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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Which of the following is not true for angles as tension members?
a) Angles if axially loaded through centroid can be designed as plates
b) Angles connected to gusset plates by welding or bolting only through one of the two legs results in eccentric loading
c) When load is applied by connecting only one leg of member, there is shear lag at the end connection
d) When angles are connected to gusset plates by welding or bolting only through one of the two legs resulting in eccentric loading, there is a uniform stress distribution over cross section.

Answer: d [Reason:] Angles if axially loaded through centroid can be designed as plates. Angles connected to gusset plates by welding or bolting only through one of the two legs results in eccentric loading, causing non-uniform stress distribution over cross section. When load is applied by connecting only one leg of member, there is shear lag at the end connection.

2. Which of the following is true statement?
a) thickness of angle has no significant influence on member strength
b) net section efficiency is lower when long leg of angle is connected rather than short leg
c) when length of connection decreases, the tensile strength increases
d) effect of gusset plate thickness on ultimate tensile strength is significant

Answer: a [Reason:] (i) The effect of gusset plate thickness on ultimate tensile strength is not significant, (ii) the thickness of angle has no significant influence on member strength, (iii) the net section efficiency is higher(7-10%) when long leg of angle is connected rather than short leg, (iv) when length of connection increases, the tensile strength increases upto four bolts and effect of any further increase in number of bolts on tensile strength of member is not significant.

3. The additional factor to be added for angles for design strength of tension member corresponding to net section rupture is given by :
a) βAg0fyγm0
b) βAg0fym0
c) βAg0γm0
d) βAg0/fyγm0

Answer: b [Reason:] The design strength of angle section governed by tearing at net section is given by Tdn = (0.9Ancfum1) + βAg0fym0 , where Anc = net area of connected leg, Ag0 = gross area of outstanding leg, fu = ultimate strength of material, γm1 = partial safety factor for failure due to rupture of cross section = 1.25, γm0 = partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding = 1.10.

4. The constant β in βAg0fym0 for tensile strength of angle section does not depend on :
a) area of unconnected leg
b) size of outstanding leg
c) ultimate stress of material
d) thickness of outstanding leg

Answer: a [Reason:] β = 1.4 – 0.076[(bs/Lc)(w/t)(fy/fu)] , where fu and fy are ultimate and yield stress of material, w and t are size and thickness of outstanding leg respectively, bs is the shear distance from edge of outstanding leg to nearest line of fasteners, Lc is the length of end connection measured from centre of first bolt hole to centre of last bolt hole in the end connection.

5. Which of the following is correct?
a) β ≥ fuγm0/fyγm1
b) β ≥ fuγm1/fy γm0
c) β ≤ fuγm0/fyγm1
d) β ≤ fuγm1/fy γm0

Answer: c [Reason:] Tdn = (0.9Ancfum1) + βAg0fym0, where β = 1.4 – 0.076[(bs/Lc)(w/t)(fy/fu)] and β ≤ fuγm0/fyγm1, β ≥ 0.7.

6. What is the maximum value of β in βAg0fym0 for tensile strength of angle section?
a) 1.2
b) 0.9
c) 1.4
d) 0.7

Answer: d [Reason:] Tdn = (0.9Ancfum1) + βAg0fym0, where β = 1.4 – 0.076[(bs/Lc)(w/t)(fy/fu)] and β ≥ 0.7.

7. What is the value of partial factor of safety for material α for preliminary design for angle section as per IS code for three bolts in connection?
a) 0.6
b) 0.7
c) 0.8
d) 1.0

Answer: b [Reason:] As per IS code, the equation for preliminary design of angle tension member with partial factor of safety for material is given by Tdn = αAnfym1, where α = 0.6 for one or two bolts, 0.7 for two bolts, 0.8 for four or more bolts in the end connection or equivalent weld length.

8. Which of the following statement is correct?
a) strength of members with punched holes is less than members with drilled holes
b) strength of members with drilled holes is less than members with punched holes
c) strength of members with punched holes is greater than members with drilled holes
d) strength of members with punched holes is equal to members with drilled holes

Answer: a [Reason:] Strength of members with punched holes may be 10-15% less than the members with drilled holes. This is due to strain hardening effect of material around punched holes and consequent loss of ductility.

9. The presence of holes _____ the strength of tension member
a) does not affect
b) improves
c) reduces
d) doubles

Answer: c [Reason:] The bolt holes reduce the area of cross section available to carry tension and hence reduce the strength of tension member.

