a lower pressure discharge.

9. Positive displacement pumps regulate the flow by varying its ________
a) Drag force
b) Cyclic stress
c) Shock waves
d) Flow speed

Answer: d [Reason:] Positive displacement pumps regulate the flow by varying its flow speed. This happens by the pump or by the process of recycling. Positive displacement pumps are also called as constant volume pumps.

10. Positive displacement pumps are divided into two types.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Yes, Positive displacement pumps are divided into two types. The two types are reciprocating pumps and rotary pumps. Both these pumps differ in their working and construction.

11. Centrifugal pump is less efficient than a reciprocating pump because of its _______
a) Temperature
b) Speed
c) Heat
d) Cost

Answer: d [Reason:] Centrifugal pump is less efficient than a reciprocating pump because of its cost of maintenance. Cost factor plays an important role in determining the efficiency.

12. Simplest example of single acting reciprocating pump is _______
a) Mineral ores
b) Whirl wheels
c) Bicycle tires
d) Syringe

Answer: d [Reason:] Simplest example of single acting reciprocating pump is a syringe. Power operated pump in which only one side engages the fluid displacement is called as single acting reciprocating pump. It consists of piston in only one side of the fluid being displaced.

13. Rotary pumps do not function well under _______
a) High Vaporisation
b) High Sedimentation
c) High viscosity
d) Excavation

Answer: c [Reason:] Rotary pumps do not function well under high viscosity fluid. Theses pumps are normally limited to services during the increase of such parameters.

14. The parameter that disturbs the working of the rotary pump is______
a) High Vaporisation
b) High Sedimentation
c) Low flow rate
d) Excavation