Multiple choice question for engineering
1. In countries where traffic flows on the right, traffic signs are mostly on the left side of the road.
Answer: b [Reason:] In countries where traffic flows on the right, traffic signs are mostly on the right side of the road, , roundabouts and traffic circles go counter-clockwise/anti-clockwise, and pedestrians crossing a two-way road should watch out for traffic from the left first. In countries where traffic flows on the left, the reverse is true.
About 33% of the world by population drive on the left, and 67% keep right. By road distances, about 28% drive on the left, and 72% on the right, even though originally most traffic drove on the left worldwide.
2. The United States has the largest network of roads of any country with 4,050,717 miles (6,518,997 km) as of 2009.
Answer: b [Reason:] The Republic of India has the second largest road system in the world with 4,689,842 kilometres (2,914,133 mi) of road (2013). The People’s Republic of China is third with 3,583,715 kilometres (2,226,817 mi) of road (2007). The Federative Republic of Brazil has the fourth largest road system in the world with 1,751,868 kilometres (1,088,560 mi) (2002).
3. Many populated domestic islands are connected to the mainland by bridges.
Answer: a [Reason:] A very long example is the 113-mile (181.9 km) Overseas Highway connecting many of the Florida Keys with the continental United States.
Even on mainlands, some settlements have no roads connecting with the primary continental network, due to natural obstacles like mountains or wetlands, remoteness, or general expense.
4. With flexible pavement, the highest stress occurs at the surface and the stress increases as the depth of the pavement decreases.
Answer: b [Reason:] With flexible pavement, the highest stress occurs at the surface and the stress decreases as the depth of the pavement increases. Therefore, the highest quality material needs to be used for the surface, while lower quality materials can be used as the depth of the pavement increases. The term “flexible” is used because of the asphalts ability to bend and deform slightly, then return to its original position as each traffic load is applied and removed. It is possible for these small deformations to become permanent, which can lead to rutting in the wheel path over an extended time.
5. The service life of a flexible pavement is typically designed in the range of 20 to 30 years.
Answer: a [Reason:] Required thicknesses of each layer of a flexible pavement vary widely depending on the materials used, magnitude, number of repetitions of traffic loads, environmental conditions, and the desired service life of the pavement. Factors such as these are taken into consideration during the design process so that the pavement will last for the designed life without excessive distresses.
6. Flexible pavements are generally used in constructing airports and major highways, such as those in the interstate highway system.
Answer: b [Reason:] Rigid pavements are generally used in constructing airports and major highways, such as those in the interstate highway system.
6. Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the most common material used in the construction of rigid pavement slabs.
Answer: a [Reason:] The reason for its popularity is due to its availability and the economy. Rigid pavements must be designed to endure frequently repeated traffic loadings. The typical designed service life of a rigid pavement is between 30 and 40 years, lasting about twice as long as a flexible pavement.
7. ________________is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels.
a) Structural engineering
b) Highway engineering
c) CS engineering
d) Electrical engineering
Answer: b [Reason:] Highway engineering became prominent towards the latter half of the 20th Century after World War II. Standards of highway engineering are continuously being improved. Highway engineers must take into account future traffic flows, design of highway intersections/interchanges, geometric alignment and design, highway pavement materials and design, structural design of pavement thickness, and pavement maintenance.
8. The two major types of pavement surfaces are _________ and __________
a) ordinary portland cement (OPC) and hot-mix asphalt
b) rapid hardening cement and hot-mix asphalt
c) portland cement concrete (PCC) and bitumen
d) portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot-mix asphalt
Answer: d [Reason:] Underneath this wearing course are material layers that give structural support for the pavement system. These underlying surfaces may include either the aggregate base and sub base layers, or treated base and sub base layers, and additionally the underlying natural or treated subgrade. These treated layers may be cement-treated, asphalt-treated, or lime-treated for additional support.
9. For a four layer flexible pavement, there is a surface course, base course, and ______________constructed over a compacted, natural soil subgrade.
a) sub-grade course
b) sub-base course
c) base course
Answer: b [Reason:] When building a three layer flexible pavement, the subbase layer is not used and the base course is placed directly on the natural subgrade.
A flexible pavement’s surface layer is constructed of hot-mix asphalt (HMA).Un stabilized aggregates are typically used for the base course; however, the base course could also be stabilized with asphalt, Foamed Bitumen, Portland cement, or another stabilizing agent. The sub base is generally constructed from local aggregate material, while the top of the subgrade is often stabilized with cement or lime.