10. Staggering of holes __________ the load carrying capacity of tension member
a) reduces
b) improves
c) does not affect
d) halves

Answer: b [Reason:] Staggering of holes improves the load carrying capacity of tension member for given number of bolts. The failure paths may occur along sections normal to axis of member, or they may include zigzag sections when more than one bolt hole is present and staggering of holes may help to make the net area minimum.

11. The actual failure mode in bearing depends on
a) length of metal plate
b) length of bolt
c) hole diameter
d) bolt diameter

Answer: d [Reason:] The actual failure mode in bearing depends on end distance, bolt diameter and thickness of the connected material.

12. The shear lag effect _____ with increase in connection length
a) increases
b) reduces
c) does not change
d) doubles

Answer: b [Reason:] The shear lag effect increases with increase in connection length. The shear lag reduces the effectiveness of component plates of tension member that are not connected directly to gusset plate.

13. Which of the following statement is correct?
a) increase in ductility reduces strength of member
b) reduction in ductility increases strength of member
c) increase in ductility does not affect strength of member
d) reduction in ductility reduces strength of member

Answer: d [Reason:] Reduction in ductility tends to reduce strength of member. An increase in ductility tends to increase net section strength by allowing better plastic redistribution of stress concentration over cross section.

14. Which of the following statement is true regarding residual stresses?
a) residual stress result in local early strain hardening
b) it increase plastic range of member
c) it is not important when fatigue is involved
d) it improves strength of member

Answer: a [Reason:] Residual stress result in local early strain hardening and reduce plastic range of member. Residual stresses have no consequences with respect to static strength of member, they can be important if fatigue is involved.

## Set 2

1. What is riveting?
a) the process of making holes in the structure
b) process of making mould for structure
c) method of joining together pieces of metal by inserting ductile metal pins called rivets
d) method of joining together pieces of metal by inserting non ductile metal pins called rivets

Answer: c [Reason:] Riveting is the method of joining together pieces of metal by inserting ductile metal pins called rivets into holes of pieces to be connected and forming a head at end of rivet to prevent each metal piece from coming out.

2. Size of rivet hole is _________ size of rivet
a) more than
b) less than
c) equal to
d) not compared with

Answer: a [Reason:] Size of rivet hole is kept slightly more than size of rivet. Size of rivet hole is 1.5mm more for rivet diameter < 25mm Size of rivet hole is 2mm more for rivet diameter ≥ 25mm.

3. Hammering is done in rivet to _______
a) give proper shape to rivet
b) completely fill up the rivet hole
c) partially fill up the rivet hole
d) make a rivet hole

Answer: b [Reason:] Holding red hot rivet at shop head end, hammering is made. It results into expansion of rivet to completely fill up the rivet hole and also into formation at driven head.

4. Which of the following about rivet is correct?
a) causes low level of noise pollution
b) it does not require skilled work
c) labour cost is low
d) removing poorly installed rivet is costly

Answer: d [Reason:] (i)Rivet connection is associated with high level of noise pollution, (ii)needs heating rivet to red hot, (iii)inspection of connection is skilled work, (iv) removing poorly installed rivet is costly, (v)labour cost is high.

5. Which of the following is correct?
a) effective diameter of rivets = rivet hole diameter
b) effective diameter of rivets = nominal diameter of rivet
c) effective diameter of rivets = 1.5 x rivet hole diameter
d) effective diameter of rivets = 1.5 x nominal diameter of rivet

Answer: b [Reason:] Effective diameter of rivet is taken as rivet hole diameter instead of nominal diameter of rivet. Rivet hole diameter is diameter of rivet + clearance.

a) 1.60d, where d=nominal rivet diameter
b) 2.5d, where d=nominal rivet diameter
c) 3d, where d=nominal rivet diameter
d) 5d, where d=nominal rivet diameter

Answer: a [Reason:] Diameter of head for (i) button head rivet = 1.6d, (ii) flat countersunk head = 1.5d, (iii) flat head = 2d, where d=nominal rivet diameter.

a) 0.7d, where d=nominal rivet diameter
b) 0.5d, where d=nominal rivet diameter
c) 0.43d, where d=nominal rivet diameter
d) 0.25d, where d=nominal rivet diameter

Answer: c [Reason:] Diameter of head for (i) button head rivet = 0.7d, (ii) flat countersunk head rivet = 0.43d, (iii) flat head rivet = 0.25d, where d=nominal rivet diameter.

