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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Which of the following statement is true?
a) Number of battens in a column should be such that member is divided into not less than three bays
b) Number of battens in a column should be such that member is divided into less than three bays
c) Number of battens in a column should be such that member is divided into less than two bays
d) No restriction on number of battens

Answer: a [Reason:] Battens are plates or any other rolled section used to connect the main components of compression members. Battens should be placed opposite to each other on the two parallel faces of compression members. Number of battens in a column should be such that member is divided into not less than three bays.

2. Battens should be designed to resist transverse shear force which is
a) 5% of axial force
b) 0.5% of axial force
c) 2.5% of axial force
d) 7.2% of axial force

Answer: c [Reason:] Battens should be designed to resist transverse shear force which is 2.5% of total axial force on whole compression member. This transverse shear force is divided equally in all parallel planes in which, there is shear resisting elements.

3. Battens should be designed to resist longitudinal shear equal to
a) Vt L0 ns
b) Vt L0 / ns
c) Vt /L0 ns
d) Vt L0n/s

Answer: b [Reason:] Battens should be designed to resist longitudinal shear equal to V = Vt L0 / ns , where Vt is transverse shear force, L0 is distance between centre-to-centre of battens longitudinally, s is minimum transverse distance between centroids of bolt/rivet group/ welding connecting batten to main member, n is number of parallel planes of battens.

4. Battens should be designed to resist moment equal to
a) Vt L0 n
b) Vt L0 / n
c) Vt /L0 n
d) Vt L0 /2n

Answer: d [Reason:] Battens should be designed to resist moment equal to Vt L0/2n , where Vt = transverse shear force, L0 = distance between centre-to-centre of battens longitudinally, n = number of parallel planes of battens.

5. Which of the following is true about effective depth of battens?
a) less than perpendicular distance between centroids for end battens
b) less than three quarters of the perpendicular distance between centroids for intermediate battens
c) not less than twice the width of one member in plane of batten
d) less than twice the width of one member in plane of batten

Answer: c [Reason:] When plates are used for battens, effective depth between end bolts/rivets or welds should not be less than twice the width of one member in plane of batten, not less than perpendicular distance between centroids for end battens and not less than three quarters of the perpendicular distance between centroids for intermediate battens.

6. Thickness of batten plates shall be
a) not less than 1/50th of distance between innermost connecting transverse bolts/rivets
b) less than 1/50th of distance between innermost connecting transverse bolts/rivets
c) less than 1/60th of distance between innermost connecting transverse bolts/rivets
d) less than 1/80th of distance between innermost connecting transverse bolts/rivets

Answer: a [Reason:] Thickness of batten plates shall be not less than 1/50th of distance between innermost connecting transverse bolts/rivets or welds perpendicular to main member i.e. t > (1/50)(s + 2g), where g is gauge distance for particular section.

7. Which of the following is correct?
a) length of weld connecting each end of batten should be less than one fourth the depth of plate
b) length of weld and depth of batten shall be measured perpendicular to longitudinal axis of member
c) weld shall be returned only along other two edges for length less than minimum lap
d) length of weld connecting each end of batten should be such that at least one third of its length should be placed on each end

Answer: d [Reason:] Length of weld connecting each end of batten shall be more than half the depth of plate. Length of weld connecting each end of batten should be such that at least one third of its length should be placed on each end. Weld shall be returned only along other two edges for length less than minimum lap. Length of weld and depth of batten shall be measured along longitudinal axis of main member.

8. Effective slenderness ratio of battened column shall be ____ of actual slenderness ratio of column
a) 0.5 times
b) 1.1 times
c) 2 times
d) 2.5 times

Answer: b [Reason:] Effective slenderness ratio of battened column shall be 1.1 times the maximum actual slenderness ratio of column to account for shear deformation effects.

9. Maximum spacing of batten should be such that slenderness ratio of component member should be
a) not greater than 50
b) greater than 50
c) greater than 0.7 times slenderness ratio of member as a whole
d) greater than slenderness ratio of member as a whole

Answer: a [Reason:] Maximum spacing of batten should be such that slenderness ratio of component member should be not greater than 50 or 0.7 times slenderness ratio of member as a whole, about axis parallel to end of battens.