10. Rigid pavements are generally constructed in three layers – a prepared subgrade, base or sub base, and a _______________
b) Concrete slab
d) Cement slab
Answer: b [Reason:] The concrete slab is constructed according to a designed choice of plan dimensions for the slab panels, directly influencing the intensity of thermal stresses occurring within the pavement. In addition to the slab panels, temperature reinforcements must be designed to control cracking behaviour in the slab. Joint spacing is determined by the slab panel dimensions.
11. Calculate the number of standard modular bricks required for flat brick soiling for one kilometre length of 4.00 m wide road.
a) 2.4 Lakhs of bricks
b) 2.2 Lakhs of bricks
c) 6.3 Lakhs of bricks
d) 7.7 Lakhs of bricks
Answer: b [Reason:] No. of bricks for flat soling =1000*4.00 *55= 220,000 nos.= 2.2 Lakhs of nos. per sq m. For Traditional bricks 22.9*11.4*7.6(9”*4 1/2”*3”).
12. Find the area of permanent land required for a State Highway for one kilometre length, the width of permanent land being 30 m.
a) 0.5 hectare
b) 3 hectare
c) 4 hectare
d) 6 hectare
Answer: b [Reason:] Permanent land= 1000 *300=30000 sq m=30000/10000=3 hectare.
13. Find the area of temporary land required for one kilometre length of a road from the following data.
a) 32.50 m
b) 76.89 m
c) 39.50 m
d) 45.50 m
Answer: a [Reason:] Quantity of earthwork in embankment =(Bd+sd2)*length = (10*1.5+2*1.52)*1000=19.5*1000=19500
Area of temporary in embankment land=(19500)/(depth of borrowpit)=19500/0.30=65000 sq m
Width of temporary land= Area /Length=65000 sq m/10000=65 m
Width of temporary land on either side =65/2=32.50 m.
14. Three main types of concrete pavements commonly used are Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP), ___________________ and continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP).
a) Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP)
b) Jointed reinforced pavement (JRP)
c) Jointed concrete pavement (JCP)
d) Reinforced concrete pavement (RCP)
Answer: a [Reason:] JPCP’s are constructed with contraction joints which direct the natural cracking of the pavement. These pavements do not use any reinforcing steel. JRCP’s are constructed with both contraction joints and reinforcing steel to control the cracking of the pavement. High temperatures and moisture stresses within the pavement creates cracking, which the reinforcing steel holds tightly together.
15. The ______________is the region of the pavement section that is located directly under the surface course.
a) sub-base course
c) base course
Answer: c [Reason:] If there is a sub-base course, the base course is constructed directly about this layer. Otherwise, it is built directly on top of the subgrade. Typical base course thickness ranges from 4 to 6 inches and is governed by underlying layer properties.
Heavy loads are continuously applied to pavement surfaces, and the base layer absorbs the majority of these stresses. Generally, the base course is constructed with an untreated crushed aggregate such as crushed stone, slag, or gravel. The base course material will have stability under the construction traffic and good drainage characteristics.
1. The craft of _______________involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth.
a) brick masonry
b) cement masonry
c) sculpture masonry
Answer: d [Reason:] It is one of the oldest trades in human history. These materials have been used to construct many of the long-lasting, ancient monuments, artifacts, cathedrals, and cities in a wide variety of cultures. Famous works of stonemasonry include the Taj Mahal, Cusco’s Incan Wall, Easter Island’s statues, the Egyptian Pyramids, Angkor Wat, Borobudur, Tihuanaco, Tenochtitlan, Persepolis, the Parthenon, Stonehenge, and Chartres Cathedral.
2. ______________are workshop-based, and specialize in working the stones into the shapes required by a building’s design, this set out on templets and a bed mould.
a) Fixer mason
b) Advance mason
c) Stone mason
d) Banker masons
Answer: d [Reason:] They can produce anything from stones with simple chamfers to tracery windows, detailed mouldings and the more classical architectural building masonry. When working a stone from a sawn block, the mason ensures that the stone is bedded in the right way, so the finished work sits in the building in the same orientation as it was formed on the ground.
3. ____________specialize in the fixing of stones onto buildings, using lifting tackle, and traditional lime mortars and grouts.
a) Rigid masons
b) Raw masons
c) Fixer masons
d) Head mason
Answer: c [Reason:] Sometimes modern cements, mastics and epoxy resins are used, usually on specialist applications such as stone cladding. Metal fixings, from simple dowels and cramps to specialised single application fixings, are also used. The precise tolerances necessary make this a highly skilled job.
