Multiple choice question for engineering
1. As the unevenness index increases there is no substantial increase in _____________
a) fuel consumption
b) wear and rear of tyres
c) vehicle maintenance cost
d) increase of speed
Answer: d [Reason:] As there is an increase in the unevenness index, there is no substantial increase in speed, instead it decreases.
Unevenness index is a measure of unevenness which is the cumulative measure of vertical undulations of the pavement surface recorded per unit horizontal length of the road. An unevenness index value less than 1500 mm/km is considered as good, a value less than 2500 mm.km is satisfactory up to speed of 100 kmph and values greater than 3200 mm/km is considered as uncomfortable even for 55 kmph.
2. Which of the following pavement has greater life?
a) Cement concrete pavements
b) Bituminous pavements
c) Gravel roads
d) Earth roads
Answer: a [Reason:] The cement concrete roads have a greater life than remaining all pavements which may last even up to 100 years.
3. The surface of the pavement should be _______
c) sufficient enough to resist skid
d) very rough
Answer: c [Reason:] The surface of the pavement should be sufficient enough to resist the skid of vehicles by using friction.
4. The design life of flexible pavement is _________
Answer: c [Reason:] The design life of flexible pavement is considered as 15 years, it may last even further if properly maintained.
The wheel load acting on the pavement will be distributed to a wider area, and the stress decreases with the depth. Taking advantage of this stress distribution characteristic, flexible pavements normally has many layers. Hence, the design of flexible pavement uses the concept of layered system.
5. The design period of cement concrete road is taken as ____________
Answer: a [Reason:] The design period of cement roads is usually taken as 30 years but they can even last longer if properly maintained and designed.
6. In India the flexible pavement is designed as per _____________
Answer: d [Reason:] The flexible pavements are designed as per IRC 37 which uses MSA to specify the unit of the vehicles.
MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining the amount of variation that exists within a measurement process. Variation in the measurement process can directly contribute to our overall process variability. MSA is used to certify the measurement system for use by evaluating the system’s accuracy, precision and stability.
7. The pavement layer is considered superior if it distributes load like a __________
a) uniformly distributed load
b) uniformly distributed load
c) point load
d) triangular load
Answer: c [Reason:] The pavement layer is considered most superior if it distributes the load equally to all parts of pavement.
8. The maximum stress sustained by concrete pavements in kg/cm2 is _________
Answer: a [Reason:] The concrete pavements are designed to sustain a stress of 45Kg/cm2 which is the maximum limit.
Temperature Stresses– Due to the temperature differential between the top and bottom of the slab, curling stresses (similar to bending stresses) are induced at the bottom or top of the slab
Frictional stresses– Due to the contraction of slab due to shrinkage or due to drop in temperature tensile stresses are induced at the middle portion of the slab. Wheel Load Stresses– CC slab is subjected to flexural stresses due to the wheel loads.
9. The ICPB type of pavement uses _____________
a) concrete paver blocks
b) fly ash
Answer: a [Reason:] The ICPB uses mostly interlocking concrete paver blocks for the construction of pavements. Block paving also known as brick paving is a commonly used decorative method of creating a pavement or hardstanding. The main benefit of bricks over other materials is that individual bricks can later be lifted up and replaced. This allows for remedial work to be carried out under the surface of the paving without leaving a lasting mark once the paving bricks have been replaced. Typical areas of use would be for driveways, pavement, patios, town centres, precincts and more commonly in road surfacing. Bricks are typically made of concrete or clay, though other composite materials are also used. Each has its own means of construction. The biggest difference is the way they set hard ready for use. A clay brick has to be fired in a kiln to bake the brick hard.
10. The average annual highway cost for a road system may be summed up by ________
Answer: d [Reason:] The average cost of the annual road system is the sum of all costs like average cost of highway administration, operation and maintenance and also the recovery fund.
11. What does CRF denote?
a) Central Research Fund
b) Central Road Fund
c) Capital Recovery Factor
d) Capital Recovery Fund
Answer: c [Reason:] The first cost of a capital improvement is converted into equivalent annual cost which is called capital recovery factor. It is the ratio of a constant annuity to the present value of receiving that annuity for a given length of time.
This is related to the annuity formula, which gives the present value in terms of the annuity, the interest rate, and the number of annuities.
12. The savings in annual road user costs, annual savings in accident costs and capital cost of Improvement are parameters used in ___________
a) annual cost method
b) rate of return method
c) benefit cost ratio
d) capital recovery fund
Answer: b [Reason:] The transport laboratory of London has developed this method in which a rate of return is obtained by these parameters, the remaining methods don’t require these parameters.