10. Which of the following is true about effective depth of end batten?
a) it should be less than distance between centre of gravity of component
b) it should be half the distance between centre of gravity of component
c) it should be less than twice the width of component member
d) it should be greater than twice the width of component member

Answer: d [Reason:] Effective depth of end batten should not be less than distance between centre of gravity of component and should be greater than twice the width of component member.

11. Depth of intermediate batten = _______ depth of end batten
a) 1/2
b) 3/4
c) 1
d) 2

Answer: b [Reason:] Depth of intermediate batten is taken as three fourth of the effective depth of end batten and should be more than twice the width of component member.

12. Thickness of batten should not be less than
a) 1/40th of distance between innermost connecting lines of bolts
b) 1/50th of distance between innermost connecting lines of bolts
c) 1/100th of distance between innermost connecting lines of bolts
d) 1/10th of distance between innermost connecting lines of bolts

Answer: b [Reason:] Thickness of batten should not be less than 1/50th of distance between innermost connecting lines of rivets/bolts/welds perpendicular to main member.

13. A laced column is_____ than battened column for same load
a) equally strong
b) weaker
c) stronger
d) cannot be compared

Answer: c [Reason:] A laced column is stronger than battened column for same load, unsupported length and end conditions.

## Set 2

1. Which of the following is the reason for beams, plate girders and columns being spliced?
a) full length is available from the mill
b) for easy transportation
c) for aesthetic appearance
d) for frictional resistance

Answer: b [Reason:] Rolled beams, plate girders and columns are spliced due to following reasons : (i)full length of the member may not be available from the mill, (ii)size of section which can be transported depends on size of truck, so for easy transportation, (iii)splice points may be used to camber the beam, (iv)when a change in section is required to fit variation in strength required along span of beam.

2. Which of the following is correct regarding splice plates used for beam splices?
a) plates on the flange should be designed to do the work of the web and plates on the web should be designed to do the work of the flange
b) plates on the flange should be designed to do the work of the web and plates on the web should be designed to do the work of the web
c) plates on the flange should be designed to do the work of the flange and plates on the web should be designed to do the work of the flange
d) plates on the flange should be designed to do the work of the flange and plates on the web should be designed to do the work of the web

Answer: d [Reason:] For beam splices, each element of the splice is designed to do the work the sections underlying the splice plates could do, if uncut. Plates on the flange should be designed to do the work of the flange and plates on the web should be designed to do the work of the web.

3. According to IS code, strength of spliced portion ________ of the effective strength of material spliced.
a) should not be less than 50%
b) should be less than 50%
c) should not be less than 80%
d) should be less than 80%

Answer: a [Reason:] As per IS code, strength of spliced portion should not be less than 50% of the effective strength of material spliced.

4. Choose the correct option from the following regarding basic forms of beam splices.
a) Flush end plates are used when bending moments to be resisted are high
b) Extended end plates are used when bending moments to be resisted are not high
c) Flush end plates are used when bending moments to be resisted are modest
d) Extended end plates are used when torsional moments to be resisted are not high

Answer: c [Reason:] Flush end plates are used when bending moments to be resisted are modest. Singly or doubly extended plates are used when resisting high moments of one sign or full reversal respectively.

5. When are longitudinal stiffeners introduced to beam splices?
a) when change in size between two sections of beam occurs
b) when change in size between two sections of beam does not occur
c) when change in moment between two sections of beam occurs
d) when change in moment between two sections of beam does not occur

Answer: a [Reason:] When change in size between two sections of beam occurs at an end plate splice, it can be easily accommodated by introducing longitudinal stiffeners to the larger beam.

6. In direct end bearing arrangement for column splices,
a) load is transferred through splices
b) splices are designed only to resist accidental tension
c) bending moment is transferred through splices
d) splices are designed only to resist bending moment

Answer: b [Reason:] End bearing arrangement may be used when the columns carry predominantly axial forces. In this load is transferred through contact area and splices are designed only to resist accidental tension due to some uplift loading or internal explosion in the building.