4. There are two main types of sedimentary stone used in masonry work, limestone and______________
Answer: c [Reason:] Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth’s surface, as seen in Bowen’s reaction series.
5. _____________is used as a protective and decorative covering for interior or exterior walls and surfaces.
b) Stone veneer
Answer: b [Reason:] Stone veneer can be made from natural stone as well as manufactured stone. Natural stone veneer is made from real stone that is either collected, i.e. fieldstone, or quarried. The stone is cut to a consistent thickness and weight for use as a veneer.
6. The basic tools for shaping the stone are a mallet, _________, and a metal straight edge.
Answer: c [Reason:] Chisels come in a variety of sizes and shapes, dependent upon the function for which they are being used and have many different names depending on locality. There are different chisels for different materials and sizes of material being worked, for removing large amounts of material and for putting a fine finish on the stone.
7. The ________________is used for the application of the mortar between and around the stones as they are set into place
d) masonry trowel
Answer: d [Reason:] Filling in the gaps (joints) with mortar is referred to as pointing. Pointing in smaller joints can be accomplished using tuck pointers, pointing trowels, and margin trowels, among other tools.
8. All bricks in this bond are headers, but for the lap-generating quoin three-quarter bat which offsets each successive course by half a header, this bond is called __________
a) Flemish stretcher bond
b) Stretcher, or running bond
c) Header bond
d) Raking stretcher bond
Answer: c [Reason:] Header bond is often used on curving walls with a small radius of curvature. In Lewes, Sussex, England UK many small buildings are constructed in this bond, using blue coloured bricks and vitrified surfaces.
9. Which type of bond is shown in the below figure?
a) Single basket weave bond
b) Double basket weave bond
c) Herringbone bond
d) Della Robbia bond
Answer: b [Reason:] The herringbone pattern made by placing soldiers next to stretchers or vice versa (i.e. headers perpendicular) making ‘L’ shapes, nesting each L in the same order of laying. Thin bricks are more common. The pattern is usually rotated by 45° to create a completely vertical (plumb) succession of ‘V’ shapes. It follows either the left or right brick forms the tip of the v in any wall. Herringbone is sometimes used as infill in timber framed buildings.
10. _______________ is very hard wood and has a dark reddish brown color. It is fragrant and close grained. It is hard to work and takes high polish. Used in musical instruments, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, veneers and furniture?
Answer: d [Reason:] All rosewoods are strong and heavy, taking an excellent polish, being suitable for guitars (the fretboards on electric and acoustic guitars often being made of rosewood), marimbas, recorders, turnery (billiard cues, fountain pens, black pieces in chess sets, etc.), handles, furniture, and luxury flooring, etc. Rosewood oil, used in perfume, is extracted from the wood of Aniba rosaeodora, which is not related to the rosewoods used for lumber.
11. ____________is wood that as a result of a naturally occurring chemical transformation has become more resistant to decay.
Answer: d [Reason:] Heartwood formation is a genetically programmed process that occurs spontaneously. Some uncertainty exists as to whether the wood dies during heartwood formation, as it can still chemically react to decay organisms, but only once.
Heartwood is often visually distinct from the living sapwood, and can be distinguished in a cross-section where the boundary will tend to follow the growth rings. For example, it is sometimes much darker.
12. Stone walls are usually made of local materials varying from limestone and flint to granite and sandstone.
Answer: a [Reason:] However, the quality of building stone varies greatly, both in its endurance to weathering, resistance to water penetration and in its ability to be worked into regular shapes before construction. Worked stone is usually known as ashlar, and is often used for corners in stone buildings.
13. English garden wall bond course of headers bond has three courses of stretchers between every course of stretcher.
Answer: a [Reason:] For the standard English garden wall bond, headers are used as quoins for the middle stretching course in order to generate the lap, with queen closers as the penultimate brick at either end of the heading courses. A more complex set of quoins and queen closers is necessary to achieve the lap for a raking English garden wall bond.
14. Glued engineered wood products are manufactured by bonding together wood strands, veneers, lumber.
Answer: a [Reason:] These products include glued laminated timber (glulam), wood structural panels (including plywood, oriented strand board and composite panels), laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and other structural composite lumber (SCL) products, parallel strand lumber, and I-joists. Approximately 100 million cubic meters of wood was consumed for this purpose in 1991. The trends suggest that particle board and fiber board will overtake plywood.