8. Tolerance on length for rivet diameter > 16mm is_____
a) 1.5mm
b) 2mm
c) 5mm
d) 3mm

Answer: d [Reason:] Preferred nominal length of shank are 28,30,32,…..,225mm. Range of length depends on rivet diameter. Tolerance on length = 1.5mm, for rivet diameter ≤ 16mm and tolerance on length = 3mm, for rivet diameter > 16mm.

9. Which of the following assumption is true for rivet connection?
a) friction between plates is considered
b) distribution of direct stress on portions of plates between rivet holes is uniform
c) bending stresses are considered
d) shear stress is not uniform on cross section of rivet

Answer: b [Reason:] The assumptions for rivet connection are : (i) friction between plates is neglected, (ii) distribution of direct stress on portions of plates between rivet holes is uniform, (iii) shear stress is uniform on cross section of rivet, (iv) bending stresses are neglected.

a) equally
b) unequally
c) according to rivet diameter
d) rivets are not used in groups

Answer: a [Reason:] Rivets in group subjected to direct loads share load equally. Strength of group of rivets = Strength of single rivet x number of rivets in group.

## Set 3

1. A beam can be subjected to which of the following shear?
a) longitudinal shear only
b) transverse shear only
c) longitudinal or transverse shear
d) beam is not subjected to shear

Answer: c [Reason:] A beam is subjected to two types of shear: transverse (vertical) shear and longitudinal shear.

2. Shear forces will govern the design of beam if
a) beam is short
b) beam is long
d) shear forces will never act in beam

Answer: a [Reason:] Shear forces will govern the design of beam if beams are short and are heavily loaded (heavy concentrated load) or deeply coped.

3. Longitudinal shear occurs due to
b) bending of beam
c) twisting of beam
d) does not occur

Answer: b [Reason:] Longitudinal or horizontal shear occurs due to bending of beam. The fibers above shorten in length and those below neutral axis elongate under sagging bending moments. Therefore, the fibers tend to slip over each other and the effect is maximum at the neutral axis. The tendency to slip is resisted by shear strength of the material.

4. The shear stress distribution of I-section varies
a) cubically with depth
b) as straight line with depth
c) as horizontally with depth
d) parabolically with depth

Answer: d [Reason:] The shear stress distribution of I-section varies parabolically with depth with maximum occurring at the neutral axis.

5. The longitudinal shear is given by
a) τ = VAyIzt
b) τ = VAy/Izt
c) τ = VAy/Iz
d) τ = Vy/Izt

Answer: b [Reason:] The longitudinal shear is given by τ = VAy/Izt, where V is vertical shear force at section under consideration, Iz is moment of inertia of entire section about zz-axis, neutral axis, Ay is static moment of area of cross section, t is thickness of portion of cross section at which longitudinal shear is obtained.

6. In which of the following cases shear does not govern design of beam?
a) when web thickness is large in plate girders
b) when depth of beam section is small and loaded uniformly
c) when large concentrated loads are placed near support
d) when two members are rigidly connected together with their webs lying in same plane

Answer: a [Reason:] Shear determines design of beam when depth of beam section is small and loaded uniformly, when large concentrated loads are placed near beam supports, when two members are rigidly connected together with their webs lying in same plane, when web thickness is small in plate girders.

7. Which of the following is true regarding I-section?
a) average shear is very larger than maximum shear
b) maximum shear is very larger than average shear
c) flanges resist very small portion of shear
d) webs resist very small portion of shear

Answer: c [Reason:] For an I-section, flanges resist very small portion of shear and a significant portion is resisted by web. The maximum and average shear for I-section are almost same.

8. Average stress is given by
a) τav = V/d
b) τav = Vdtw
c) τav = V/tw
d) τav = V/dtw

Answer: d [Reason:] for practical purposes, average shear stress is used and is given by τav = V/Av = /dtw, where d = depth of web, tw = thickness of web, Av is shear area.

9. Nominal shear strength based on Von-Mises yield criterion is given by
a) Vn = Avfyv
b) Vn = Avfyv/√3
c) Vn = fyv/√3
d) Vn = Avfyv/3

Answer: b [Reason:] Nominal shear strength based on Von-Mises yield criterion is given by Vn = Avfyv/√3, where fyv is yield strength of web, Vn is nominal shear resistance.

