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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. _________ is an Igneous rock used for rubble masonry, Road metal, Foundation work, etc.
a) Basalt
b) Granite
c) Laterite
d) Kankar

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Basalt and trap are hard and tough igneous stones which is difficult to work. Its specific gravity is 3 and compressive strength varies from 150 to 185 Newton per mm square. Its weight varies from 18 to 29 kN per metre cube.

2. ________ is an metamorphic rock which is used in Street paving, rough stone masonry work, etc.
a) Granite
b) Gneiss
c) Marble
d) Sandstone

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Gneiss splits into themes labs and it is easy to work. Its specific gravity is 2.69 and compressive strength is 206 Newton per mm square. It is mostly found in Madras, Bihar, Maharashtra, Bengal, Kerala and Gujarat.

3. _______ is an pure white limestone and which is soft and easy to form powder.
a) Chalk
b) Sandstone
c) Murum
d) Slate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Chalk is a sedimentary rock which is used in preparing glazier’s putty, also used as colouring material in manufacture of Portland cement. It is mostly found in Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat, Andaman Islands and Himachal Pradesh.

4. _________ is an Igneous rock with compressive strength varies from 75 to 127 Newton per mm square and its weight is about 26 to 27 kN per metre cube.
a) Basalt
b) Granite
c) Marble
d) Slate

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Granite is hard, durable and available in different colours, highly resistant to natural forces and can take nice polish. It is used in steps, sills, facing work on walls, Bridge piers, columns, Road metals, ballast, etc. It is unsuitable for carving.

5. ________ is an impure limestone.
a) Sandstone
b) Slate
c) Laterite
d) Karkar

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Kankar is an sedimentary rock which is impure in nature. It is used in road metal, manufacture of hydraulic line, etc. It is mostly found in north and Central part of India.

6. __________ is a metamorphic rock with compressive strength varies from 1.8 to 3.1 Newton per mm square.
a) Gneiss
b) Chalk
c) Murum
d) Laterite

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Laterite posses porous and spongy structure which can be easily quarried in blocks and contains high percentage of oxide of iron and also available in different colours. It is mostly used as building stone, Road metal, rough stone masonry work, etc.

7. ________ consist of carbonate of lime with specific gravity varies from 2 to 2.75 and compressive strength is 54 Newton per mm square.
a) Sandstone
b) Marble
c) Limestone
d) Slate

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Limestone is used in floors, steps, walls, Road metal, manufacturing of lime in blast furnace, etc. It is mostly found in Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

8. _________ is an metamorphic rock with specific gravity about 2.65 and compressive strength is 71 Newton per mm square.
a) Marble
b) Quartz
c) Laterite
d) Slate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Marble can take good polish and available in different colours. It is used in flooring, facing work, ornamental work, etc. It can easily be sawn and carved. It is mostly found in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

9. ________ is an decomposed laterite which is deep Brown or red in colour.
a) Quartzite
b) Murum
c) Slate
d) Sandstone

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Murum is a metamorphic rock. It is used in blindage from metal roads, for fancy paths and garden walls. It is mostly found in Bihar, Orissa, Mysore, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Madras.

10. ________ is a metamorphic rock which is hard, brother, crystalline and compact in nature.
a) Quartzite
b) Sandstone
c) Slate
d) Kankar

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Quartzite is hard and hence it is difficult to walk and dress. It is used in retaining walls, Road metals, concrete aggregate, pitching, rubble masonry, facing of buildings, etc. It is mostly found in Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan.

11. _______ is an sedimentary rock with specific gravity varies from 2.65 to 2.95 and compressive strength is 64 Newton per mm square.
a) Limestone
b) Sandstone
c) Laterite
d) Kankar

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sandstone consists of quartz and other minerals. It is easy to work and dress and also available in different colours. Its weight is about 20 to 22 kN per metre cube. It is used in steps, facing work, flooring, ornamental carving, etc.

12. _____ is a metamorphic rock with specific gravity about 2.89 and compressive strength varies from 75 to 207 Newton per mm square.
a) Quartzite
b) Murum
c) Marble
d) Slate

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Slate is non-absorbent, mostly in black colour and splits along natural bedding planes. It is used in damp proof courses, roofing work, sills, etc. Mostly found in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Madras and Mysore.

Set 2

1. _______________ is a self propelled machine which is used mainly to exert a powerful tractive force for pulling other machines.
a) Tractor
b) Bulldozer
c) Angle dozer
d) Scraper

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When the tractor is not required for hauling other machines, it can be easily converted to serve as bulldozer, angle dozer, etc. The tractor are used for agriculture operations.

