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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Moment Resistant Connections transfer
(i) Moments, (ii)Axial force, (iii)shear force
a) i only
b) i and ii
c) ii and iii
d) i, ii and iii

Answer: d [Reason:] Moment resistant connections are used to transfer moments, axial force and shear force from one member to another. These connections are used in framed structures where joints are considered rigid.

2. The effect of twisting moment and shear force on the bolt group cause ____ whereas bending moment and shear force cause ________
a) shear force on the bolts, tension and shear in the bolt
b) tension and shear in the bolt, shear force on the bolts
c) shear force on the bolts, shear force on the bolts
d) tension and shear in the bolt, tension and shear in the bolt

Answer: a [Reason:] The effect of twisting moment and shear force on the bolt group cause shear force along two directions of the bolts whereas bending moment and shear force cause tension and shear in the bolts.

3. If bolt group is subjected to applied moment and torque, the number of bolts is given by
a) √(6Mn’pVsd)
b) √(6Mn’/pVsd)
c) √(6M/n’pVsd)
d) √(6Mn’p/Vsd)

Answer: c [Reason:] If bolt group is subjected to applied moment and torque, the number of bolts is given by n = √(6M/n’pVsd), where p=pitch, M=applied moment, Vsd = design shear strength of single bolt, n’ = number of rows of bolt.

4. Clip angle connection are designed to
a) transfer small end moments in addition to large end shear
b) transfer large end shear only
c) transfer small end moments only
d) transfer bending moments

Answer: a [Reason:] When additional pair of angles in angle seat connection is used to connect the web of beam to flange of column, the connection can be designed to transfer small end moments in addition to large end shear. Such connections are called clip angle connections or light moment connection.

5. Which of the following is true about bracket connections?
a) More rigid than any other connection
b) Fabrication cost is low
c) These connections are used to accommodate less number of bolts
d) They are used to give aesthetic appearance to the structure

Answer: a [Reason:] When the lever arm is to be extended to accommodate more number of bolts, bracket connection is used. The bracket type connection are more rigid than any other type of connection. But the fabrication cost is very high, so they are not adopted in general practice.

6. In bolted moment end plate connection, bending moment , axial force and shear force are transferred by
a) tension only
b) compression only
c) tension and compression
d) friction

Answer: c [Reason:] In bolted moment end plate connection, bending moment, axial force and shear force are transferred by tension and compression or shear through flange welds and by shear through the web welds to the end plate.

7. What is eccentric shear”
a) shear effects caused by concentric load on a bolt group
b) shear effects caused by eccentric load on a bolt group
c) shear effects caused by moment on a bolt group
d) shear effects caused by torsion load on a bolt group

Answer: b [Reason:] When bolt groups are subjected to shear and moment in shear plane, the load that is eccentric is eccentric with respect to centroid of bolt group can be replaced with a force acting through the centroid of bolt group and a moment (Magnitude = Pe). Both the moment and the force result in shear effects in the bolts of the group and is called as eccentric shear.

8. Which of the following connections can be used for beam-beam connection?
a) Pin Connection
b) Moment Resistant Connection
c) Simple Connection
d) Complex Connection

Answer: c [Reason:] Simple connections such as clip and seating angle connection, web angle connection and flexible end plate connections, etc. used for connecting beam-to-columns, can be adopted for beam-beam connections.

9. In practice, secondary beams are connected to main beams by ______
a) web cleats
b) bolts
c) seating angle
d) web cleats and bolts

Answer: a [Reason:] In practice, secondary beams are connected to main beams by web cleats and bolts since web of the main beam may not be strong enough to support seating angles.

10. For which of the following conditions rigid construction is required?
a) fixed beam supported by girder
b) cantilever beam supported by girder
c) overhanging beam
d) overhanging beam supported by girder

Answer: b [Reason:] Rigid connections are necessary if a cantilever beam is supported by girder. Rigid connections may be provided for moment continuity between secondary beams.

11. When cantilever beam is supported by girder, the end of cantilever will transfer
a) shear force
b) torsion
c) bending moment
d) shear force and bending moment

Answer: d [Reason:] When cantilever beam is supported by girder, the end of cantilever will transfer shear force and bending moment and this bending moment will be transferred to primary beam as torsion.