7. Which of the following is true regarding arrangement of leaving a gap between the ends for column splices?
a) load is transferred through splices
b) splices are designed only to resist accidental tension
c) load is transferred through contact area
d) splices are designed only to resist bending moment

Answer: a [Reason:] When the columns carry predominantly axial forces, leaving a gap between the ends may be used. In this case, the whole load is transmitted through means of splice plates. HSFG bolts may be used in the connections and changes in size of column may be accommodated using packing plates.

8. Which of the following is true when end plate splices is used for columns?
a) Short end plates are used for heavy moments
b) Extended end plates are used for moderate moments
c) Short end plates are used for moderate moments
d) Short end plates and extended end plates are used for moderate moments

Answer: c [Reason:] End plate splices can be used in column to provide load reversals in columns. Short end plates are used for moderate moments and extended end plates are used for heavy moments.

9. Position of splices should be _____ in normal practice.
a) at mid height of columns
b) at three fourth height of column from bottom of column
c) at three fourth height of column from top of column
d) just above the floor level

Answer: d [Reason:] In normal practice, splices are positioned just above the floor level to neglect the effects of flexing of the column. In regions of seismic activity, splices should be placed near mid-height of columns, where bending moments will be minimum.

## Set 3

1. A beam section is provided on the basis of
(i) section modulus, (ii) deflection, (iii) shear
a) i, ii
b) ii, iii
c) i, iii
d) i, ii and iii

Answer: d [Reason:] A beam section is provided on the basis of (i) section modulus, (ii) deflection, (iii) shear. The beam should be economical with furnishing required modulus of section.

2. Which of the following is not correct?
a) Angles and T section are strong in bending
b) Channels can be used only for light loads
c) I sections are most efficient and economical shapes
d) I section with cover plates are provided when large section modulus is required

Answer: a [Reason:] Angles and T section are weak in bending. Channels can be used only for light loads. I sections (rolled and built-up) are most efficient and economical shapes. I section with cover plates are provided when large section modulus is required. Generally, ISLB or ISMB are provided in such cases.

3. Local buckling can be prevented by
a) limiting width-thickness ratio
b) increasing width-thickness ratio
c) changing material
d) changing load on member

Answer: c [Reason:] Local buckling of compression members of beam causes loss of integrity of beam cross section. It is a function of width-thickness ratio and can be prevented by limiting width-thickness ratio.

4. Which of the following is true?
a) in case of rolled section, less thickness of plate is adopted to prevent local buckling
b) for built-up section and cold formed section, longitudinal stiffeners are not provided to reduce width to smaller sizes
c) local buckling cannot be prevented by limiting width-thickness ratio
d) in case of rolled section, high thickness of plate is adopted to prevent local buckling

Answer: d [Reason:] In case of rolled section, higher thickness of plate is adopted to prevent local buckling. Local buckling cannot be prevented by limiting width-thickness ratio. For built-up section and cold formed section, longitudinal stiffeners are provided to reduce width to smaller sizes.

5. Which of the following is not true?
a) only plastic section can be used in intermediate frames
b) slender sections are preferred in hot rolled structural steelwork
c) compact sections can be used in simply supported beams
d) semi-compact sections can be used for elastic designs

Answer: b [Reason:] Only plastic section can be used in intermediate frames which form collapse mechanism. Compact sections can be used in simply supported beams which fail after reaching Mp at one section. Semi-compact sections can be used for elastic designs where section fails after reaching My at extreme fibres. Slender sections are not preferred in hot rolled structural steelwork, but they are extensively used in cold formed members.

6. As per IS specification, the beam sections should be
a) not symmetrical about any principal axes
b) at least symmetrical about one of the principal axes
c) symmetrical about all principal axes
d) unsymmetrical about all principal axes

Answer: b [Reason:] The beam sections should be at least symmetrical about one of the principal axes as per IS specification. Angle and T-sections are inherently weak in bending while channels can only be used for light loads. Rolled I0section is generally preferred as beam.