1. The kind of canal section involved in irrigation work is __________
a) canal high in embankment in partly in excavation
b) canal partly in excavation and partly in embankment
c) canal less in embankment
d) canal half in excavation
Answer: b [Reason:] There are generally three kinds of canal sections involved in irrigation works and they are:-
• Canal fully in excavation
• Canal fully in embankment
• Canal partly in excavation and partly in embankment
Generally, the volume of earthwork of earthwork for irrigational canals is calculated by the Trapezoidal formula which is also called End-area formula or the Mid-sectional formula. Generally, the side slope in cutting is kept as 1:1(H:V) and in banking 1.5:1(H:V) or 2:1(H:V) according to soil condition.
2. An impermeable layer is provided at the bed and sides of canal to improve the life and discharge capacity of canal known as______________
a) canal modification
b) canal concreting
c) canal lining
d) canal regulation
Answer: c [Reason:] An important reason for lining a canal can be the reduction in water losses, as water losses in unlined irrigation canals can be high. Canals that carry from 30 to 150 liters/sec can lose 10 to 15% of this flow by seepage and water consumption by weeds. Lining a canal will not completely eliminate these losses, but roughly 60 to 80% of the water that is lost in unlined irrigation canals can be saved by a hard-surface lining. 42 Canal lining Minimizing water losses is very important, and especially so in schemes where irrigation water is pumped. Reduced water losses means less water to pump and thus a reduction in pumping costs.
3. The canal system does not consist ______________
a) main canal
b) branch canal
c) sub-main canal
d) major distributary
Answer: c [Reason:] Main Canal-Main Canal takes off directly from the upstream side of weir head works or dam. Usually no direct cultivation is proposed. Most of the main canals are aligned as contour canals to derive benefit.
Branch Canal-All off takes from main canal with head discharge of 14-15 cumecs and above are termed as branch canals.
Major Distributary-All off takes from main canal or branch canal with head discharge from 0.028 to 15 cumecs are termed as major distributaries.
4. A power canal refers to a canal used for hydraulic power generation, rather than for transport.
Answer: a [Reason:] Nowadays power canals are built almost exclusively as parts of hydroelectric power stations. Parts of the United States, particularly in the Northeast, had enough fast-flowing rivers that water power was the primary means of powering factories (usually textile mills) until after the American Civil War. For example, Lowell, Massachusetts, considered to be “The Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution,” has 6 miles (9.7 km) of canals, built from around 1790 to 1850, that provided water power and a means of transportation for the city. The output of the system is estimated at 10,000 horsepower.
5. Canals are natural-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Answer: a [Reason:] Canals are human-made channels for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create areas of low speed current flow. These areas are referred to as slack water levels, often just called levels.
An canal is also known as a navigation when it parallels a river and shares part of its waters and drainage basin, and leverages its resources by building dams and locks to increase and lengthen its stretches of slack water levels while staying in its valley.
6. If the total quantity of earth obtained from digging in the bed is equal to the quantity of earth required for the formation of the banks then this is known as economic digging.
Answer: a [Reason:] Also this canal is said to be designed with the balancing depth. Quantity of digging= Quantity in banking i.e. Sectional area of digging=Sectional area of two banks or, Bd+sd2= (b1+b2)*h+2S1 h2 .Although it is never possible to adjust the canal section to this requirement but it may be quite possible in certain portions.
If the quantity of earthwork in the excavation is more than the quantity of earthwork in banking then the surplus earth is thrown away to form spoil bank.
If the quantity of earthwork in the excavation is less than that of banking then the extra earth is taken from borrow pots in the temporary land whose area is calculated for temporary land acquisition.
7. As a modern technique use of plastics in canal lining is that plastic is covered at the top of the canal to prevent dust.
Answer: b [Reason:] The plastic as a material for canal lining offers certain characteristic advantages like negligible weight, easy for handling, spreading and transport, immune to chemical action and speedy construction. The plastic film is spread on the prepared subgrade of the canal. To anchor the membrane on the banks ‘V trenches are provided. The film is then covered with protective soil cover.
8. Laying and consolidation shall be done during dry season.
Answer: b [Reason:] Laying and consolidation shall be done during early rainy season, so that sufficient water is available for consolidation, and during the later part of the rains the ballast gets fully compacted.
9. In water bound macadam roads, binding material is Brick dust.
Answer: b [Reason:] Stone dust is like a darker, coarser version of sand. It is a byproduct of running stones through a crushing machine to make crushed stone. Its exact composition will obviously depend on what kind of stone was run through the machine. For instance, sometimes granite is run through such a machine; in other cases, it could be limestone, for example. The machine has a screen that traps the larger material (that is, the crushed stone). The smaller material or “screenings” falls through the screen. Depending on the size of the holes in the screen used, it can be so fine in texture that it is basically a powder.
