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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following may not occur due to excessive deflection?
a) ponding problem in roofs
b) misalignment of supporting machinery
c) cracking of plaster ceilings
d) twisting of beam

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Excessive deflection may cause cracking of plaster ceilings, misalignment of supporting machinery and cause excessive vibration, ponding problem in roofs, etc. Hence deflection in beam needs to be limited.

2. What is ponding?
a) excessive deflection of flat roof resulting in accumulation of rainwater
b) excessive deflection of flat roof not resulting in accumulation of rainwater
c) small deflection of flat roof resulting in accumulation of rainwater
d) small deflection of flat roof not resulting in accumulation of rainwater

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Excessive deflection of flat roof resulting in accumulation of water during rainstorms is called ponding and it causes damage to the roof material.

3. Deflection can be reduced by
a) proving less restraints
b) increasing span
c) increasing depth of beam
d) decreasing depth of beam

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Deflection can be reduced by increasing depth of beam, reducing the span, providing greater end restraints or by other means such as providing camber.

4. Beam deflection is not a function of
a) loading
b) span
c) length of column
d) geometry of cross section

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Beam deflection is a function of loading, span, modulus of elasticity and geometry of cross section. Small deflections of beams do not cause structural problems in general except for discomfort to the users. But excessive deflections may lead to crack in plaster or ceilings and may damage material attached to or supported by beams.

5. What is the maximum vertical deflection in industrial building for purlins and girts subjected to live load/wind load for elastic cladding?
a) span/150
b) span/180
c) span/250
d) span/100

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The maximum deflection in industrial building for purlins and girts subjected to live load/wind load for elastic cladding is span/150 and for brittle cladding is span/180.

6. What is the maximum vertical deflection in other buildings (other than industrial buildings)for floor subjected to live load and elements not susceptible to cracking?
a) span/150
b) span/180
c) span/300
d) span/100

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The maximum deflection in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) for floor subjected to live load and elements not susceptible to cracking is span/300.

7. What is the maximum vertical deflection in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) for floor subjected to live load and elements susceptible to cracking?
a) span/150
b) span/360
c) span/300
d) span/100

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The maximum deflection in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) for floor subjected to live load and elements susceptible to cracking is span/360.

8. What is the maximum lateral deflection in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) subjected to wind load and for brittle cladding?
a) height/300
b) height/250
c) height/100
d) height/500

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The maximum lateral deflection in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) subjected to wind load and for brittle cladding is height /500 and for elastic cladding is height/300.

9. What is the maximum vertical deflection for a cantilever member in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) subjected to live load and elements not susceptible to cracking?
a) span/150
b) span/180
c) span/300
d) span/100

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The maximum vertical deflection for a cantilever member in other buildings (other than industrial buildings) subjected to live load and elements not susceptible to cracking is span/150 and for elements susceptible to cracking is span/180.

10. What is the maximum lateral deflection of column/frame in industrial buildings subjected to crane load plus wind load and for brittle cladding?
a) height/300
b) height/250
c) height/400
d) height/500

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The maximum lateral deflection of column/frame in industrial buildings subjected to crane load plus wind load and for brittle cladding (pendant operated) is height/400 and for elastic cladding (cab operated) is height/200.

11. The strength of steel beam depends on
a) strength of tension flange
b) strength of compression flange
c) strength of web
d) does not depend on strength of section

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The strength of steel beam depends on the strength of compression flange. An open hole in the compression flange affects the strength of steel beam more than a hole in tension flange.

12. A hole in flange of beam causes
a) increase in stress
b) decrease in stress
c) makes the stress to half
d) does not affect the stress

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A hole in flange of beam causes an increase in stress. If the hole in compression flange contains rivet or bolt, the strength reduction is lessened as fastener can transmit compression.