12. In a beam-beam connection, which type of connection is used when top flanges are required to be at same level ?
a) bracket connection
b) combined splice plate/end plate connection
c) combined splice plate/bracket connection
d) moment resistant connection

Answer: b [Reason:] In a beam-beam connection, when top flanges are required to be at same level combined splice plate/end plate connection with coped ends is used. HSFG bolts may be utilized in these connections for avoiding local rotation.

## Set 2

1. Which of the following does not affect lateral stability?
a) cross sectional shape
b) support conditions
d) height of building

Answer: d [Reason:] The factors affecting lateral stability are cross sectional shape, support conditions, effective length, level of application of transverse loads.

2. Which of the following statement is correct?
a) I-section has high torsional stiffness
b) Closed section has high torsional stiffness
c) Closed section has less stiffness
d) Hollow circular tube has more efficiency as flexural member

Answer: b [Reason:] I-section with the larger in-plane bending stiffness does not have matching stability. in contrast, closed sections such as tubes, boxes and solid shafts have high torsional stiffness, often high as 100 times that of an open section.

3. Which of the following statement is not correct?
a) Hollow circular tube has more efficiency as flexural member
b) Hollow circular tube has lesser efficiency as flexural member
c) It is the most efficient shape for torsional resistance
d) It us rarely used as a beam element

Answer: a [Reason:] Hollow circular tube is the most efficient shape for torsional resistance, but is rarely employed as beam element because of difficulties encountered in connecting it to other members and lesser efficiency as a flexural member.

4. Open cross sections have major part of material distributed
a) is not distributed
b) on the centroid
c) towards centroid
d) away from centroid

Answer: d [Reason:] In open cross sections ( I and channel sections), major part of material is distributed at the flanges, i.e. away from their centroids, to improve their resistance to in-plane bending stresses.

5. The effective length factor is _____ for beams flanges fully restrained
a) 1
b) 0.5
c) 0.75
d) 1.5

Answer: b [Reason:] The effective length factor K is 0.5 theoretically for flanges fully restrained. But for design purpose, it may be taken as 0.7.

6. The effective length of compression flange of simply supported beam not restrained against torsion at ends is
a) 1.2 L
b) 1.0 L
c) 0.8 L
d) 0.5 L

Answer: a [Reason:] The effective length of compression flange of simply supported beam not restrained against torsion at ends is 1.2 L, where L is span length.

7. Effective length of compression flanges at the ends unrestrained against lateral buckling is
a) 1.5 L
b) 0.85 L
c) 0.5 L
d) L

Answer: d [Reason:] Effective length of compression flanges at the ends unrestrained against lateral buckling (i.e. free to rotate in plan) is L, where L is length of span.

8. Effective length of compression flanges at the ends partially restrained against lateral buckling is
a) 1.75 L
b) 1.0 L
c) 0.85 L
d) 0.5 L

Answer: c [Reason:] Effective length of compression flanges at the ends partially restrained against lateral buckling (i.e. free to rotate in plane in the bearings) is 0.85 L, where L is length of span.

9. Restraint against torsion can be provided by
(i) web cleats, (ii) bearing stiffeners acting together with bearing of beam, (iii)lateral end frames to ends of compression flanges
a) i only
b) i and ii
c) ii and iii
d) i, ii and iii

Answer: d [Reason:] Restraint against torsion can be provided by (i) web or flange cleats, (ii) bearing stiffeners acting together with the bearing of beam, (iii) lateral end frames or external supports to ends of compression flanges, (iv)the beam built into the supporting walls.

a) point load acting at centre
b) point load acting at tip
c) point load acting between centre and fixed end
d) point load acting at L/4 distance

11. Provision of intermediate lateral supports ______ lateral stability of beam
a) increases
b) decreases
c) does not change
d) cannot say

Answer: a [Reason:] Provision of intermediate lateral supports increases the lateral stability of beam. For bracings to be effective, the braces should be prevented from moving in axial direction.