10. Chemical admixture may accelerate or slow down the rate at which the concrete hardens.
Answer: a [Reason:] Chemical admixtures are added to achieve varied properties. These ingredients may accelerate or slow down the rate at which the concrete hardens, and impart many other useful properties including increased tensile strength, entrainment of air and water resistance.
1. What are the steps involved in the concreting process?
a) Compacting, Batching, Mixing, Transporting and placing of concrete
b) Mixing, Batching, Transporting, placing of concrete and Compacting
c) Batching, Mixing, Transporting and placing of concrete, Compacting
d) Batching, Placing of concrete, Compacting, Mixing and Transporting
Answer: c [Reason:]
Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. Batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.
Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.
Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.
Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.
2. The major type of reinforcements used in prestressing is ________
a) circular reinforcement
b) spalling reinforcement
c) rolling reinforcement
d) spiral reinforcement
Answer: b [Reason:] The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
3. ____________is a type of slump test indication.
a) Shear slump
b) Moment slump
c) False slump
d) Rigid sump
Answer: a [Reason:] This type of slump is characterized by the general drop of the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration.
Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth in the long run effecting the durability of the concrete.
Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.
4. The foundations are placed below ground level, to increase ____________
d) life span
Answer: a [Reason:] The main purpose of the foundation is to distribute the load of the superstructure to the sub-bearing strata and depth of foundation is below the ground level to prevent the external force like wind load and hence to stabilized the structure.
5. The process of making the back ground rough, before plastering, is ___________
Answer: d [Reason:] Hacking is done on the finished wall before application of plaster of paris or tiles. It is the process of roughening the wall surface so that plaster can rest on it otherwise it would get shear off due to plane surface of the wall. Generally it is adopted for renovation purpose (applying POP). Earlier mason prepare it with cement plaster and later on if owner wants to renovate wall of their house with tiles or POP they use this process called hacking. There are lot of methods to do it but generally it is been done by chisel.
6. The angular steps used for changing direction of the stairs, are called ___________
a) round steps
b) angular steps
c) radial steps
Answer: d [Reason:] Winders are steps that are narrower on one side than the other. They are used to change the direction of the stairs without landings. A series of winders form a circular or spiral stairway. When three steps are used to turn a 90° corner, the middle step is called a kite winder as a kite-shaped quadrilateral.
7. A projecting piece usually provided to support a truss, is __________
Answer: d [Reason:] In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave (‘main beam’) and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. A frieze can be found on many Greek and Roman buildings, the Parthenon Frieze being the most famous, and perhaps the most elaborate. This style is typical for the Persians.
8. Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete.
Answer: a [Reason:] The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.
9. In order to make a elastomeric bearing act/ function as a soft spring it should be made to allow it to bulge laterally and also the stiffness compression can be increased by simply increasing the limiting amount of the lateral bulging.
Answer: a [Reason:] In many cases in order to increase the compression stiffness of the bearing the usage of metal plates is made. Once steel plates are included in the bearings the freedom of the bulge is restricted dramatically, also the deflection of the bearing is reduced as compared to a bearing without the presence of steel plates. The tensile stresses of the bearings are induced into the steel plates. But the presence of the metal plates does not affect the shear stiffness of the bearings.
10. Pumping be not used in case of concreting works.
Answer: a [Reason:] During the pumping operation the pump exerted pressure must overcome any friction between the pumping pipes and the concrete, also the weight of the concrete and the pressure head when the concrete is placed above the pumps. Since only water is pump able, all the pressure generated is by the water that is present in the concrete. The major problem due to pumping are segregation effects and bleeding. In order to rectify and reduce these effects, generally the proportion of the cement is increased in order to increase the cohesion , which leads to the reduction of segregation and bleeding. Also if a proper selection of the aggregate grading can vastly improve the concrete pump ability.
1. An ____________ is in a pure compression form.
Answer: a [Reason:] It can span a large area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. This is sometimes referred to as arch action. As the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases. In order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments.
2. A ____________is a structural element in masonry construction that provides support at openings in the masonry. Alternate names are “flat arch” and “straight arch”.
a) round arch
b) equilateral arch
c) flamboyant arch
d) jack arch
Answer: d [Reason:] Unlike regular arches, jack arches are not semicircular in form. Instead, they are flat in profile and are used under the same circumstances as lintels. Unlike lintels, which are subject to bending stress, jack arches are composed of individual masonry elements cut or formed into a wedge shape that efficiently uses the compressive strength of the masonry in the same manner as a regular arch.