15. As a tree grows, lower branches often die, and their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a excreta.
Answer: a [Reason:] As a tree grows, lower branches often die, and their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot.
1. The distribution pipes are generally laid below the road pavements, and as such their layouts generally follow the layouts of roads.
Answer: [Reason:] There are, in general, four different types of pipe networks; any one of which either singly or in combinations, can be used for a particular place. They are: Dead End System, Grid Iron System, Ring System and Radial System.
2. Quantity= Per capita sewage contributed per day x Population.
Answer: a [Reason:]
Wastewater Quantity Estimation – The flow of sanitary sewage alone in the absence of storms in dry season is known as dry weather flow (DWF).
Sanitary sewage is mostly the spent water of the community draining into the sewer system. It has been observed that a small portion of spent water is lost in evaporation, seepage in ground, leakage, etc. Usually 80% of the water supply may be expected to reach the sewers.
3. The most widely used expression for the growth rate of micro-organisms is given by Monod:
Total rate of microbial growth,
Answer: a [Reason:] Biomass Growth Rate
The most widely used expression for the growth rate of micro organisms is given by Monod:
Total rate of microbial growth,
mm= maximum specific growth rate
X = micro organism concentration
S = substrate concentration
Ks= substrate concentration at one half the maximum growth rate
Similarly, rate of substrate utilization,
dS = k X S
k = maximum specific substrate utilization rate.
4. Which is not a function of Distribution Reservoirs?
a) To absorb the hourly variations in demand
b) To maintain constant pressure in the distribution mains
c) Water stored can be supplied during emergencies
d) Work as a coolant present at the area
Answer: d [Reason:] Distribution reservoirs, also called service reservoirs, are the storage reservoirs, which store the treated water for supplying water during emergencies (such as during fires, repairs, etc.) and also to help in absorbing the hourly fluctuations in the normal water demand.
5. Which is not a type of reservoir?
a) Small ground level reservoirs
b) Large ground level reservoirs
c) Underground reservoirs
d) Sub-surface reservoir
Answer: d [Reason:] Types of Reservoirs-
1. Underground reservoirs.
2. Small ground level reservoirs.
3. Large ground level reservoirs.
4. Overhead tanks.
6. Design a low rate filter to treat 6.0 Mld of sewage of BOD of 210 mg/l. The final effluent should be 30 mg/l and organic loading rate is 320 g/m3/d. Find Hydraulic loading rate?
a) 326.18 g/d/m3
b) 926.18 g/d/m3
c) 126.18 g/d/m3
d) 526.18 g/d/m3
Answer: a [Reason:]
Assume 30% of BOD load removed in primary sedimentation i.e., = 210 x 0.30 = 63 mg/l. Remaining BOD = 210 – 63 = 147 mg/l.
Percent of BOD removal required = (147-30) x 100/147 = 80%
BOD load applied to the filter = flow x conc. of sewage (kg/d) = 6 x 106 x 147/106 = 882 kg/d
To find out filter volume, using NRC equation
Depth of filter = 1.5 m, Fiter area = 2704/1.5 = 1802.66 m2
, and Diameter = 48 m < 60 m
Hydraulic loading rate = 6 x 106/103 x 1/1802.66 = 3.33m3/d/m2 < 4 hence o.k.
Organic loading rate = 882 x 1000 / 2704 = 326.18 g/d/m3
which is approx. equal to 320.
7. Design a rectangular sedimentation tank to treat 2.4 million litres of raw water per day. The detention period may be assumed to be 3 hours. Find overflow rate?
a) 28,000 l/d/m2
b) 12,000 l/d/m2
c) 24,000 l/d/m2
d) 4,670 l/d/m2
Answer: c [Reason:] Raw water flow per day is 2.4 x 106 l. Detention period is 3h.
Volume of tank = Flow x Detention period = 2.4 x 103 x 3/24 = 300 m3 Assume depth of tank = 3.0 m.
Surface area = 300/3 = 100 m2 L/B = 3 (assumed). L = 3B.
