# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Which of the following assumptions is not an ideal beam behaviour?

a) local and lateral instabilities of beam are prevented

b) any form of local buckling is prevented

c) compression flange of beam is restrained from moving laterally

d) compression flange of beam is not restrained from moving laterally

### View Answer

2. In beam design, sections are proportioned as such that _____ to achieve economy.

a) moment of inertia about principal axis parallel to the web is equal to moment of inertia about principal axis normal to the web

b) moment of inertia about principal axis parallel to the web is considerable larger than moment of inertia about principal axis normal to the web

c) moment of inertia about principal axis normal to the web is considerable larger than moment of inertia about principal axis parallel to the web

d) moment of inertia about principal axis normal to the web is considerable lesser than moment of inertia about principal axis parallel to the web

### View Answer

3. To ensure that compression flange of beam is restrained from moving laterally, the cross section must be

a) plastic

b) semi-compact

c) slender

d) thin

### View Answer

4. What are laterally restrained beams?

a) adequate restraints are provided to beam

b) adequate restraints are not provided to beam

c) economically not viable

d) unstable beams

### View Answer

5. Characteristic feature if lateral buckling is ___________

a) entire cross section do not rotate as rigid disc without any cross sectional distortion

b) entire cross section rotates as rigid disc without any cross sectional distortion

c) entire cross section rotates as rigid disc with cross sectional distortion

d) entire cross section do not rotate as rigid disc

### View Answer

6. Lateral buckling in beam is _________

a) does not occur in beam

b) one dimensional

c) two dimensional

d) three dimensional

### View Answer

7. What is elastic critical moment?

a) bending moment at which beam do not fail by lateral buckling

b) bending moment at which beam fails by lateral buckling

c) shear force at which beam do not fail by lateral buckling

d) shear force at which beam fails by lateral buckling

### View Answer

8. Which of the following condition causes lateral instabilities?

a) section possesses different stiffness in two principal planes

b) section possesses same stiffness in two principal planes

c) applied loading does not induce bending in stiffer plane

d) applied loading induce twisting in stiffer plane

### View Answer

9. Which of the following is not a method for providing effective lateral restraints?

(i) by embedding compression flange inside slab concrete

(ii) by providing shear connectors in compression flange

(iii) by bracing compression flanges of adjacent beams

a) i only

b) i, iii

c) ii, iii

d) i, ii, iii

### View Answer

## Set 2

1. What is lateral torsional buckling?

a) buckling of beam loaded in plane of its weak axis and buckling about its stronger axis accompanied by twisting

b) buckling of beam loaded in plane of its strong axis and buckling about its weaker axis accompanied by twisting

c) buckling of beam loaded in plane of its strong axis and buckling about its weaker axis and not accompanied by twisting

d) buckling of beam loaded in plane of its weak axis and buckling about its stronger axis and not accompanied by twisting

### View Answer

2. Critical bending moment capacity of a beam undergoing lateral torsional buckling is a function of

a) does not depend on anything

b) pure torsional resistance only

c) warping torsional resistance only

d) pure torsional resistance and warping torsional resistance

### View Answer

3. Elastic critical moment is given by

a) (π/L){√[(EI_{y}GI_{t}) + (πE/L)^{2}I_{w}I_{y}]}

b) (π/L){√[(EI_{y}GI_{t}) – (πE/L)^{2}I_{w}I_{y}]}

c) (π/L){√[(EI_{y}GI_{t}) + (πE/L) I_{w}I_{y}]}

d) (π/L){ [(EI_{y}GI_{t}) – (πE/L)^{2}I_{w}I_{y}]}

### View Answer

_{cr}= (π/L){√[(EI

_{y}GI

_{t}) + (πE/L)2I

_{w}I

_{y}]}, where EI

_{y}= flexural rigidity(minor axis), GI

_{t}= torsional rigidity, I

_{t}= St.Venant torsion constant, I

_{w}= St.Venant warping constant, L = unbraced length of beam subjected to constant moment in plane of web.

4. Lateral torsional buckling is not possible to occur if

a) moment of inertia about bending axis is twice than moment of inertia out of plane

b) moment of inertia about bending axis is greater than moment of inertia out of plane

c) moment of inertia about bending axis is equal to or less than moment of inertia out of plane

d) moment of inertia about bending axis is equal to or greater than moment of inertia out of plane

### View Answer

_{t}is not possible for lateral torsional buckling to occur if moment of inertia of section about bending axis is equal to or less than moment of inertia out of plane.