2. A _________ is a very useful equipment and it can be used for construction work like to clear the site of work, to make the land level, etc.
a) Scraper
b) Grader
c) Excavator
d) Bulldozer

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Depending upon the mountains, bulldozer maybe crawler tractor mounted bulldozer or will tractor mounted bulldozer. The latter can attain higher travel speed on the job and can be moved on paved floor without causing damage to the floor.

3. The size of the bulldozer is indicated by the dimension of its _________
a) Site
b) Tyre
c) Engine
d) Blades

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Each Blade has a theoretical capacity of hauling a particular type of earth and knowing the number of turns a bulldozer will make in a given time, the approximate output of a bulldozer can be activated.

4. A ________________ can be used on wet ground and in all conditions of weather.
a) Grader
b) Scraper
c) Escalator
d) Bulldozer

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] By suitable attachments to the bulldozer, it can be utilized to remove trees, rocks, Boulder, etc. In order to increase the output, two Bulldozers working side by side with their blades in contact, can be used.

5. A ____________ is used to level the ground and spreads the loose material.
a) Excavator
b) Scraper
c) Grader
d) Tractor

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Grader is a self propelled at home by a tractor. It consists of 3 to 4 M long angled blade supported on a Framework mounted on wheels. It performs various operations like grading, spreading, side cutting and mixing of materials.

6. A Grader which is told by a tractor is known as _________
a) Tractor grader
b) Motor grader
c) Scraper
d) Elevating grader

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The self propelled greater is known as motor grader. For grading the machine moves forward and steering in controlling by Steering wheel.

7. _______________ consists of a large bucket which is attached to a tractor.
a) Bulldozer
b) Scraper
c) Grader
d) Escalator

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The capacity of scrapper varies from 3 M cube to 9 M cube. The scrap as a cutting edge or blade and the bottom and it is possible to dig earth to a depth of about 250 mm.

8. ________________ are usually mounted on two or four pneumatic tyred wheels.
a) Scraper
b) Backactor
c) Elevator
d) Escalator

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] An apron is provided in front of the container which opens and close in order to regulate the flow of earth in and out of the container. Scrapers are capable of producing a very smooth and accurate formation level.

9. __________________ type of scraper consists of a four wheeled scrapper bowl towed behind crawler Power unit.
a) Three axle
b) Two axle
c) Crawler drawn
d) Four axle

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Capacities of a scrapper bowl ranges from 3 metre cube to 50 metre cube. The speed of operation is governed by the speed of towing vehicle, which is 8 km per hour, when hauling, and 3 km per hour, when scrapping.

10. An _______________ is an oldest type of machine which removes earth.
a) Escalator
b) Excavator
c) Elevator
d) Bulldozer

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Excavator performs it work of moving the earth while the main unit is stationary. The title effort is required to move the dead weight of earth in a vertical plane.

11. _________________ type of excavator used for digging the foundation trenches below operating level.
a) Clamshell
b) Backactor
c) Power shovel
d) Skimmer

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Back trench hoe excavator can also be used for the excavation of smaller areas such as basement, footing and trenches. The hoe is an instrument for scrapping, digging and losing the earth.

12. _________________ type of excavator is used for digging below, at or above operating level in a vertical range.
a) Skimmer
b) Dragline
c) Clamshell
d) Back trench

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Clamshell excavator are widely used for rehandling of material and for working in Limited space as in case of foundation trenches for pipelines, etc. It is also used for jobs which require fairly accurate dumping and disposal of material.

13. ________________ type of excavator carries Shovel at its lower end.
a) Power shovel
b) Dragline
c) Clamshell
d) Backactor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Power shovel excavator is used to dig at or above the operating level. It can handle loose rock and the material caught in the shovel can be suitably disposed off.

14. __________________ type of excavator is used for digging at or below the operating level.
a) Skimmer
b) Dragline
c) Power shovel
d) Dredger

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The various types of dragline excavator are available and the factor affecting the output of a dragline excavator are- the size and type of bucket, the depth of cutting, length of boom and the angle of Swing.

15. ________________ type of excavator carries the skimmer at its lower end.
a) Skimmer
b) Dredger
c) Escalator
d) Elevator

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Skimmer is used for surface excavation and levelling and it cuts the surface of earth to a depth of about 200 mm to 300 mm. The skimmer excavator can also be used for loading the loose excavated material.