3. The four-sided slopes are not the characteristic feature of only Mansard roofs; the _______________also come with this feature.
a) amnsard roof
b) gambrel Roof
c) salt Box Roof
d) pyramid roof
Answer: a [Reason:] The four-sided slopes are not the characteristic feature of only Mansard roofs; the Pyramid roofs also come with this feature. As the name suggests, these roofs are shaped like pyramids, a roof with four sloping sides. These roofs are best-suited for smaller structures, like a farmhouse hut. These roofs are popular in the contemporary architecture, with many structures getting these roofs. The walls of these houses are symmetrical and easy to build. A lower degree pitch works best for such four-sided roofs. They would work even better if the walls were smaller and the roof made for a significant part of the house. It is not only aesthetically pleasing, but also more energy efficient.
4. _________ is the one of the most efficient types of timber roof trusses.
a) Raised Heel Roof Truss
b) Quadrangular Roof Trusses
c) Parallel Chord Roof Truss
d) Scissor Roof Truss
Answer: a [Reason:] This is one of the most efficient types of timber roof trusses, mostly because it brings a very good room for insulation, but at the same time it also provides you with a very good system for structural support. It might require some additional materials in order to make it bring the best results, not to mention that the costs can be a little higher when compared to other truss types, but it does help you lower the energy bill value, so keep that in mind.
5. ________ are found in traditional buildings in regions with a low precipitation.
a) Flat roof
b) Mono-pitched roof
d) Arched roof
Answer: a [Reason:] Modern materials which are highly impermeable to water make possible the very large low-pitch roofs found on large commercial buildings. Although called flat they are generally gently pitched.
6. Figure shown below represents ________
a) Barrel roof
b) Dutch gable, gablet
c) Saw-tooth roof
d) Butterfly roof
Answer: d [Reason:] A butterfly roof (sometimes called a V roof or London roof) is a form of roof characterised by an inversion of a standard roof form, with two roof surfaces sloping down from opposing edges to a valley near the middle of the roof. It is so called because its shape resembles a butterfly’s wings. Butterfly roofs are commonly associated with mid-century modern architecture. The form has no gutter as rainwater can run off the roof in no more than two locations, at either end of the valley, often into a scupper or downspout. The form may be symmetrical, with the valley located in the center, or asymmetrical with an off-center valley.
7. Figure shown below represents ____________
a) flat roof
b) clerestory roof
c) shed roof
d) gable roof
Answer: c [Reason:] A mono-pitched roof, often referred to as a pent roof, shed roof, lean-to roof, and/or skillion roof, is a single-sloped roof surface, often not attached to another roof surface. This is in contrast to a dual-pitched roof, also known as a gabled roof, which is pitched in two different directions.
8. Timber cannot be used as a sloping roof.
Answer: b [Reason:] A timber roof truss is a structural framework of timbers designed to bridge the space above a room and to provide support for a roof. Trusses usually occur at regular intervals, linked by longitudinal timbers such as purlins. The space between each truss is known as a bay.
Timber roof trusses were a medieval development. Earlier roofs had been supported by coupled rafters – pairs of rafters linked by horizontal beams. But such roofs were structurally weak, and lacking any longitudinal support were prone to racking, a collapse resulting from horizontal movement.
9. Roofing material is the outermost layer on the roof of a building, sometimes self-supporting, but generally supported by an underlying structure.
Answer: a [Reason:] A building’s roofing material provides shelter from the natural elements. The outer layer of a roof shows great variation dependent upon availability of material, and the nature of the supporting structure. Those types of roofing material which are commercially available range from natural products such as thatch and slate to commercially produced products such as tiles and polycarbonate sheeting. Roofing materials may be placed on top of a secondary water-resistant material called underlayment.
10. A wooden roof is a roofing system made from metal pieces or tiles characterized by its high resistance, impermeability and longevity.
Answer: b [Reason:] A metal roof is a roofing system made from metal pieces or tiles characterized by its high resistance, impermeability and longevity. Metal roofs can last up to 100 years, with installers providing 50 year warranties. Because of their longevity, most metal roofs are less expensive than asphalt shingles in the long term.
Metal roofing can consist of a high percentage of recycled material and is 100% recyclable. It does not get as hot as asphalt a common roofing material, and it reflects heat away from the building underneath in summertime.