13. Holes in beam webs should be placed at ____ and in flanges it should be placed at ________
a) high shear, high bending moment
b) high bending moment, high shear
c) low bending moment, low shear
d) low shear, low bending moment

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Holes in beam webs have less effect on flexural strength than holes in the flanges. Holes in beam webs should be placed only at sections of low shear. In the flanges, the holes should be cut at points of low bending moment. If this is not possible, the effect of the holes should be accounted for design.

14. The strength of the beams with openings may be governed by plastic deformations due to
a) moment only
b) shear only
c) both moment and shear
d) does not depend on moment or shear

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The strength of the beams with openings may be governed by plastic deformations due to both moment and shear at the openings. The strength realised will depend upon the interaction between moment and shear. The reduction in moment capacity at the openings is small while the reduction in shear capacity may be significant.

15. Which of the following are correct regarding design of beams with openings?
a) web opening should be away from support by twice the beam depth
b) hole should be eccentrically placed in web
c) hole should not be placed within middle one third of the span
d) clear spacing between openings should be less than beam depth

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] General guidelines for design of beams with openings are as follows : (i)The hole should be centrally placed in web and eccentricity should be avoided, (ii) The best location for the opening is within the middle one third of the span, (iii) Web opening should be away from support and it should be away by twice the depth of beam, (iv) Clear spacing between openings should be more than depth of beam.

16. Which of the following are not correct regarding design of beams with openings?
a) diameter of circular opening should be restricted to 0.5D
b) for rectangular stiffened openings depth should be less than 0.7D and length less 2D
c) for rectangular unstiffened openings, depth should be less than 0.5D and length less than 1.5D
d) point load should be applied within a distance d from adjacent opening

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] General guidelines for design of beams with openings are as follows : (i) The diameter of circular opening should be restricted to 0.5D, where D is depth of beam, (ii) For rectangular unstiffened openings, depth should be less than 0.5D and length less than 1.5D, where D is depth of beam (iii) For rectangular stiffened openings, depth should be less than 0.7D and length less 2D, where D is depth of beam (iv) Point loads should not be applied within a distance d from the adjacent opening.

Set 2

1. A column that can support same load in compression as it can in tension is called
a) intermediate column
b) long column
c) short column
d) cannot be determined

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A column that can support same load in compression as it can in tension is called short column. Short column usually fail by crushing.

2. The strength of compression members subjected to axial compression is defined by curves corresponding to _______ classes
a) a, b, c and d
b) a, d
c) b, e, f
d) e, f, g

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The strength of compression members subjected to axial compression is defined by curves corresponding to a, b, c and d classes. The value of imperfection factor depends on type of buckling curve.

3. Which of the following is not a compression member?
a) strut
b) boom
c) tie
d) rafter

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Strut, boom and rafter are compression members, whereas tie is a tension member.

4. The best compression member section generally used is
a) single angle section
b) I-section
c) double angle section
d) channel section

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Generally, ISHB sections are used as compression members.

5. The best double-angle compression member section is
a) unequal angles with short leg connected
b) unequal angles with long leg connected
c) unequal angles on opposite side of gusset plate
d) unequal angles on same side of gusset plate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Unequal angles with short leg connected are preferred as compression member section.

6. The flange is classified as semi-compact if outstand element of compression flange of rolled section is less than
a) 8.4ε
b) 10.5ε
c) 15.7ε
d) 9.4ε

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The flange is classified as semi-compact if outstand element of compression flange of rolled section is less than 15.7ε and for a welded section, less than 13.6ε.

7. The flange is classified as plastic if outstand element of compression flange of rolled section is less than
a) 8.4ε
b) 9.4ε
c) 10.5ε
d) 15.7ε

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The flange is classified as plastic if outstand element of compression flange of rolled section is less than 9.4ε and for a welded section, less than 8.4ε.

8. The outstand element of compression flange of a rolled section is 10.2 (ε=1). The flange will be classified as
a) compact
b) plastic
c) semi-compact
d) slender

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The flange is classified as compact if outstand element of compression flange of rolled section is less than 10.5ε and for a welded section, less than 9.4ε.

