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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. According to CPCB the major criteria considered for selection of technologies are ____
a) Waste quantity
b) Chemical analysis
c) Lead content
d) Mercury content

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] According to CPCB the major criteria considered for selection of technologies are the waste quantity, waste characteristics, physical properties and composition of wastes, availability of land, social factors, capital investment, duration of treatment, products market etc.

2. As per CPCB the waste processing technologies are divided into ____ categories.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] As per CPCB, the available waste processing technologies can be broadly divided into two categories- biological treatment and thermal treatment.

3. The biological activities depend upon _____
a) pH
b) Chemicals
c) Toxins
d) Temperature

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The biological activities depend upon several criteria- C/N ration, pH value, moisture content, supply of oxygen etc.

4. Vermi-composting can treat oily and spicy waste. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Vermi compost is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by particular species of earthworm. It can treat any organic waste, not applicable for oily, spicy, salty or hard and waste that has excessive acidity and alkalinity.

5. The major issues contributing to difficulties in siting hazardous waste facility are ____
a) Uncertainty of risk
b) Area
c) NPL
d) HSP

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The major issues contributing to difficulties in siting hazardous waste facility are the lack of a systems approach, uncertainty of risk, public perceptions of risk, inequities in costs and benefits, institutional distrust, and difficulties in communication about risk.

6. Hazardous waste management requires _____
a) Chemical analysis
b) Systems approach
c) Research
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hazardous waste management requires a systems approach. The waste production process is a complex, involving numerous opportunities for management to reduce risks, to lower economic costs, and to recycle wastes to beneficial uses.

7. Hazardous facility siting is a _____
a) Chemical analysis
b) Systems approach
c) System activity
d) System analysis

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The deployment of a waste management system requires a network of waste processing, storage and disposal facilities, interconnected by waste transportation links.

8. Current hazardous waste facility strategies tend to be facility-specific. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Most of the state laws governing hazardous nonradioactive waste facility siting are geared to the process for siting a given facility.

Set 2

1. When did Texas City disaster occur?
a) 1946
b) 1947
c) 1948
d) 1949

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Texas City disaster was an industrial accident, occurred on April 26, 1947, in port of Texas.

2. What is the name of ship where the disaster occurred?
a) Grandcamp
b) Granpit
c) Grandbar
d) Iowla

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Smoke was spotted in the cargo hold of the Grandcamp, which had tons of ammonium nitrate.

3. What time did Grandcamp exploded?
a) 6 a.m.
b) 7 a.m.
c) 8 a.m.
d) 9 a.m.

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The explosion took place at 9:12 a.m. and ammonium nitrate reacted with steam to produce nitrogen dioxide fumes.

4. More than 5,000 people were injured in Texas City disaster. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is estimated that, after the event of disaster, more than 5,000 people were injured, with 1,784 admitted to 21 area hospitals.

5. What is the expenditures for industrial reconstruction after the disaster?
a) $200 million
b) $300 million
c) $100 million
d) $400 million

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The expenditures for industrial reconstruction after the disaster is estimated to be $100 million dollars i.e. $1.07 billion in today’s terms.

6. Lawsuits were filed under ____ act.
a) FTCA
b) NPL
c) HPS
d) HAZA

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Many lawsuits were filed against the company under Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA).

7. Which was the other ship exploded due to Grandcamp’s explosion?
a) S.S Highflyer
b) Granpit
c) Grandbar
d) Iowla

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The S.S. High Flyer was owned and operated by Lykes Bros. Steamship Co., Inc. The ship was down to repairs and could not be moved on time to prevent disaster.

8. S.S Highflyer cargo had _____ tons of sulphur.
a) 1000
b) 2000
c) 3000
d) 4000

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The S.S Highflyer cargo had 2000 tons of sulfur loaded and 961 tons of ammonium nitrate in paper bags.

9. When was the case, Dalehite v. United States decided?
a) 1946
b) 1947
c) 1948
d) 1953

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The case Dalehite v. United States, was decided in 1953 by the Supreme Court, victims lost the lawsuit but 1955 bill provided $17 million for claimants.