5. Limit state of lateral torsion buckling is not applicable to

a) square shapes

b) doubly symmetric I shaped beams

c) I section loaded in plane of their webs

d) I section singly symmetric with compression flanges

### View Answer

_{t}is not possible for lateral torsional buckling to occur if moment of inertia of section about bending axis is equal to or less than moment of inertia out of plane. So, limit state of lateral torsion buckling is not applicable for shapes bent about their minor axis for shapes with Iz ≤ I

_{y}or for circular or square shapes.

6. Which of the following assumptions were not made while deriving expression for elastic critical moment?

a) beam is initially undisturbed and without imperfections

b) behaviour of beam is elastic

c) load acts in plane of web only

d) ends of beam are fixed support

### View Answer

7. For different loading conditions, the equation of elastic critical moment is given by

a) M_{cr} = c_{1} (EI_{y}GI_{t}) γ

b) M_{cr} = c_{1} [(EI_{y}GI_{t})^{2}] γ

c) M_{cr} = c_{1} [√(EI_{y}GI_{t})] γ

d) M_{cr} = c_{1} (EI_{y} /GI_{t}) γ

### View Answer

_{cr}= c

_{1}[√(EI

_{y}GI

_{t})] γ, where c

_{1}= equivalent uniform moment factor or moment coefficient, EI

_{y}= flexural rigidity(minor axis), GI

_{t}= torsional rigidity, γ = (π/L){√[1 + (πE/L)

^{2}I

_{w}I

_{y}]}, I

_{t}= St.Venant torsion constant, I

_{w}= St.Venant warping constant, L = unbraced length of beam subjected to constant moment in plane of web.

8. Which of the following is not true about moment coefficient?

a) for torsionally simple supports the moment coefficient is greater than or equal to unity

b) for torsionally simple supports the moment coefficient is less than unity

c) moment coefficient accounts for the effect of differential moment gradient on lateral torsional buckling

d) it depends on type of loading

### View Answer

9. √EI_{y}GI_{t} depends on

a) shape of beam only

b) material of beam only

c) shape and material of beam

d) does not depend on anything

### View Answer

_{y}GI

_{t}depends on shape and material of beam, where = flexural rigidity(minor axis), GI

_{t}= torsional rigidity.

10. Which of the following is true?

a) sections with greater lateral bending and torsional stiffness have great resistance to bending

b) sections with lesser lateral bending and torsional stiffness have great resistance to bending

c) sections with greater lateral bending and torsional stiffness have less resistance to bending

d) lateral instability of beam cannot be reduced by selecting appropriate shapes

### View Answer

11. In the equation M_{cr} = c_{1} [√(EI_{y}GI_{t})] γ, γ depends on

a) load on beam

b) shape of beam

c) material of beam

d) length of beam

### View Answer

_{cr}= c

_{1}[√(EI

_{y}GI

_{t})] γ, c

_{1}varies with loading and support conditions, [√(EI

_{y}GI

_{t})] varies with material properties and shape of beam and γ varies with length of beam.

12. Which of the following is true?

a) long shallow girders have high warping stiffness

b) short and deep girders have very low warping resistance

c) long shallow girders have low warping stiffness

d) short and shallow girders have very low warping resistance

### View Answer

13. Elastic critical moment for long shallow girders is given by

a) (π/L){√(EI_{y}GI_{t})}

b) (πL){√(EI_{y}GI_{t})}

c) (π/L){√(EI_{y} /GI_{t})}

d) (πL){√(EI_{y} /GI_{t})}

### View Answer

_{y}GI

_{t})}, where EI

_{y}= flexural rigidity(minor axis), GI

_{t}= torsional rigidity, L = unbraced length of beam subjected to constant moment in plane of web.

## Set 3

1. Limit State Method is based on _____________

a) calculations on service load conditions alone

b) calculations on ultimate load conditions alone

c) calculations at working loads and ultimate loads

d) calculations on earthquake loads

### View Answer

2. What is limit state?

a) Acceptable limits for safety and serviceability requirements before failure occurs

b) Acceptable limits for safety and serviceability requirements after failure occurs

c) Acceptable limits for safety after failure occurs

d) Acceptable limits for serviceability after failure occurs

### View Answer

3. Which of the following format is used in limit state method?

a) Single safety factor

b) Multiple safety factor

c) Load factor

d) Wind factor

### View Answer

4. Which of the following factors is included in the limit state of strength?

a) Fire

b) Failure by excessive deformation

c) Corrosion

d) Repairable damage or crack due to fatigue

### View Answer

5. Which of the following factors is included in the limit state of serviceability?

a) Brittle facture

b) Fracture due to fatigue

c) Failure by excessive deformation

d) Deformation and deflection adversely affecting appearance or effective use of structure