3B2 = 100 m2 i.e. B = 5.8 m
L = 3B = 5.8 X 3 = 17.4 m
Hence surface loading (Overflow rate) = 2.4 x 106 = 24,000 l/d/m2 < 40,000 l/d/m2 (OK)
8. Which one is not a type of Equalization tanks?
a) Flow through type
b) Intermittent flow type
c) Variable inflow/constant discharge type
d) Intercept type
Answer: d [Reason:] The simple flow through type equalization tank is mainly useful in assisting self neutralization or evening out of fluctuating concentrations, not for balancing of flows since a flow through type tank once filled, gives output equal to input.
Flow balancing and self-neutralization are both achieved by using two tanks, intermittently one after another. One tank is allowed to fill up after which it is checked for pH (or any other parameter) and then allowed to empty out. The second tank goes through a similar routine. Intermittent flow type tanks are economic for small flows from industries.
When flows are large an equalization tank of such a size may have to be provided that inflow can be variable while outflow is at a constant rate, generally by a pump.The capacity required is determined from a plot of the cumulative inflow and a plot of the constant rate outflow and measuring the gaps between the two plots. A factor of safety may be applied if desired.
9. These are open drains provided for conveying water from kitchens, bathroom and rain water to main sewers.
c) Soak pit
d) Surface drains
Answer: d [Reason:] These are usually provided at the side of the road and along the boundary line of the building. As far as possible drains should not be laid under the buildings. For efficient draining the surface drains should have certain qualities, such as should be laid in such a gradient to develop self -cleaning velocity, should have a reasonable free board at the top, joint should be smooth finished, easy curves, inner surface should be smooth, cheap in construction and maintenance.
10. In _________________ system the source of supply is lake or impounding reservoir at some elevation.
b) gravity distribution
c) pumps distribution
d) rain distribution
Answer: b [Reason:] This system is possible when the source of supply is lake or impounding reservoir at some elevation above the city, so that the sufficient pressure can be maintained in the mains.
11. The _______ are used for preventing foul gas from sewers to back flow in the house.
a) air freshners
c) naphthalene balls
Answer: b [Reason:] In plumbing, a trap is a device which has a shape that uses a bending path to capture water to prevent sewer gases from entering buildings, while allowing waste to pass through. In refinery applications, traps are used to prevent hydrocarbons and other dangerous gases from escaping outside through drains.
12. Connecting pipe should be_______ mm minimum diameter.
Answer: a [Reason:] It may be of R.C.C, Hume pipe, cast iron pipe, S.W. Inlet and outlet may be made through T-junction pipe or baffle wall of precast R.C.C. may be provided at a distance 1/5 of length of the septic tank so that the inlet sewage may not disturb the working of the tank.
1. ___________is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Answer: c [Reason:] There are two main types of lumber. It may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. It is available in many species, usually hardwoods; but it is also readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost.
2. One among the following is the insect and mollusc which is not responsible for the decay of timber-
a) Marine borers
d) Woodboring beetles
Answer: b [Reason:] Timber decay (rot) is caused by a biological attack within the wood by certain species of fungi. The fungus can lie dormant in the timber for years until the right conditions present themselves. The conditions needed are oxygen, moisture and nutrients, with moisture being the critical component. If moisture is not present in timber, then the fungi will remain dormant, even when oxygen and the nutrients they require are abundant.
3. There are two main natural forces responsible for causing defects in timber: abnormal growth and ____________________
a) rupture of tissues
Answer: a [Reason:] Rupture of tissue includes cracks or splits in the wood called “shakes”. “Ring shake”, “wind shake”, or “ring failure” is when the wood grain separates around the growth rings either while standing or during felling. Shakes may reduce the strength of a timber and the appearance thus reduce lumber grade and may capture moisture, promoting decay. Eastern hemlock is known for having ring shake. A “check” is a crack on the surface of the wood caused by the outside of a timber shrinking as it seasons.
4. _______________is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials.
Answer: d [Reason:] Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry. Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999, and there were about 1.5 million positions in 2006. Carpenters are usually the first tradesmen on a job and the last to leave.
5. A _______________is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers, storage chest, and other furniture designed for storage.
a) Scenic carpenter
b) Log builder
c) Trim carpenter
Answer: d [Reason:] A cabinet is a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers for storing miscellaneous items. Some cabinets standalone while others are built in to a wall or are attached to it like a medicine cabinet. Cabinets are typically made of wood, coated steel, or synthetic materials. Commercial grade cabinets, which differ in the materials used, are called casework.
6. The vertical timbers include _______and wall studs.
Answer: c [Reason:] A wall stud is a vertical framing member in a building’s wall of smaller cross section than a post. They are a fundamental element in frame building. A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member.