Set 3

1. The exposed term surfaces of floors are termed as the ____________
a) Roofs
b) Floors
c) Flooring
d) Roofing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The ground floor or basement floors with directly rest on the ground do not require the provision of a floor. But they are provided with suitable type of floor covering or simply flooring.

2. The other floors of each storey about the ground level are known as the ___________
a) Roofing
b) Upper floor
c) Lower floor
d) Roof

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The major problems of ground and basement floors are damp exclusion and the thermal insulation. The moisture is generally present in the ground and unless suitable measures are taken to prevent its entry, it will pass into the building through floors.

3. In auditoriums, to carry out dances or Dramas, the ____________ are constructed on the ground floor.
a) Composite floors
b) Jack arch floors
c) RCC floors
d) Basement timber floors

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In Basement or ground floor of timber, the sleepers walls which may be one half Brick or one brick thickness are constructed at centre to Centre distance of 1.20 metre to 1.80 metre. The wall plates are provided along the wall as well as along the sleeper walls and they reduce the span of the bridging joist.

4. ______________ floors consists of single joist which are placed below the floor boards.
a) Single joint timber floor
b) Single joist timber floor
c) Single timber floor
d) Joist Floor

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The joists are usually placed at the centre to Centre distance of 300 mm to 450 mm. The joists are supported on the wall plates at their ends. The space of about 50 mm is kept for the circulation of the air.

5. In ___________________ floors, the intermediate supports, known as the binders, provided for the bridging joists.
a) Single joists timber floor
b) Double joists timber floor
c) Bridging joists
d) Triple Joist timber floor

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The binders are generally placed at the centre to Centre distance of 1.8 metre to 2.4 meters. The ends of Binder rest on the wooden or stone blocks. The double joist Timber floor are stronger than the single joist Timber floor.

6. In ______________ floors, intermediate supports, known as the girders, provided for the binders.
a) Single Joist timber floor
b) Double joists timber floor
c) Triple Joist timber floor
d) Tetra Joist timber floor

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Triple Joist timber floor consist of girders, binders, a bridging joists and floor boards. The girders are generally placed at a Centre to Centre distance of 3 meters. The binders are staggered and connected to the girders by tusk and tenon joints.

7. In _________________ floors, the flag stones are used in the two layers.
a) Double flagstones floors
b) Single flagstones floors
c) Triple flagstones floors
d) Filler joists timber floors

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In Double flagstones floors, the steel beams are placed at a distance of about 3 meters Centre to centre and the joist are placed at right angles to the beans. The Flagstones of about 14 mm thickness and of suitable width are fixed on the lower flanges and upper flanges.

8. In ________________ floors, the small sections of rolled Steel joists are placed in concrete.
a) Jack arch floors
b) RCC floor
c) Rib floor
d) Filler joists

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The joists maybe either rest on wall or on Steel beam. The joists act as reinforcement and are spaced at a centre to Centre distance of 600 mm to 900 mm.

9. In _____________ floors, the brick arches or cement concrete arches are constructed and these arches rest on the lower flanges of mild steel joists.
a) Filler Joist
b) Pre cast Concrete
c) Jack arch
d) Hollow block

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In Jack arch floors, the joists in turn raised either on wall around beam. The joists are placed at a distance of about 800 mm to 1200 mm Centre to centre. The rise of arches should be 100 mm to 200 mm and the minimum depth of concrete at the Crown should be 150 mm.

10. In ________________ floors, the Steel bars and concrete are used to form of floor.
a) Hollow block
b) Precast concrete
c) RCC
d) Jack arch

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] RCC floor is widely used in Modern construction. The slab and beam design as per loading coming on the floor and proper Reinforcement is placed at a suitable place.

11. In ______________ floors, the hollow blocks of clay or concrete are used to reduce the total weight of the floor.
a) Hollow block
b) RCC
c) Lapped
d) Jack arch

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In one form, the blocks are placed 100 mm apart and in this space, the mild steel bars are placed. A minimum cover of 80 mm is kept at the top. Suitable flooring at top and ceiling finish are provided.

12. With the development of _______________ construction technique, it is possible to prepare the precast unit for the floor.
a) Pre cast
b) On site
c) Factory made
d) In situ

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] These precast units are available in suitable sizes as can be conventionally handle, transported and fixed. They may be supported either on walls or on rolled Steel joist.