12. The requirement of effective bracing is
a) it should not have sufficient strength not to withstand forces transferred to it by beam
b) it should not have sufficient strength to withstand forces transferred to it by beam
c) it should have sufficient stiffness so that buckling of beam occurs in between braces
d) it should not have sufficient stiffness so that buckling of beam occurs in between braces

Answer: c [Reason:] The requirements of effective bracing are (i) it should have sufficient strength to withstand forces transferred to it by beam, (ii) it should have sufficient stiffness so that buckling of beam occurs in between braces.

13. Which of the following is correct?
a) torsional bracing attached near bottom flange should bend in single curvature
b) torsional bracing attached near bottom flange should not bend in single curvature
c) its flexural stiffness should be 4EIb/S
d) its flexural stiffness should be 6EIb/S

Answer: a [Reason:] Torsional bracing attached near bottom flange should bend in single curvature and its flexural stiffness should be 2EI/S, where Ib is moment of inertia of brace, S is spacing between girders.

14. The lateral stability of tranversely loaded beam is dependent on
b) level of application of load only
c) both arrangement and level of application of load
d) is not dependent on any of these

Answer: c [Reason:] The lateral stability of tranversely loaded beam is dependent on the arrangement of load as well as level of application of loads with respect to centroid of cross section.

## Set 3

1. Maximum gauge length is _________
a) 100+4t, where t is thickness of thinner plate
b) 100-4t, where t is thickness of thinner plate
c) 4t, where t is thickness of thinner plate
d) 100mm

Answer: a [Reason:] Distance between centres of any two consecutive fasteners in line adjacent and parallel to edge of outside plate shall not exceed (100+4t) or 200mm, whichever is less in compression and tension members.

2. Minimum edge distance and end distance for rolled, machine flame cut is
a) 1.7 x hole diameter
b) 1.2 x hole diameter
c) 1.5 x hole diameter
d) 2.0 x hole diameter

Answer: c [Reason:] Minimum edge distance and end distance from centre of any hole to nearest edge of plate shall not be (i) less than 1.7 x hole diameter, in case of sheared or hand flame cut edge, (ii) less than 1.5 x hole diameter, in case of rolled, machine flame cut.

3. Maximum edge distance should not exceed ______
a) 10tε, where ε = √(250/fy), t = thickness of thinner outer plate
b) 20tε, where ε = √(250/fy), t = thickness of thinner outer plate
c) 16tε, where ε = √(250/fy), t = thickness of thinner outer plate
d) 12tε, where ε = √(250/fy), t = thickness of thinner outer plate

Answer: d [Reason:] Maximum edge distance should not exceed 12tε, where ε = √(250/fy), t = thickness of thinner outer plate. If members are exposed to corrosive influence, it shall not exceed (40+4t), where t = thickness of thinner connected plate.

4. Tacking fasteners are used when _______
a) minimum distance between centre of two adjacent fasteners is exceeded
b) maximum distance between centre of two adjacent fasteners is exceeded
c) maximum distance between centre of two adjacent fasteners is not exceeded
d) for aesthetic appearance

Answer: b [Reason:] Tacking fasteners are used when maximum distance between centre of two adjacent fasteners is exceeded. These are not subjected to calculated stress.

5. Spacing of tacking fasteners when exposed to weather should not exceed ______
a) 32t, where t= thickness of outside plate
b) 25t, where t= thickness of outside plate
c) 20t, where t= thickness of outside plate
d) 16t, where t= thickness of outside plate

Answer: d [Reason:] Spacing of tacking fasteners in a line should not exceed (i)32t or 300mm, whichever is less when not exposed to weather, where t= thickness of outside plate, (ii)16t or 200mm, whichever is less when not exposed to weather, where t= thickness of outside plate.

6. In case of compression members where forces are transferred through butting faces, pitch shall not exceed ___ for a distance of 1.5 times width of member from butting faces.
a) 4.5d, where d= diameter of fasteners
b) 5d, where d= diameter of fasteners
c) 2.5d, where d= diameter of fasteners
d) 5.5d, where d= diameter of fasteners

Answer: a [Reason:] In case of compression members where forces are transferred through butting faces, pitch shall not exceed 4.5d, where d= diameter of fasteners for a distance of 1.5 times width of member from butting faces.