7. Wood contains water in three forms- vapour, bound or hygroscopic water and____________
a) contact water
b) capillary water
c) free water
d) bulk water
Answer: c [Reason:]
– Free water: The bulk of water contained in the cell lumina is only held by capillary forces. It is not bound chemically and is called free water. Free water is not in the same thermodynamic state as liquid water: energy is required to overcome the capillary water. Furthermore, free water may contain chemicals, altering the drying characteristics of wood.
-Bound or hygroscopic water: Bound water is bound to the wood via hydrogen bond. The attraction of wood for water arises from the presence of free hydroxyl (OH) groups in the cellulose hemicelluloses and lignin molecules in the cell wall. The hydroxyl groups are negatively charged. Because water is a polar liquid, the free hydroxyl groups in cellulose attract and hold water by hydrogen bonding.
-Vapor: Water in cell lumina in the form of water vapour is normally negligible at normal temperature and humidity.
8. Rough lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction industry
Answer: a [Reason:] Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes, mostly for the construction industry- primarily softwood, from coniferous species, including pine, fir and spruce (collectively spruce-pine-fir), cedar, and hemlock, but also some hardwood, for high-grade flooring. It is classified more commonly made from softwood than hardwoods, and 80% of lumber comes from softwood.
9. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches.
Answer: a [Reason:] Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4 (pictured) (also two-by-four and other variants, such as four-by-two in Australia, New Zealand, and the UK), 2×6, and 4×4. The length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth. It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four, eight, and twelve feet in length.
10. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) comes in 1 3⁄4 inch thicknesses with depths such as 9 1⁄2, 11 7⁄8, 14, 16, 18, and 24 inches, and are often doubled or tripled up.
Answer: a [Reason:] They function as beams to provide support over large spans, such as removed support walls and garage door openings, places where dimensional lumber is insufficient, and also in areas where a heavy load is bearing from a floor, wall or roof above on a somewhat short span where dimensional lumber is impractical.
11. Wood with less than 25% moisture (dry weight basis) can remain free of decay for centuries.
Answer: a [Reason:] Fungi attack timber when these conditions are all present:
-The timber moisture content is above 25% on a dry-weight basis
-The environment is sufficiently warm
-Oxygen (O2) is present.
12. The seasoning of lumber is typically either kiln- or air-dried.
Answer: a [Reason:] Wood drying (also seasoning lumber or wood seasoning) reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, whereas air drying is the more traditional method.
13. Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of green timber.
Answer: a [Reason:] Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and sustainable sources of building materials for use in construction projects. They also practice building methods that require using less material and material that has the same structural soundness.
14. Carpenters normally framed post-and-beam buildings until the end of the 19th century; now this old fashioned carpentry is called timber framing.
Answer: a [Reason:] Timber framing and “post-and-beam” construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, and in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect.
15. Box frame is a simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins.
Answer: a [Reason:] The term box frame is not well defined and has been used for any kind of framing other than cruck framing. The distinction presented here is the roof load is carried by the exterior walls. Purlins are also in a simple timber frame.
1. A voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law as a binding legal agreement is known as __________
d) mutual fund
Answer: c [Reason:] A contract arises when the parties agree that there is an agreement. Formation of a contract generally requires an offer, acceptance, consideration, and a mutual intent to be bound. Each party to a contract must have capacity to enter the agreement. Minors, intoxicated persons, and those under a mental affliction may have insufficient capacity to enter a contract. Some types of contracts may require formalities, such as a memorialization in writing.
2. What is the type of mistake which occurs when only one party to a contract is mistaken as to the terms or subject-matter?
a) Mutual mistake
b) Unilateral mistake
c) Bilateral mistake
d) Individual mistake
Answer: b [Reason:] The courts will uphold such a contract unless it was determined that the non-mistaken party was aware of the mistake and tried to take advantage of the mistake. It is also possible for a contract to be void if there was a mistake in the identity of the contracting party. An example is in Lewis v. Avery where Lord Denning MR held that the contract can only be voided if the plaintiff can show that, at the time of agreement, the plaintiff believed the other party’s identity was of vital importance. A mere mistaken belief as to the credibility of the other party is not sufficient.