9. The design compressive stress of compression member in IS 800 is given by
a) Rankine Formula
b) Euler Formula
c) Perry-Robertson formula
d) Secant-Rankine formula

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The design compressive stress of axially loaded compression member in IS 800 is given by Perry-Robertson formula. IS 800:2007 proposes multiple columns curves in nin-dimensional form based on Perry-Robertson approach.

Set 3

1. Which of the following is correct criteria to be considered while designing?
a) Structure should be aesthetically pleasing but structurally unsafe
b) Structure should be cheap in cost even though it may be structurally unsafe
c) Structure should be structurally safe but less durable
d) Structure should be adequately safe, should have adequate serviceability

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Structure should be designed such that it fulfils it intended purpose during its lifetime and be adequately safe in terms of strength, stability and structural integrity and have adequate serviceability. Structure should also be economically viable, aesthetically pleasing and environment friendly.

2. What is serviceability?
a) It refers to condition when structure is not usable
b) It refers to services offered in the structure
c) It means that the structure should perform satisfactorily under different loads, without discomfort to user
d) It means that structure should be economically viable

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Serviceability is related to utility of structure. The structure should perform satisfactorily under service loads, without discomfort to user due to excessive deflection, cracking, vibration, etc. Other considerations of serviceability are durability, impermeability, acoustic and thermal insulation etc.

3. Analysis is referred to _____________
a) determination of cost of structure
b) determination of axial forces, bending moment, shear force etc.
c) determination of factor of safety
d) drafting architectural plans and drawings

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Analysis refers to determination of axial forces, bending moment, shear force, torsional moments etc. acting on different members of structure due to applied loads and their combinations.

4. The structure is statically indeterminate when________________
a) static equilibrium equations are insufficient for determining internal forces and reactions on that structure
b) static equilibrium equations are sufficient for determining internal forces and reactions on that structure
c) structure is economically viable
d) structure is environment friendly

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When the static equilibrium equations are insufficient for determining internal forces and reactions on that structure, the structure is said to be statically indeterminate. Analysis of these structures is complex and cannot be analysed only by using laws of statics, various analytical methods like slope deflection method, moment distribution method, etc.

5. Which of the following is one of the methods of analysis prescribed in the code for steel structures?
a) Hinge Analysis
b) Limit Analysis
c) Roller Analysis
d) Dynamic Analysis

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Code suggests the use of any of the following methods for steel structures : (i) elastic analysis, (ii) plastic analysis, (iii) advanced analysis, (iv) dynamic analysis.

6. Which method is mainly adopted for design of steel structures as per IS code?
a) Limit State Method
b) Working Stress Method
c) Ultimate Load Method
d) Earthquake Load Method

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Steel structures and their elements are normally designed by limit state method. When limit state method cannot be conveniently adopted, working stress method may be used.

7. Which IS code is used for general construction of steel?
a) IS 456
b) IS 256
c) IS 800
d) IS 100

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] IS 800:2007 is the code of practice for general construction in steel. It is issued by Bureau of Indian Standards.

8. Which of the following relation is correct?
a) Permissible Stress = Yield Stress x Factor of Safety
b) Permissible Stress = Yield Stress / Factor of Safety
c) Yield Stress = Permissible Stress / Factor of Safety
d) Permissible Stress = Yield Stress – Factor of Safety

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Permissible Stress = Yield Stress / Factor of Safety. Permissible Stress is the amount of stress that will not cause failure. It is a fraction of yield stress. It takes care of overload or other unknown factors.

9. In Working Stress Method, which of the following relation is correct?
a) Working Stress ≤ Permissible Stress
b) Working Stress ≥ Permissible Stress
c) Working Stress = Permissible Stress
d) Working Stress > Permissible Stress

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In Working Stress Method, Working Stress ≤ Permissible Stress. Each member is checked for number of different combinations of loadings.