7. Shear strength of bolt is given by ____
a) fu(nnAnb+ nsAsb)/(√3 x 1.1)
b) fy(nnAnb+ nsAsb)/(√3 x 1.1)
c) fu(nnAnb+ nsAsb)/(√3 x 1.25)
d) fy(nnAnb+ nsAsb)/(√3 x 1.25)

Answer: c [Reason:] Shear strength of bolt = fu(nnAnb+ nsAsb)/(√3 x 1.25), where fu=ultimate strength of bolt, nn=number of shear planes with thread intercepting shear plane, ns=number of shear planes without thread intercepting shear plane, Anb=nominal plain shank area of bolt, Asb=net shear area of bolt at threads.

8. Nominal bearing strength of bolt is 2.5kbdtfu where kb depends on
(i) end distance, (ii)pitch distance, (iii)ultimate tensile stress of bolt, (iv)shank area of bolt, (v)yield stress of bolt, (vi)diameter of hole
a) i, ii, iv, v
b) i, ii, iii, vi
c) ii, iii, iv, v
d) iii, iv, v, vi

Answer: b [Reason:] Nominal bearing strength of bolt is 2.5kbdtfu, where kb is smaller of e/3d0, p/3d0 -0.25, fub/fu, 1 ; where e, d = end and pitch distances, d0= diameter of hole, fub and fu = ultimate tensile stress of bolts and plate, d = nominal diameter of bolt.

9. Tensile strength of bolt is given by
a) 0.9fubAn/1.1
b) 0.9fybAn/1.1
c) 0.9fubAn/1.25
d) 0.9fybAn/1.25

Answer: c [Reason:] Tensile strength of bolt is given by 0.9fubAn/1.25, where fub=ultimate tensile stress of bolt, An= net tensile area.

10. Proof stress for minimum bolt tension is :
a) 0.7fub
b) 0.5fub
c) 0.7fyb
d) 0.5fyb

Answer: a [Reason:] Proof stress for minimum bolt tension is 0.7fub, where fub= ultimate tensile stress of bolt. Proof stress is an approximation for yield point for materials which do not have a definite one because of their structure.

## Set 4

1. What is beam?
a) structural member subjected to transverse loads
b) structural member subjected to axial loads only
c) structural member subjected to seismic loads only
d) structural member subjected to transverse loads only

Answer: a [Reason:] Beam is a structural member subjected to transverse loads that is loads perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. The mode of deflection of beam is primarily by bending.

2. Structural members subjected to bending and large axial compressive loads are known as
a) strut
b) purlin
c) beam-column
d) lintel

Answer: c [Reason:] Structural members subjected to bending accompanied by large axial compressive loads at the same time are known as beam-column. A beam-column differs from column only by presence of eccentricity of load application, end moment, transverse load.

3. What is girt?
a) vertical beam spanning between wall column of industrial buildings
b) horizontal beam spanning between wall column of industrial buildings
c) vertical beam spanning between wall column of residential buildings
d) horizontal beam spanning between wall column of residential buildings

Answer: b [Reason:] Girt is horizontal member fastened to and spanning between peripheral column of industrial buildings. It is used to support wall cladding such as corrugated metal sheet.

4. Members used to carry wall loads over wall openings are called
a) purlin
b) rafter
c) girder
d) lintels

Answer: d [Reason:] Lintels are beam members used to carry wall loads over wall openings for doors, windows, etc.

5. Load transfer by a beam is primarily by
a) bending only
b) shear only
c) bending and shear
d) neither bending nor shear

Answer: c [Reason:] The load transfer by beam is primarily by bending and shear. The mode of deflection of beam is primarily by bending.

6. What are spandrels?
a) exterior beams at floor level of buildings
b) interior beams at floor level of buildings
c) exterior columns
d) interior columns

Answer: a [Reason:] Spandrels are exterior beams at floor level of buildings, which carry part of floor load and exterior wall.

7. Members used in bridges parallel to traffic are called
a) spandrel
b) stringers
c) purlin
d) joist

Answer: b [Reason:] Stringers are members used in bridges parallel to traffic to carry the deck slab. They will be connected by transverse floor beams.