7. Which of the following is the design criteria for beams?
(i) Strength in bending (ii) stiffness (iii)economy
a) ii only
b) i and iii
c) ii and iii
d) i, ii and iii

Answer: d [Reason:] Beams should be proportioned for strength in bending keeping in view the lateral and local stability of compression flange. beam should have adequate strength to resist applied bending moments and accompanying shear forces. Beams should be proportioned for stiffness, keeping in mind the deflections and deformations under service condition. Beams should be proportioned for economy. Member should be safe against buckling.

8. Which of the following is not true?
a) for optimum bending resistance, beam material should be near neutral axis
b) for optimum bending resistance, beam material should be far away from neutral axis
c) for optimum bending resistance, web area of beam has to be adequate for resisting shear
d) maximum bending and maximum shear usually occur at different cross section

Answer: a [Reason:] For optimum bending resistance, beam material should be far away from neutral axis and web area of beam has to be adequate for resisting shear. Maximum bending and maximum shear usually occur at different cross section. in continuous beams, they may occur at same cross section near interior supports, but interaction effects are normally neglected.

## Set 4

1. As the beam undergoes bending under applied loads, axial strain distribution at a point in beam
a) axial strain is not produced
b) remains constant
c) varies along depth of beam
d) varies along length of beam

Answer: c [Reason:] As the beam undergoes bending under applied loads, axial strain distribution at a point in beam varies along the depth of beam.

2. The beam buckles elastically if
a) Mcr < My
b) Mcr > My
c) Mcr = My
d) Mcr = 2My

Answer: a [Reason:] If Mcr critical moment of a section is less than yield moment My , then beam buckles elastically.

3. If Mcr > My of a beam section, then
a) beam does not buckle
b) beam buckles fully elastically
c) beam buckles completely plastically
d) some amount of plasticity is experienced

Answer: d [Reason:] When critical moment of a section Mcr is greater than My , some amount of plasticity is experienced at the outer edges before buckling is initiated.

4. Beams with intermediate slenderness fail by
a) elastic buckling
b) inelastic lateral buckling
c) attains Mp without buckling
d) do not fail

Answer: b [Reason:] Beams with intermediate slenderness (0.4 < √Mp/Mcr < 1.2) fail by inelastic lateral buckling at loads below Mp and above Mcr .

5. What are residual stresses?
a) stresses developed during construction
b) stresses developed due to seismic load
c) stresses developed due to vibration
d) stresses developed during manufacturing

Answer: d [Reason:] During the process of manufacture, steel sections are subjected to large thermal expansions resulting in yield level strains in sections. As subsequent cooling is not uniform throughout the section, self-equilibrating patterns of stresses are formed. These stresses are called residual stresses.

6. Which of the following is correct?
a) yielding of section starts at lower moments
b) yielding of section starts at higher moments
c) yielding of section does not start at lower moments
d) yielding of section does not occur

Answer: a [Reason:] Due to presence of residual stresses, yielding of section starts at lower moments. Then with increase in moment, yielding spreads through the cross section.