Set 4

1. A __________________ roller is a multi purpose roller which is used for various purposes and for practically all type of roads.
a) Smooth wheeled
b) Pneumatic
c) Rubber tyred
d) Dead weight

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Smooth wheeled rollers are suitable to compact a wide range of soils, preferably granular soil and pavement material for various layers. These rollers are particularly helpful in compacting soil and other materials where a crushing action is advantages.

2. Effective compaction is not achieved by ____________ rollers.
a) Rubber tyred
b) Sheep’s foot
c) Pneumatic
d) Smooth wheeled

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The performance of three wheeled roller is a better as compared to a two wheel unit because of concentration of pressure on the middle wheel when the roller passes over a spot in the surface that is being compacted. The single wheel roller has diameter of about 900 mm and length of about 1.20 metres.

3. ________________ consist of a vibrating unit mounted on a screed, plate or roller.
a) Earth rammers
b) Pounding
c) Vibrating rollers
d) Vibratory compactors

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In Vibratory compactors, the vibrating unit maybe the out of balance weight type or a pulsating hydraulic type. This type of compactors is the most suitable for coarse grained soil.

4. The ________________ compact soil close to the earth surface only.
a) Earth rammers
b) Vibrating rollers
c) Ditcher
d) Skimmer

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The vibrating earth rammers are generally used to achieve better compaction of soil. The vibration also makes it possible to adopt small and light equipment and to lay soil in the thick layers. The earth rammer maybe run buy petrol or diesel engines.

5. _______________ are the most commonly used equipment for transportation.
a) Dump trucks
b) Rollers
c) Trucks
d) Bulldozers

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Truck capacity varies from 0.4 metre cube to 20 m cube and its speed varies from 10 km per hour to 100 km per hour. According to self weight light trucks having weight upto 1 tonne, medium truck having weight upto 1.5 tonnes to 3 tonnes and heavy truck having with more than 3.5 tonnes and up to 10 tonnes.

6. _________________ is a self propelled machine which is used mainly to exert a powerful tractive force for pulling other machines.
a) Bulldozer
b) Crane
c) Dumper
d) Tractor

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The tractors are used for agricultural operations such as hoeing, tilling, harvesting, etc. When tractors are equipped with shovels, they can be used for the mining operations. The tractors maybe crawler mounted or wheel mounted.

7. The trucks with automatic unloading device are called ________________
a) Dumpers
b) Trailers
c) Conveyer
d) Dump trucks

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In Dump trucks, loading is done manually or by loaders and unloading is done by the device fitted in the truck. Its capacity varies from 50 to 55 tonnes.

8. __________________ are very useful for horizontal transportation of materials like bricks, aggregates, scaffoldings, etc.
a) Elevators
b) Escalators
c) Dumpers
d) Conveyors

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Dumpers are available in different sizes and varieties. They maybe four wheel drive, two wheel drive, hydraulic or gravity operated container, side or high level discharge self loading dumpers, etc. Usually Dumpers are diesel powered and operated by single operator.

9. _________________ are extra wagons attached to the tractors or trucks.
a) Elevators
b) Conveyors
c) Trailers
d) Dumper

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Trailers can be full trailers, semi trailers or trailers. They have hydraulic brakes and their lighting system is operated from main units.

10. ___________________ are used for vertical transportation of aggregates and wet concrete on large project sites.
a) Elevators
b) Trucks
c) Conveyors
d) Escalators

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] To raise the materials like bricks, tiles, cement, etc. to the upper floor level. Elevators moving with high speeds are used. They have short chassis and strong dumping bodies. Dumping of material can be in front or at the back.

11. In order to raise and shift heavy loads from one place to another, the _________ are employed in the construction of big works.
a) Elevators
b) Conveyors
c) Cranes
d) Trucks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] To transport materials or passengers vertically by means of a moving level platform, material hoist or passenger hoists are used. The cranes are mobile and a mobile crane can be used for various other purposes such as to load and unload the material in coal mines by attaching a magnet to the crane, etc.

12. ________________ crane is used for open sites and it possesses a very long reach.
a) Goliath
b) Derrick
c) Swing jib
d) Cable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Derrick cranes can be slewed for 250° approximately. When the Darrick crane is to be permanently installed, counterweight maybe in the form of concrete blocks.

13. In _________________ type of crane, heavy temporary staging or platform is prepared for the working of the crane.
a) Cableways
b) Swing jib
c) Goliath
d) Platform

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In Goliath cranes, heavy loads can be shifted over considerable distances. These cranes are costly and are used in the construction of Harbour works, shops of Steel work, etc.