## Set 4

1. Simple connections are used to transmit ______
a) forces
b) moments
c) stresses
d) both force and moment

Answer: a [Reason:] Simple Connection is required to transmit force only and there may not be any moment acting on the group of connectors. This connection may be capable of transmitting some amount of moment. Simple connections are also called flexible connections.

2. Which of the following statement is true?
a) lap joint eliminates eccentricity of applied load, butt joint results in eccentricity at connection
b) lap joint and butt joint eliminates eccentricity at connection
c) lap joint results in eccentricity of applied load, butt joint eliminates eccentricity at connection
d) lap joint and butt joint results in eccentricity of applied load

Answer: c [Reason:] Lap joints and butt joints are used to connect plates or members composed of plate elements. Lap joint results in eccentricity of applied load, butt joint eliminates eccentricity at connection.

3. In a lap joint, at least __________ bolts should be provided in a line.
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3

Answer: c [Reason:] In lap joint, members to be connected are simply overlapped and connected together by means of bolts and welds. To minimize the effect of bending due to eccentricity in a lap joint, at least two bolts in a line should be provided.

4. Use of lap joints is not recommended because
a) stresses are distributed unevenly
b) eccentricity is eliminated
c) bolts are in double shear
d) no bending is produced

Answer: a [Reason:] In lap joint the centre of gravity of load in one member does not coincide with centre of gravity of load in other member. It results in eccentricity of applied loads and bending. Due to eccentricity, stresses are also not evenly distributed, Hence lap joint is not recommended.

5. Why is double cover butt joint preferred over single cover butt joint or lap joint?
a) bolts are in single shear
b) eliminates eccentricity
c) bending in bolts
d) shear force is not transmitted

Answer: b [Reason:] Double cover butt joint preferred over single cover butt joint or lap joint because (i) eccentricity of load is eliminated, hence no bending in bolts, (ii) total shear force to be transmitted is split into two parts, hence bolts are in double shear. Shear capacity of double cover butt joint is double the shear capacity of single cover butt joint or lap joint.

6. Clip and seating angle connection is provided for
a) lateral support
b) bending support
c) frictional support
d) hinged support

Answer: a [Reason:] Clip and seating angle connection transfer reaction from beam to column through angle seat. The cleat angle is provided for lateral or torsional support to the top flange of the beam and bolted to the top flange.

7. In flexible end plate design, beam is designed for the
a) maximum bending moment
b) shear force
c) torsional moment
d) zero end moment

Answer: d [Reason:] In flexible end plate design. beam is designed for the zero end moment and the end plates augment the web shear and bending capacity of beams.

8. which of the following condition is true for web side plate connection?
a) HSFG bolts should be used
b) Bolts should be designed to fail by shear of bolt
c) Bolts should be designed to fail by bearing of connected plies
d) Edge distances must be less than two times the bolt diameter

Answer: c [Reason:] The following condition must be considered for web side plate connection (i) only ordinary bolts should be used, (ii) bolts should be designed to fail by bearing of connected plies ad not by shear of bolt, (iii) edge distances must be greater than two times the bolt diameter.

## Set 5

1. The function of bearing stiffener is to
a) improve buckling strength of web
b) preclude any crushing of web
c) restrain against torsional effects
d) increase buckling resistance of web

Answer: b [Reason:] The function of bearing stiffener is to preclude any crushing of web at locations of heavy concentrated loads. Thus, they transfer heavy reactions or concentrated loads to the full depth of web. They are placed in pairs on the web of plate girders at unframed girder ends and where required for concentrated loads.