7. Match the pair

```(i) high slender beams		 	   (A) attain M<sub>p</sub> without buckling
(ii) stocky beams			   (B) fail by inelastic buckling
(iii) intermediate slender beams           (C) fail by elastic buckling```

a) i-A, ii-B, iii-C
b) i-C, ii-B, iii-A
c) i-C, ii-A, iii-B
d) i-A, ii-C, iii-B

Answer: c [Reason:] Beams with high slenderness fail by elastic lateral buckling at Mcr. Beams of intermediate slenderness fail by inelastic lateral buckling at loads below Mp and above Mcr. Stocky beams attains Mp without buckling with negligible lateral deformations.

8. Which of the following is correct?
a) torsional bracing attached to top flange should bend in single curvature
b) torsional bracing attached to top flange should not bend in reverse curvature
c) its flexural stiffness should be 6EIb/S
d) its flexural stiffness should be 4EIb/S

Answer: c [Reason:] Torsional bracing attached to top flange should bend in reverse curvature and its flexural stiffness should be 6EIb/S, where S is spacing between girders.

## Set 5

1. What is the yield strength of bolt of class 4.6?
a) 400 N/mm2
b) 240 N/mm2
c) 250 N/mm2
d) 500 N/mm2

Answer: b [Reason:] For class 4.6, ultimate strength = 4×100 = 400 N/mm2 yield strength / ultimate strength = 0.6 yield strength = 0.6×400 = 240 N/mm2.

2. Which of the following is correct?
a) size of hole = nominal diameter of fastener – clearances
b) size of hole = nominal diameter of fastener x clearances
c) size of hole = nominal diameter of fastener / clearances
d) size of hole = nominal diameter of fastener + clearances

Answer: d [Reason:] Size of hole = nominal diameter of fastener + clearances Clearance may be standard size, oversize, short slotted or long slotted.

3. High strength bolt is used for ____________
a) shear connection
b) slip resistant connection only
c) bearing type connection only
d) both slip resistant and bearing type connection

Answer: d [Reason:] High strength bolt may be used for slip resistant and bearing type connection. At serviceability, HSFG bolts do not slip and the joints are called slip resistant connections. At ultimate load, HSFG bolts do not slip and the joints behave like bearing type connections.

4. Which of the following is advantage of HSFG bolts over bearing type bolts?
a) joints are not rigid
b) bolts are subjected to shearing and bearing stresses
c) high strength fatigue
d) low static strength

Answer: c [Reason:] The advantages of HSFG bolts over bearing type bolts are : (i) joints are rigid, (ii) bolts are not subjected to shearing and bearing stresses as load transfer is mainly due to friction, (iii) high static strength due to high frictional resistance, (iv) high strength fatigue since nuts are prevented from loosening, (v)smaller number of bolts results into smaller number of gusset plates.

5. Which of the following is correct for pitch of the bolts and gauge?
a) pitch is measured along direction of load, gauge is measured perpendicular to direction of load
b) pitch is measured perpendicular direction of load, gauge is measured along to direction of load
c) pitch is measured along direction of load, gauge is measured along to direction of load
d) pitch is measured perpendicular direction of load, gauge is measured perpendicular to direction of load

Answer: a [Reason:] Pitch is centre to centre spacing of bolts in a row, measured along direction of load. Gauge is the distance between two consecutive bolts of adjacent row measured at right angles to the direction of load.

6. What is the minimum pitch distance?
a) 2.0 x nominal diameter of fastener
b) 3.0 x nominal diameter of fastener
c) 1.5 x nominal diameter of fastener
d) 2.5 x nominal diameter of fastener

Answer: d [Reason:] Pitch is centre to centre spacing of bolts in a row, measured along direction of load. Distance between centre to centre of fasteners shall not be more than 2.5 times nominal diameter of fasteners.

7. Maximum pitch distance = ______________
a) 16 x thickness of thinner plate
b) 32 x thickness of thinner plate
c) 40 x thickness of thinner plate
d) 20 x thickness of thinner plate

Answer: b [Reason:] Distance between centre of any two adjacent fasteners shall not exceed 32t or 300mm, whichever is less where t is thickness of thinner plate.

8. Pitch shall not be more than ___ in tension member and _______ in compression member.
a) 12t, 16t, where t = thickness of thinner plate
b) 20t, 16t, where t = thickness of thinner plate
c) 16t, 12t, where t = thickness of thinner plate
d) 16t, 20t, where t = thickness of thinner plate

Answer: c [Reason:] Pitch shall not be more than 16t or 200mm, whichever is less in tension member where t is thickness of thinner plate. Pitch shall not be more than 12t or 200mm, whichever is less in compression member, where t is thickness of thinner plate.

9. In case of staggered pitch, pitch may be increased by ______
a) 50%
b) 20%
c) 100%
d) 30%