10. Arrange the following in ascending order according to their factor of safety in working stress method :
(i) tension members, (ii) long column, (iii) short column, (iv) connections
a) i < ii < iii < iv
b) i < iv < ii < iii
c) i = iii < ii < iv
d) iv = i < iii < ii

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In working stress method, the factor of safety for the above are as follows : (i) for tension members = 1.67, (ii) for long column = 1.92, (iii) for short columns = 1.67, (iv) for connections = 2.5-3.

11. What is Load Factor?
a) ratio of working load to ultimate load
b) product of working load and ultimate load
c) product of working load and factor of safety
d) ratio of ultimate load to working load

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Load Factor = working load / ultimate load. In ultimate load design, different types of loads and load combinations have different load factors assigned.

12. Which of the following is not a main element of framed structure?
a) Beam
b) Column
c) Shear connector
d) Lattice member

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] For framed structure, the main elements are beam, column, beam-column, tie and lattice members.

13. Which of the following are subjected to both axial loads and bending moments?
a) Beam-Column
b) Column
c) Lattice member
d) Beam

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Beams are those elements which are subjected to bending moments and shear force only. Columns are subjected to axial loads. Beam-Column is subjected to axial load and bending moment. In special cases, beams are subjected to torsional moments.

14. How much percentage increase of permissible stress is allowed when dead load, live load and wind load are considered together in working stress method?
a) 50%
b) 33%
c) 40%
d) 60%

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In working stress method, working stress ≤ permissible stress. Stress due to dead load + live load ≤ permissible stress Stress due to dead load + wind load ≤ permissible stress Stress due to dead load + live load + wind load ≤ 1.33 permissible stress.

Set 4

1. Which of the following are not the assumptions made in the analysis of welded joints?
a) welds connecting various joints are homogenous, isotropic
b) parts connected by weld are rigid
c) only stresses due to internal forces are considered
d) effects of residual stresses are neglected

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The following are the assumptions made in analysis of welded joints: (i) welds connecting various joints are homogenous, isotropic and elastic elements, (ii) parts connected by weld are rigid and their deformations are neglected, (iii) only stresses due to external forces are considered. Effects of residual stresses, stress concentration and shape of welds are neglected.

2. The minimum size of fillet weld should _______
a) not be less than 3mm
b) be less than 3mm
c) be less than 2mm
d) greater than thickness of thinner part joined

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The minimum size of fillet weld should not be less than 3mm and not more than thickness of thinner part joined.

3. The maximum size of fillet weld is obtained by _______
a) adding 1.5mm to thickness of thinner member to be jointed
b) adding 3mm to thickness of thinner member to be jointed
c) subtracting 3mm from thickness of thinner member to be jointed
d) subtracting 1.5mm from thickness of thinner member to be jointed

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The maximum size of fillet weld is obtained by subtracting 1.5mm from thickness of thinner member to be jointed. The maximum size of weld should not be more than 3/4 of the thickness of section at toe when welds are applied to round toe of steel sections.

4. What is the minimum specified length of fillet weld?
a) two times the size of weld
b) four times the size of weld
c) six times the size of weld
d) half the size of weld

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] As per IS code, the actual length of fillet weld should not be less than four times the size of weld. If this requirement is not met, the size of weld should be one fourth of the effective length.

5. Effective length of fillet weld is _______
a) equal to overall length plus twice the weld size
b) twice the overall length plus twice the weld size
c) equal to overall length minus twice the weld size
d) twice the overall length minus twice the weld size

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Effective length of fillet weld is taken equal to overall length minus twice the weld size. The deduction is made to allow for craters to be formed at the ends of welded length.

6. End returns are made ________
a) equal to twice the size of weld
b) equal to half the size of weld
c) equal to the size of weld
d) equal to thrice the size of weld

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] End returns are made equal to twice the size of weld to relieve the weld lengths from high stress concentrations at the ends.