2. Match the following

```	Stiffeners				Function
A) Load carrying stiffener		(i) increases buckling resistance of web
B) Torsional stiffener			(ii) local strengthening of web
C) Diagonal stiffener			(iii) prevent local buckling of web
D) Tension stiffener			(iv) restrain against torsional effects
E) Longitudinal stiffener		(v) transmit tensile forces```

a) A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv, E-v
b) A-v, B-iv, C-iii, D-ii, E-i
c) A-iv, B-v, C-i, D-ii, E-iii
d) A-iii, B-iv, C-ii, D-v, E-i

Answer: d [Reason:] Load carrying stiffener prevents local buckling of web due to any concentrated load. Torsional stiffener are provided at supports to restrain girders against torsional effects. Local strengthening of web under the combination of shear and bending is provided by diagonal stiffeners. The tensile forces from the flange are transmitted to the web through the tension stiffener. A longitudinal stiffener increases the buckling resistance of web.

3. The outstand of stiffener from face of web is restricted to
a) 20tq
b) 120tqε
c) 20tqε
d) 50tqε

Answer: c [Reason:] Unless the outer edge is continuously stiffened, the outstand of stiffener from face of web should not exceed 20tqε,where tq is thickness of stiffener. When the outstands of web is between 14tqε and 20tqε, then the stiffener design should be on the basis of a core section with an outstand of 14tqε.

4. What is the stiff bearing length?
a) length which cannot deform appreciably in bending
b) length which deform appreciably in bending
c) length of outer end of flange
d) length of web

Answer: a [Reason:] The stiff bearing length of any element b1 is that length which cannot deform appreciably in bending. To determine b1, the dispersion of load through a steel bearing element should be taken as 45˚ through solid material, such as bearing plates, flange plates, etc.

5. The effective length of web on each side of centreline of stiffeners for interior stiffeners is limited to
a) 10 tw
b) 50 tw
c) 40 tw
d) 15 tw

Answer: c [Reason:] The effective length of web on each side of centreline of stiffeners is limited to 20 times the web thickness, i.e. 40tw for interior stiffeners and 20tw for end stiffeners . The effective section is the full area or core area of stiffener together with effective length of web on each side of centreline of stiffeners.

6. The effective length of intermediate transverse stiffener is taken as
a) 2 times the length of stiffener
b) 0.7 times the length of stiffener
c) 1.4 times the length of stiffener
d) 0.5 times the length of stiffener

Answer: d [Reason:] The effective length of intermediate transverse stiffener is taken as 0.7 times the length of stiffener. The intermediate transverse stiffener is provided mainly to improve shear buckling resistance of the web.

7. The second moment of area of transverse web stiffeners not subjected to external loads or moments is given by
a) Is ≤ 0.75dtw2
b) Is ≥ 0.75dtw2
c) Is ≤ 1.5dtw2
d) Is ≥ 12.5dtw

Answer: b [Reason:] Transverse stiffeners not subjected to external loads or moments should have second moment of area Is about centreline of the web, if stiffeners are on both sides of the web and about face of the web, if stiffener is on only one side of the web such that Is ≥ 0.75dtw2 for c/d ≥ √2 and Is ≥ 1.5dtw2/c2 for c/d < √2.

8. Which of the following buckling check is applied to stiffeners?
a) [(V+Vc)/γm0] ≤ Fqd
b) [(V+Vcm0] ≥ Fqd
c) [(V-Vc)/γm0] ≤ Fqd
d) [(V-Vcm0] ≥ Fqd

Answer: c [Reason:] Stiffeners not subjected to external loads or moments should be checked for buckling for a force Fd = [(V-Vc)/γm0] ≤ Fqd, where Fqd is design resistance of intermediate stiffeners, V is factored shear force adjacent to the stiffener, Vcr is shear buckling resistance of the web panel designed without using tension field action. This check is required for intermediate stiffeners only when tension field action is utilized in webs.

9. The interaction expression for stiffeners subjected to external loads or moments is given by
a) [(Fq-Fs)/Fqd]+(Fs/Fsd)+(Mq/Myq) < 1
b) [(Fq-Fs)/Fqd]+(Fs/Fsd)+(Mq/Myq) > 1
c) [(Fq-Fs)/Fqd]-(Fs/Fsd)-(Mq/Myq) < 1
d) [(Fq+Fs)/Fqd]-(Fs/Fsd)-(Mq/Myq) > 1

10. Which of the following is not true regarding longitudinal stiffeners?
a) longitudinal stiffeners increase buckling resistance considerably as compared to transverse stiffeners
b) they consist of plane section for welded plate girder
c) first horizontal stiffener is provide at one-fifth of distance from compression flange
d) first horizontal stiffener is provide at neutral axis

Answer: d [Reason:] Longitudinal stiffeners are also called horizontal stiffeners. They increase buckling resistance considerably as compared to transverse stiffeners when the web is subjected to buckling. They consist of angle section for riveted/bolted plate girder and plane section for welded plate girder and are provided in the compression zone of the web. The first horizontal stiffener is provide at one-fifth of distance from compression flange to tension flange. If required another stiffener is provided at the neutral axis.

11. The connection of intermediate transverse stiffeners are designed for shear of
a) twbs
b) tw2/5bs
c) tw25bs
d) tw5bs