8. Match the pair

```	     I 			        II
(A) joist		(i) tension member in roof truss
(B) girder		(ii) member supporting purlin
(C) tie			(iii) member supporting roof in a building
(D) rafter		(iv) major floor beam in building```

a) A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
b) A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i
c) A-ii, B-iv, C-iii, D-i
d) A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii

Answer: d [Reason:] Joist is a member supporting roof in a building. Girder is a major floor beam in building. Tie is tension member in roof truss and rafter is a member supporting purlin.

9. Which of the following statement is correct?
a) beams are termed as fixed beams when end condition do not carry end moments
b) beams are termed as simply supported beams when ends are rigidly connected to other members
c) beams are termed as fixed beams when ends are rigidly connected to other members
d) beams are termed as continuous beams when they do not extend across more than two support

Answer: c [Reason:] Beams may be termed as simply supported beams when end condition do not carry any end moments from any continuity developed by connection. A beam is called continuous beam when it extends continuously across more than two supports. A fixed beam has its ends rigidly connected to other members, so that moments can be carried across the connection.

10. Complex stresses may occur when
a) loads are inclined to principal axes
b) loads are along principal axes
c) symmetrical section are used
d) small values of shear and bending moment occur at section

Answer: a [Reason:] Complex stresses may arise when loads are inclined to principal axes, when unsymmetrical sections are used or when large values of shear and bending moment occur at section.

11. Simple bending takes place if
c) loading plane coincides with one of the principal planes of doubly symmetric section
d) loading plane do not coincide with one of the principal planes of doubly symmetric section

Answer: c [Reason:] Simple bending takes place if loading plane coincides with one of the principal planes of doubly symmetric section such as I-section or in case of singly symmetric open section such as channel section, the loading passes through shear centre and is parallel to the principal plane. Unsymmetrical bending occurs if loading does not pass through shear centre.

12. Which of the following buckling does not occur in beam?
a) lateral buckling of whole beam
b) local buckling of web
c) local buckling of flanges
d) longitudinal buckling of web

Answer: b [Reason:] Buckling may take place in many ways : (i) lateral buckling of whole beam between supports, (ii) local buckling of flanges, (iii) longitudinal buckling of web and buckling in depth direction under concentrated loads.

## Set 5

1. The radius of gyration of combined column about axis perpendicular to plane of lacing should be _____ than about axis parallel to plane of lacing.
a) cannot be compared
b) smaller
c) greater
d) equal to

Answer: c [Reason:] The radius of gyration of combined column about axis perpendicular to plane of lacing should be greater than about axis parallel to plane of lacing.

2. Which of the following is correct?
a) lacings and battens should not be provided on opposite sides of same member
b) lacing system should not be uniform throughout length of column
c) single and double laced systems should be provided on opposite sides of same member
d) single laced system on opposite of main component shall be in opposite direction view from either side

Answer: a [Reason:] Lacing system should be uniform throughout length of column. Single and double laced systems should not be provided on opposite sides of same member. Lacings and battens should not be provided on opposite sides of same member. Single laced system can be in same direction view from either side on opposite of main component so that one is shadow of other.

3. Lacing shall be designed to resist a total transverse shear equal to ____ of axial force in member
a) 5%
b) 1%
c) 4.3%
d) 2.5%

Answer: d [Reason:] Lacing can be designed to resist a total transverse shear at any point in the member equal to 2.5% of axial force in member. This shear shall be divided among lacing systems in parallel planes. Lacings should also be designed to resist any shear due to bending moment or lateral load on member.

4. Slenderness ratio of lacing is limited to
a) 200
b) 145
c) 500
d) 380

Answer: b [Reason:] Slenderness ratio is the ratio of effective length by radius of gyration. Slenderness ratio of lacing shall not exceed 145.

5. Which of the following is true about effective length?
a) effective length shall be taken as length between inner end bolts/rivets of bars for single lacings
b) effective length shall be taken as length between inner end bolts/rivets of bars for double lacings