14. ________________ are cranes of Swing jib type and are mounted on high Steel Towers.
a) Cableways
b) Swing jib
c) Tower
d) Goliath

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The height of Tower maybe 25 to 30 meters and these cranes are found to be extremely useful in the construction of tall buildings in congested area. The ground area required for such cranes is also very small and they can be prepared very close to buildings.

15. A ________________ consists of a coil whose diameter is about 50 mm to 100 mm.
a) Cableway
b) Tower crane
c) Roller
d) Hoists

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The cable has a breaking strength of 2500 kN to 7000 kN and its Unit Weight is about 150 Newton to 500 Newton per metre length. The use of cable way is usually made in the transport of concrete from one place to the other.

Set 5

1. Identify the type of Joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q1
a) Butt joint
b) Rebated joint
c) Tongued joint
d) Saddled joint

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In Butt or square joint, the square surface of one stone is placed again that of another as shown in the given figure above. This is the most common joint and is extensively used for ordinary work.

2. Identify the type of Joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q2
a) Table joint
b) Cramped joint
c) Rebated joint
d) Butt joint

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In Rebated joint, the rebates are provided which prevent the movement of stones. The length of rebate depends on the nature of the work. But it should not be less than 70 mm. This joint is used for arch work, copying on gables, etc.

3. Identify the type of Joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q4
a) Rusticated joint
b) Table joint
c) Cramped joint
d) Plugged joint

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In Table joint, a joggle is song in the bed of the stone to prevent lateral movement. The depth of projection is about 40 mm and the width of projection is about one third the breath of the stone. This type of joint is used in case of structures such as sea walls.

4. Identify the type of Joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q4-1
a) Saddle joint
b) Table joint
c) Butt joint
d) Rebated joint

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In Saddle or water joint, the stone is rounded off as shown in the given figure. This type of joint is provided to protect the joints of the cornice and such other weathered surfaces. The saddle is generally bevelled backword from the front edge so as to make it inconspicuous.

5. Identify the type of joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q5
a) Plugged joint
b) Dowelled joint
c) Rusticated joint
d) Table joint

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Sometimes the margins or edges of stones used for Plinth, Quoin, outer walls of lower storeys, etc., are sunk below the general level. The term rusticated is used to indicate such masonry. There are three forms of rusticated joints as- channel joint, Vee joint, Vee and channelled joint.

6. Identify the type of joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q6
a) Butt joint
b) Joggle joint
c) Table joint
d) Cramped joint

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In Tongued and grooved joint, a projection is kept on one stone and corresponding sinking is provided in the other side as shown in above figure. This arrangement prevents the sliding of one stone over the other. This joint is also known as a Joggle joint and is rarely used as it involves a great deal of labour and thus becomes expensive.

7. Identify the type of joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q7
a) Rusticated joint
b) Dowelled joint
c) Cramped joint
d) Plugged joint

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In Plugged joint, the dovetail shaped mortices are provided in the sides of adjacent stones as shown in the given above figure. When Stone are placed in position, the molten lead is poured in the joints, which, when cooled, connects the stones firmly.

8. Identify the given type of joint in stone masonry.
construction-building-materials-questions-answers-joints-stone-masonry-q8
a) Rusticated joint
b) Cramped joint
c) Plugged joint
d) Butt joint

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In Cramped joint, the cramps are used instead of dowels. The cramps are the pieces of non corrosive metal such as gunmetal, copper, etc. and their ends are turned down to a depth of about 40 mm to 50 mm. The length, width and thickness of the cramps vary from 200 mm to 300 mm, 25 mm to 15 mm and 5 mm to 10 mm respectively.

9. In ________ joint, a hole is cut into each stone and loose dowels l, which are small pieces of hard stone, Slate, gunmetal, brass, bronze or copper, are inserted and secured with the cement.
a) Cramped joint
b) Plugged joint
c) Dowelled joint
d) Table joint

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Dowelled joint, when adopted for columns, is known as a Bed Plug. The dowels are generally 25 mm thick and 100 mm to 150 mm long. This joint also ensure stability of the stones against the displacement.

10. With the help of _____ arrangement, any water moving on the way that surface is diverted from the joints.
a) Saddle joint
b) Rebated joint
c) Table joint
d) Grooved joint

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In Water joint or Saddle joint, the stone is rounded off. The saddle is generally bevelled back word from the front edge so as to make it inconspicuous. This type of joint is provided to protect the joints of the cornice and such other weathered surfaces.