1. Calculate the cost of carriage of 50,000 bricks by bullock carts, from a distance of 7 km on kutcha road. The cart can make two trips per day and can carry 250 bricks per trip. The wages of bullock cart may be taken as Rs.50 per day including driver.
Answer: b [Reason:] No. of trips required=50000/250=200
No. of days work at two trips per day=200/2=100
Cost of transport @Rs.50 per day = 100*50=Rs.5000.
2. The cost of transporting materials does not depends upon the following factor ________
a) cost of owing or hire charges of the vehicle
b) loading capacity of the vehicle
c) labour cost for loading and unloading
d) elevation of road
Answer: d [Reason:] Trucking companies (AE) or haulage companies / hauliers (BE) accept cargo for road transport. Truck drivers operate either independently – working directly for the client – or through freight carriers or shipping agents. … This also applies to shipments that are transported out of a free port.
3. Bullock cart can carry a load of ¾ to 1 tonne depending on the type of materials and the nature of road.
Answer: a [Reason:] The average speed of a bullock cart may be taken as 3.5 km per hour and ¾ hour may be allowed for loading and unloading.
4. For a lead of 1 km average speed is usually taken as 100 km per hour.
Answer: b [Reason:] For each additional lead of 1 km an increase of speed of ½ km/hr is allowed. For parking usually 6 km is allowed.
5. The number of trips (N) in a 8-hour working day is calculated by the formula __________
Answer: b [Reason:] where L=Lead(distance) in km, S=speed in km per hour and ½ hour time is allowed for loading and unloading.
6. Knowing the number of trips, the total distance run both ways in km is equal to 2N+6.
Answer: a [Reason:] The consumption of fuel, etc., many be taken as-Petrol or Diesel oil 3 km per litre, mobil oil 100 km per litre. The quantity of fuel consumption and the cost of fuel may be calculated as the local rates.
7. A half door or Dutch door or stable door is divided in half horizontally.
Answer: a [Reason:] Traditionally the top half can be opened to allow a horse or other animal to be fed, while the bottom half remains closed to keep the animal inside. This style of door has been adapted for homes.
8. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house, this is known as ___________
d) interior design
Answer: d [Reason:] Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interiors of a space or building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the end user. An interior designer is someone who plans, researches, coordinates, and manages such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, space planning, site inspections, programming, research, communicating with the stakeholders of a project, construction management, and execution of the design.
9. Which type of door does the figure show?
a) Hinged doors
b) Folding door
c) Rotating door
d) Automatic door
10. Horizontal boards at the top, bottom, and optionally in the middle of a door that join the two stiles and split the door into two or more rows of panels is known as ______________
Answer: d [Reason:] Horizontal boards at the top, bottom, and optionally in the middle of a door that join the two stiles and split the door into two or more rows of panels. The “top rail” and “bottom rail” are named for their positions. The bottom rail is also known as “kick rail”. A middle rail at the height of the bolt is known as the “lock rail”, other middle rails are commonly known as “cross rails”.
11. A brick laid flat with its long narrow side exposed is known as ____________
Answer: a [Reason:] It is a brick or a stone which lies with its longest side parallel to the face of the work. The course of brick work in which all the bricks are laid as stretchers is known as stretcher course.
12. A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed is known as ______________
Answer: b [Reason:] It is a brick or stone which lies with its greatest length at right angles to the face of the work. In case of stone masonry header is sometimes known as through stone. The course of brick work in which all the bricks are laid as headers is known as header course.
13. A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed is ___________
Answer: b [Reason:] The head is visible, and the long narrow sides are on bottom and top.
14. Which type of bond does the figure below represents?
a) flemish bond
b) monk bond
c) sussex bond
d) english bond
Answer: a [Reason:] This bond has one stretcher between headers, with the headers centred over the stretchers in the course below.
Where a course begins with a quoin stretcher, the course will ordinarily terminate with a quoin stretcher at the other end. The next course up will begin with a quoin header. For the course’s second brick, a queen closer is laid, generating the lap of the bond. The third brick along is a stretcher, and is—on account of the lap—centred above the header below.
15. A ___________consists of colourants dissolved and/or suspended in a ‘vehicle’ or solvent.
a) ceramic mixture
c) wood stain
Answer: c [Reason:] Vehicle is the preferred term, as the contents of a stain may not be truly ‘dissolved’ in the vehicle, but rather ‘suspended’, and thus the vehicle may not be a true ‘solvent’. The vehicle often may be water, alcohol, a petroleum distillate, or a finishing agent such as shellac, lacquer, varnish and polyurethane. Coloured or ‘stained’ finishes do not typically deeply penetrate the pores of the wood and may largely disappear when the finish deteriorates or is removed.