Set 3

1. Thermal treatment technologies are differentiated by ___
a) Type of grate
b) Chemicals
c) Energy
d) Temperature

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Thermal treatment technologies are differentiated by type of grate used in the process. Some technologies are developed to handle broad range of hazardous waste.

2. _____ from combustion of waste reduces cost.
a) Chemical analysis
b) Metals
c) Material recovery
d) LCA

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Complexity of technology costs higher than other treatment methods, the opportunity to recover materials and energy from combustion of waste reduces cost.

3. ____emission is cited as an issue from incineration?
a) Carbon
b) Dioxin
c) Sulphur
d) Nitrogen

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Dioxin emission is cited as an issue from incineration. Greenpeace has international has anti-incineration campaign based on release of dioxins at various areas.

4. Thermal processing reduces hazard from waste.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Thermal processing reduces hazard from waste, provides energy recovery opportunities, volume reduction and minimization of waste disposal to landfills.

5. ____% of waste by weight remains after combustion.
a) 20-35
b) 20-40
c) 40-50
d) 30-50

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] 20-35% of waste by weight remains after combustion and 90% of waste volume reduction is achieved.

6. Ferrous materials are combustible. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] 20% of industrial waste and 30% of domestic waste is incombustible, this includes ferrous and non-ferrous materials such as iron and aluminium.

7. Residence time of waste in combustion zone is ____ seconds.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The residence time of waste in combustion zone is 2 seconds and minimum temperature of 850 degree Celsius.

8. ____of hazardous waste plays a major role in designing combustion unit.
a) Calorific value
b) Chemical value
c) Energy value
d) Fuel value

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heat or calorific value of hazardous waste plays a major role in designing combustion unit. Gross and net calorific value is used to describe heat value.

9. Which of the following waste characteristic is considered for combustion?
a) Flash point
b) Energy point
c) Burning point
d) Melting point

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Flash point is defined as the temperature at which flammable waste gives off enough vapour to catch fire when ignited and is considered an important factor for combustion.

10. Mechanical mixing of waste ensures ____
a) Flash point
b) Even distribution
c) Hydrocarbon mixing
d) Less water requirement

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Mechanical mixing of waste before they fed into the furnace helps to ensure even distribution and aeration.

11. Which of the following are the solid residues from incineration?
a) Slag, fly ash, APC
b) Klink, ash, BPC
c) Gas, slag, APC
d) Liquids, ash, slag

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Slag or bottom ash, fly ash (fine air-borne ash) and air pollution control (APC) residues are the solid residues from incineration.

12. What is the emission limit for dioxins as per European Union?
a) 0.1
b) 0.2
c) 0.3
d) 0.4

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3 is the limit for dioxins as per European Union, where TEQ represents agreed toxic equivalent.

Set 4

1. What was the name of waste hauler, oiled dirt roads near Times beach, Missouri?
a) Jimmy Carter
b) Lois Gibbs
c) Paul Reindiff
d) Russell Bliss

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Missouri town hired local waste hauler named Russell Bliss to oil its dirt roads once a week from 1972 to 1976.

2. Where did Bliss get oil from to spray Times Beach’s roads and local stables?
a) NEPACCO
b) NEPACO
c) NEPA
d) UNEPA

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Bliss contracted with Northeastern Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company (NEPACCO) and began using waste oil to spray Times Beach’s roads and local stables as cheap alternative.

3. The waste oil used to spray on roads contained _______
a) Hexachlorophene
b) Chlorine
c) Bromine
d) Fluorine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The waste oil sprayed on roads contained hexachlorophene, which was used as color producing agent and it contained high levels of dioxin.

4. Higher level of dioxin resulted in miscarriage. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Dioxin levels were about hundred times greater than what is considered to be safe and citizens of Times Beach began reporting numerous miscarriages, diseases and various animal deaths which were associated with dioxin.

5. Most common way dioxin entered into general population is through ____
a) Ingestion of contaminated fish
b) Epidermal
c) Chemicals
d) Air-borne

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Most common way dioxin entered into general population is through ingestion of contaminated fish, meats and dairy products, making dioxin vehicle-borne.