3. _______________contract is one that has automatic renewals until one party requests termination.
d) On- demand
Answer: b [Reason:] If these are left unattended, they can have significant cost impacts with little value. If these agreements won’t work for the company, the clauses stating the contract automatically renews should be removed. If the clause makes sense or cannot be taken out, alerts can still be set in a contract management platform as a reminder.
4. How are final contracts signed in modern business?
b) Document scanning
c) Thump impression
d) Shaking hands
Answer: a [Reason:] Electronic signatures, or e-Signatures, have become crucial for businesses as they seek to increase the speed of time-to-signature, e-Signatures are legally binding and have the same legal status as a written signature, as long as it fulfills the requirements of the regulation it was created under.
A contract management platform should include the ability to integrate with an e-Signature software, or include e-Signatures as part of the platform.
5. Which tender allows anyone to submit a tender to supply the goods or services that are required.
a) Framework tendering
b) Selective tendering
c) Open tendering
d) Close tendering
Answer: c [Reason:] On larger projects, there may then be a pre-qualification process that produces a short-list of suitable suppliers who will be invited to prepare tenders. This sort of pre-qualification process is not the same as selective tendering.
Open tendering has been criticised for attracting tenders / expressions of interest from large numbers of suppliers, some of whom may be entirely unsuitable for the contract and as a result it can waste a great deal of time, effort and money. However, open tendering offers the greatest competition and has the advantage of allowing new or emerging suppliers to try to secure work.
6. ________________involves the preparation of tenders based on a typical or notional bill of quantities or schedule of works.
a) Framework tendering
b) Selective tendering
c) Negotiated tendering
d) Serial tendering
Answer: d [Reason:] The rates submitted can then be used to value works over a series of similar projects, often for a fixed period of time following which the tendering procedure may be repeated. Serial tendering can reduce tender costs, and may encourage suppliers to submit low rates to secure an ongoing program of work.
7. _______________tendering is used when all the information necessary to calculate a realistic price is available when tendering commences
Answer: a [Reason:] Single-stage tendering is the more traditional route, used when all the information necessary to calculate a realistic price is available when tendering commences:
• An invitation to tender is issued to prospective suppliers (perhaps following completion of a pre-qualification questionnaire and/or a pre-tender interview). The invitation to tender will include information describing the goods or services required in sufficient detail to enable prospective suppliers to prepare an accurate tender.
• Tenders are prepared and returned by prospective suppliers (this may involve questions and answers and a mid-tender interview to clarify the client’s requirements).
• Submitted tenders are then assessed and compared (this may involve further interviews).
• The preferred tenderer is selected and negotiations opened.
• Subject to the outcome of those negotiations the preferred tenderer may then be appointed.
8. An invitation to tender might not include?
a) Holiday packages
c) A letter of invitation to tender
d) Design drawing
Answer: a [Reason:] An invitation to tender might be issued for a range of contracts, including; equipment supply, the main construction contract (perhaps including design by the contractor), demolition, enabling works and so on.
An invitation to tender might include:
• A letter of invitation to tender.
• The form of tender.
• The form of contract.
• A tender pricing document.
• A drawing schedule.
• Design drawings.
9. ____________ is a list or schedule of quantities of all the possible items of work required for construction of any building or structure.
a) Quality survey
b) Rate list
c) Quantity survey
d) Rate schedule
Answer: c [Reason:] These quantities are worked from the plan and drawing of the structure. Thus the quantity survey indicates the quantities of work to be done under each item which when priced per unit gives the amount of cost.
10. ______________ include general office expenses, rents, taxes, supervision and other costs which are indirect expenses and not productive expenses on the job.
a) Total costs
b) General costs
c) Overhead costs
Answer: c [Reason:] The miscellaneous expenses on overheads may be under the following heads-General overheads, Job overheads.
11. Mutual mistake occurs when both parties of a contract are mistaken as to the terms.
Answer: b [Reason:] Each believes they are contracting to something different. Courts usually try to uphold such mistakes if a reasonable interpretation of the terms can be found. However, a contract based on a mutual mistake in judgment does not cause the contract to be voidable by the party that is adversely affected.
12. In Schedule contract the contractor undertakes the execution or construction of a specific work with all its contingencies, to complete it in all respect within a specified time for a fixed amount.
Answer: a [Reason:] In lump sum contract the contractor undertakes the execution or construction of a specific work with all its contingencies, to complete it in all respect within a specified time for a fixed amount. In this an owner agrees to pay a contractor a specified lump sum after the completion of work without a cost breakdown. After work no detailed measurements is required.