7. Which of the following is not true regarding effective throat thickness of weld?
a) Effective throat thickness should not be less than 3mm
b) It should not exceed 0.7t or 1t, where t is thickness of thinner plate of elements being welded
c) Effective throat thickness = K x size of weld, where K is a constant
d) Effective throat thickness = K x (size of weld)2 , where K is a constant

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Effective throat thickness is the shortest distance from the root of fillet weld to face of diagrammatic weld(line joining the toes). The effective throat thickness should not be less than 3mm and it should not exceed 0.7t or 1t, where t is thickness of thinner plate of elements being welded. Effective throat thickness = K x size of weld, where K is a constant which depends on angle between fusion faces.

8. The effective throat thickness is K times the size of weld. What is the value of K when angle between fusion faces is 80˚?
a) 0.5
b) 0.65
c) 0.7
d) 1

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The value of K varies with angle between fusion faces. Values of K for different angles between fusion faces are :

Angle between fusion faces60˚-90˚91˚-100˚101˚-106˚107˚-113˚114˚-120˚
K0.70.650.60.550.5

9. The length of overlap of plates to be fillet welded in lap joint ____
a) should not be less than 4 times the thickness of thinner part
b) should be less than 4 times the thickness of thinner part
c) should be less than 2 times the thickness of thinner part
d) should not be less than 2 times the thickness of thinner part

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The length of overlap of plates to be fillet welded in lap joint should not be less than 4 times the thickness of thinner part.

10. Which of the following option is incorrect?
a) Effective length of groove weld should not be less than 4 times the weld size
b) Effective length of groove weld should be less than 4 times the weld size
c) Effective length of intermittent weld should not be less than 4 times the weld size
d) Effective length of intermittent weld should have a minimum length 80mm

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Effective length of groove weld should not be less than 4 times the weld size. Effective length of intermittent weld should not be less than 4 times the weld size, with a minimum of 40mm.

Set 5

1. Which of the following aspects need not be considered for beam design?
a) deflection
b) material of beam
c) buckling
d) lateral supports

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The important aspects which need to be considered for beam design are moments, shears, deflection, crippling, buckling, and lateral support.

2. The design bending strength of laterally supported beams is governed by
a) torsion
b) bending
c) lateral torsional buckling
d) yield stress

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The design bending strength of laterally supported beams is governed by yield stress and that of laterally unsupported beams is governed by lateral torsional buckling.

3. The web is susceptible to shear buckling when d/tw
a) <67ε
b) < 2×67ε
c) >67ε
d) < 70ε

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] For beams with plastic, compact, semi-compact flanges and slender web (d/tw > 67ε), the web is susceptible to shear buckling before yielding.

4. When there is no shear buckling,
a) Vp = Vn
b) Vp > Vn
c) Vp < Vn
d) Vp = 2Vn

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When there is no shear buckling (d/tw ≤ 67ε), the nominal shear resistance Vn equals plastic shear strength Vp.

5. Plastic shear resistance is given by
a) fy/√3
b) shear area x fy x √3
c) shear area x fy/√3
d) shear area / (fy/√3)

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Plastic shear resistance is given by Vp = shear area x fy/√3.

6. The design shear strength is given by
a) Vn
b) Vnm0
c) Vn x γm0
d) γm0

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The design shear strength is given by Vd = Vnm0 , where Vn= plastic shear resistance, γm0 = partial factor of safety.

7. The web area will be fully effective when shear force V
a) ≥ 0.6Vd
b) < 0.6Vd
c) ≤ 0.6Vd
d) >2×0.6Vd

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] When shear force V ≤ 0.6Vd, the web area will be fully effective and entire cross section of beam will be effective in resisting the moment.

8. Which of the following is true about sections with high shear case V>0.6Vd ?
a) web area is ineffective
b) web area is fully effective
c) flanges will not resist moment
d) moment is not reduced

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When shear exceed the limit V&gt0.6Vd, web area will be ineffective and only flanges will resist the moment. Because of this for high shear case, moment capacity of beam is reduced.