### View Answer

6. What is permanent action according to classification of actions by IS code?

a) due to self weight

b) due to construction and service stage loads

c) due to accidents

d) due to earthquake loads

### View Answer

7. What is variable action according to classification of actions by IS code?

a) due to self weight

b) due to accidents

c) due to construction and service stage loads

d) due to earthquake loads

### View Answer

8. Which of the following relation is correct?

a) Design Load = Characteristic Load

b) Design Load = Characteristic Load + Partial factor of safety

c) Design Load = Characteristic Load / Partial factor of safety

d) Design Load = Characteristic Load x Partial factor of safety

### View Answer

9. Which of the following relation is correct?

a) Design Strength = Ultimate strength + Partial factor of safety

b) Design Strength = Ultimate strength – Partial factor of safety

c) Design Strength = Ultimate strength /Partial factor of safety

d) Design Strength = Ultimate strength x Partial factor of safety

### View Answer

10. Which of the following criteria is to be satisfied in selection of member in limit state method?

a) Factored Load > Factored Strength

b) Factored Load ≤ Factored Strength

c) Factored Load ≥ Factored Strength

d) Sometimes Factored Load < Factored Strength (or) Factored Load > Factored Strength

### View Answer

11. The partial factor of safety for resistance governed by yielding is :

a) 1.10

b) 1.5

c) 2.0

d) 1.25

### View Answer

12. The partial factor of safety for resistance governed by ultimate strength is :

a) 1.10

b) 1.5

c) 2.0

d) 1.25

### View Answer

## Set 4

1. Buckling occurs to members or elements mainly subjected to ________

a) seismic forces

b) tensile forces

c) compressive forces

d) shear forces

### View Answer

2. The critical stress of infinite plate having width b and thickness t loaded by compressive forces acting on simply supported sides is given by

a) (kπ^{2}E)/ [12(1-μ^{2})(b/t)].

b) (kπ^{2}E)/ [12(1-μ^{2})(b/t)^{2}].

c) (kπ^{2}E)/ [12(1+μ^{2})(b/t)].

d) (kπ^{2}E)/ [12(1+μ^{2})(b/t)^{2}].

### View Answer

_{cr}= (kπ

^{2}E)/ [12(1-μ

^{2})(b/t)

^{2}], where μ is Poisson’s ratio of material, b/t is width-to-thickness ratio of plate, k is buckling coefficient and E is Young’s modulus of rigidity of material. The value of coefficient k depends on constraints along non-loaded edges of plate.

3. Which of the following statement is correct?

a) stiffened elements are supported along one edge perpendicular to axial stress

b) un-stiffened elements are supported along one edge perpendicular to axial stress

c) stiffened elements are supported along one edge parallel to axial stress

d) un-stiffened elements are supported along one edge parallel to axial stress

### View Answer

4. Lowest value of buckling coefficient for simply supported plates is _____

a) 4.0

b) 2.0

c) 5.0

d) 3.0

### View Answer

5. The buckling stress f_{cr} varies _____

a) inversely as plate slenderness or width-to-thickness ratio

b) directly as plate slenderness or width-to-thickness ratio

c) inversely as square of plate slenderness or width-to-thickness ratio

d) directly as square of plate slenderness or width-to-thickness ratio

### View Answer

_{cr}varies inversely as square of plate slenderness or width-to-thickness ratio, √(f

_{y}/f

_{cr}) = (b/t)√{(f

_{y}/ E)[12(1-μ

^{2})/(π

^{2}k)]} .

6. The buckling coefficient for thin flat plate free along one longitudinal edge is given by

a) k = 0.425 + (b/a)

b) k = 0.425 + (b/a)^{2}

c) k = 0.425 + (a/b)^{2}

d) k = 0.425 – (b/a)^{2}

### View Answer

^{2}.

7. The elastic buckling stress of thin flat plate of length L, depth d and thickness t simply supported along four edges and loaded by shear stresses distributed uniformly along its edges is given by

a) f_{cr} = kπ^{2}E / [12(1-μ^{2})(d/t)^{2}].

b) f_{cr} = kπ^{2}E / [12(1+μ^{2})(d/t)^{2}].

c) f_{cr} = kπ^{2}E / [12(1-μ^{2})(d/t)].

d) f_{cr} = kπ^{2}E / [12(1+μ^{2})(d/t)].

### View Answer

_{cr}of thin flat plate of length L, depth d and thickness t simply supported along all four edges and loaded by shear stresses distributed uniformly along its edges is given by f

_{cr}= kπ2E / [12(1-μ

^{2})(d/t)

^{2}], where buckling coefficient can be approximated by k=5.35 + 4(d/L)

^{2}, when L ≥ d and k = 5.35(d/L)2 + 4, when L ≤ d.