c) for welded bars, effective length shall be taken as 0.9 times distance between inner end welds connecting single bars to members
d) effective length shall be taken as 1.5 times length between inner end bolts/rivets of bars for double lacings

Answer: a [Reason:] Effective length shall be taken as length between inner end bolts/rivets of bars for single lacings and 0.7 times length between inner end bolts/rivets of bars for double lacings. For welded bars, effective length shall be taken as 0.7 times distance between inner end welds connecting single bars to members.

6. Minimum width of lacing bars shall _______
a) be less than 3 times diameter of connecting bolt/rivet
b) be less than 5 times diameter of connecting bolt/rivet
c) not be less than 3 times diameter of connecting bolt/rivet
d) be less than 2 times diameter of connecting bolt/rivet

Answer: c [Reason:] Minimum width of lacing bars shall not be less than approximately 3 times the diameter of connecting bolt/rivet.

7. Thickness of lacing member should be
a) less than 1/40th of the effective length for single lacing
b) not less than 1/60th of the effective length for double lacing
c) less than 1/60thof the effective length for double lacing
d) less than 1/60th of the effective length for single lacing

Answer: b [Reason:] Thickness of lacing member should not be less than 1/40th of the effective length for single lacing and not less than 1/60th of the effective length for double lacing.

8. Which of the following condition should be satisfied for spacing of lacings?
a) maximum slenderness ratio of component of main members between two consecutive lacing connection should be greater than 50
b) maximum slenderness ratio of component of main members between two consecutive lacing connection should be not greater than 50
c) maximum slenderness ratio of component of main members between two consecutive lacing connection should be more than 0.7 x most unfavourable slenderness ratio of combined column
d) maximum slenderness ratio of component of main members between two consecutive lacing connection should not be more than 0.9 x most unfavourable slenderness ratio of combined column

Answer: b [Reason:] The spacing of lacing bars should be such that maximum slenderness ratio of component of main members between two consecutive lacing connection is not greater than 50. It should not be greater than 0.7 times most unfavourable slenderness ratio of combined column.

9. Which of the following is not true?
a) when welded lacing bars overlap main members, amount of lap should not be less than 4 times thickness of bar
b) welding is to be provided along each side of bar for full length of lap
c) lacing bars fitted between main members should be connected by fillet welds on each side
d) when lacing bars are not lapped to form connection to components of members, appreciable interruption in triangulated system is allowed

Answer: d [Reason:] When welded lacing bars overlap main members, amount of lap should not be less than 4 times thickness of bar. Welding is to be provided along each side of bar for full length of lap. Lacing bars fitted between main members should be connected by full penetration butt weld or fillet welds on each side. Lacing bars shall be connected such that there is no appreciable interruption in triangulated system when lacing bars are not lapped to form connection to components of members.

10. lacing bars shall be inclined at an angle of ___ to axis of built up member.
a) 20o
b) 35o
c) 50o
d) 90o

Answer: c [Reason:] Lacing bars shall be inclined at an angle of 40o to 70o to axis of built up member.

11. Effective slenderness ratio of laced column shall be _________
a) equal to the maximum slenderness ratio of column
b) 1.05 times the maximum slenderness ratio of column
c) 0.5 times the maximum slenderness ratio of column
d) 2 times the maximum slenderness ratio of column

Answer: b [Reason:] Effective slenderness ratio of laced column shall be taken as 5% more than the maximum slenderness ratio of column i.e. 1.05 times the maximum slenderness ratio of column, to account for shear deformation effects.

12. Compressive strength in lacing bars in single lacing system is equal to
a) Vt /(N secΘ)
b) Vt /(N cosecΘ)
c) Vt N cosecΘ
d) (Vt /N) cosecΘ

Answer: d [Reason:] Compressive strength in lacing bars is equal to (Vt /N) cosecΘ for single lacing system and (Vt/2N) cosecΘ for double lacing system, where N = number of shear resisting elements.

13. Minimum radius of gyration for lacing flats is
a) t/√12
b) t/12
c) t/√24
d) t/24

Answer: a [Reason:] Minimum radius of gyration for lacing flats is t/√12 , where t is thickness of flat.

14. The load on rivet/bolt when two lacing flats are connected at same point is
a) (Vt / N) cotΘ
b) 2(Vt / N) cotΘ
c) 2Vt N cotΘ
d) Vt NcotΘ