8. The elastic buckling stress for thin flat plate of length L, depth d and thickness t simply supported along four edges and loaded by bending stress distribution is given by

a) f_{cr} = π^{2}E/k[12(1-μ^{2})(d/t)^{2}].

b) f_{cr} = π^{2}E/k[12(1+μ^{2})(d/t)^{2}].

c) f_{cr} = kπ^{2}E/[12(1+μ^{2})(d/t)^{2}].

d) f_{cr} = kπ^{2}E/[12(1-μ^{2})(d/t)^{2}].

### View Answer

_{cr}= kπ

^{2}E/[12(1-μ

^{2})(d/t)

^{2}], where buckling coefficient k depends on aspect ratio L/d and the number of buckles along the plate.

9. Which of following statement is correct?

a) elastic buckling stress may be decreased by using longitudinal stiffeners

b) elastic buckling stress may be decreased by using intermediate stiffeners

c) elastic buckling stress may be increased by using intermediate transverse stiffeners

d) elastic buckling stress is not affected by intermediate or longitudinal stiffeners

### View Answer

10. Match the following values of limiting b/t or d/t ratio for various cases

Plates (b/t))√(fy /250) or (d/t)√(fy /250) i. Simply supported plates A) 17.5 ii. Long plate elements in shear B) 131.4 iii. Long plate elements free along one longitudinal edge C) 81.9 iv. Long plate elements in bending D) 53.8

a) i-A, ii-B, iii-C, iv-D

b) i-D, ii-C, iii-A, iv-B

c) i-C, ii-D, iii-B, iv-A

d) i-D, ii-C, iii-B, iv-A

### View Answer

_{y}, the width-to-thickness ratio b/t is given by (b/t)√(f

_{y}/250) = 53.8 ii) For long plate elements simply supported along both transverse edges and one longitudinal edge and free along other longitudinal edge, elastic buckling stress is equal to yield stress if (b/t)√(f

_{y}/250) = 17.5 iii) The elastic buckling stress is equal to yield stress in shear τy = f

_{y}/√3 when (d/t)√(f

_{y}/250) = 81.9 iv) For long plates elements simply supported along four edges and loaded by bending stress distribution, limiting ratio d/t may be given as (d/t)√(f

_{y}/250) = 131.4.

## Set 5

1. Lug angles are ____

a) additional angles used to reduce joint length

b) additional angles used to increase joint length

c) additional angles used for aesthetic appearance

d) additional angles used for seismic resistance

### View Answer

2. Lug angles are found to be more effective at _____

a) end of the connection

b) middle of connection

c) beginning of connection

d) they are equally effective at all connections

### View Answer

3. Which of the following solution can be used to eliminate lug angles?

a) by providing equal angle sections with wider leg as connected leg

b) by providing unequal angle sections with wider leg as connected leg

c) by providing equal angle sections with shorter leg as connected leg

d) by providing unequal angle sections with shorter leg as connected leg

### View Answer

4. Which of the following is correct in case of angle members?

a) connection of lug angle to angle member should be capable of developing a strength of 10% of excess of force of outstanding leg of angle

b) connection of lug angle to angle member should be capable of developing a strength of 20% of excess of force of outstanding leg of angle

c) lug angles and their connection to gusset should be capable of developing a strength of less than 20% of excess of force of outstanding leg of angle

d) lug angles and their connection to gusset should be capable of developing a strength of not less than 20% of excess of force of outstanding leg of angle

### View Answer

5. Which of the following is correct in case of channel members?

a) connection of lug angle to angle member should have a strength not less than 20% of excess of force in flange of channel

b) connection of lug angle to angle member should have a strength less than 20% of excess of force in flange of channel

c) lug angles and their connection to gusset should be capable of developing a strength of less than 10% of excess of force in flange of channel

d) lug angles and their connection to gusset should be capable of developing a strength of less than 5% of excess of force in flange of channel

### View Answer

6. Splices are provided when_________

a) available length is more than required length of a tension member

b) available length is less than required length of a tension member

c) available length is equal to required length of a tension member

d) for aesthetic appearance

### View Answer

7. As per IS specification, splice connection should be designed for a force of _____

a) at least 0.3 times the member design capacity in tension

b) at least 0.1 times the member design capacity in tension

c) less than 0.3 times the member design capacity in tension

d) less than 0.15 times the member design capacity in tension

### View Answer

8. Which of the following is not correct about gusset plates?

a) gusset plate is provided to make connections at place where more than one member is to be joined

b) plate outlines are fixed to meet minimum edge distances for bolts used for connection

c) lines of action of truss members meeting at a joint should not coincide

d) size and shape of gusset plates are usually decided from direction of members meeting at joint

### View Answer

9. What is the minimum thickness of gusset plate?

a) 5mm

b) 8mm

c) 10mm

d) 12mm