6. Coal fired utilities are source of exposure to dioxin. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Coal fired utilities, metal smelting industries, diesel trucks, land application of sewage sludge and burning treated wood are sources of exposure to dioxin.

7. Major result of exposure to dioxin is ____
a) Thyroid disorders
b) Birth defects
c) Diabetes
d) Chloracne

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Major result of exposure to dioxin is chloracne, which is commonly accompanied by sever disfiguration, joint pain, fatigue, headaches, and chronic weakness. Chloracne could remain in human body for up to thirty years.

8. _____pounds of dioxin was hauled from a non-operational chemical plant in southwest Missouri.
a) 52
b) 53
c) 54
d) 55

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] 55 pounds of dioxin was hauled from a non-operational chemical plant in southwest Missouri and about 43 pounds was unaccounted.

9. How much money did EPA pay for remediation of Time’s Beach?
a) 30
b) 31
c) 32
d) 33

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] EPA announced, the federal government would pay $33 million of the estimated $36.7 million to buy 800 residential properties.

10. When was the cleanup of Missouri completed?
a) 1996
b) 1997
c) 1998
d) 1999

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The cleanup of Missouri was completed in 1997 and the remediation cost close to $200 million.

11. Which of the following law was passed to regulate toxins after Missouri incident?
a) NPL
b) HPS
c) TSCA
d) BPS

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] After Missouri incident Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976.

Set 5

1. What are the steps involved in evaluation of toxicity?
a) hazard identification and dose-response evaluation
b) chemical analysis
c) pathway analysis
d) evaluation of long term impact

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hazard identification includes a description of the specific forms of toxicity and Dose-response evaluation is incidence of specific toxins subjected to population.

2. ___________ establishes the relationship between the contaminant/s of concern and the receptor.
a) Hazard identification
b) Toxicity assessment
c) Risk characterisation
d) Exposure assessment

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Toxicity assessment is the Characterization of the toxicological properties and effects of a chemical, with special emphasis on establishment of dose-response characteristics.

3. Which of the following is not characteristics of hazardous waste?
a) Toxicity
b) Corrosivity
c) Ignitibility
d) Leakage

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] : Toxicity, corrosivity, ignitibility and reactivity are the aspects considered in quantification and characterisation of hazardous waste.

4. What is toxicity equivalence factor?
a) Ratio of the toxicity of a chemical to that of another structurally related chemical (or index compound) chosen as a reference
b) Ratio of the toxicity of a contaminant to that of another structurally related chemical (or index compound) chosen as a reference
c) Ratio of the toxicity of a chemical to that of another chemical pollutant chosen as a reference
d) Ratio of the toxicity of a chemical to that of source

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Factor used to estimate the toxicity of a complex mixture, commonly a mixture of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [oxanthrenes], furans, and biphenyls.

5. Toxicity test is the experimental study of the adverse effects of exposure of a living organism to a substance for a defined duration under defined conditions. True of False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Toxicity testing is conducted to determine the degree to which a substance can damage a living or non-living organisms.

6. Results from long-term exposure to lower doses of a chemical is known as ________
a) Acute toxicity
b) Chronic toxicity
c) Moderate toxicity
d) High toxicity

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Chronic toxicity is the development of adverse effects as the result of long term exposure to a toxicant or other stressor.

7. _________ is an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance.
a) Toxicity equivalencing
b) Toxicity index
c) Toxicity proportion
d) Toxicity interpretation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Toxicity equivalencing tool is used to evaluate the amount of toxicity and estimates the risks of a mixture of structurally related chemicals with a common and same mechanism.

8. Which toxicity test is preferable to determine the acute or chronic toxicity of air, water and wastewater discharges or total pollutant loads?
a) Indirect toxicity test
b) Direct toxicity test
c) Chemical analysis
d) High toxicity test

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] : The use of DTA allows an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures of chemicals rather than individual chemicals.

9. What is the main objective of toxicity assessment?
a) To determine source of pathway
b) To determine chemical concentration
c) To estimate how much of a substance does what kind of harm.
d) To analyse chemical exposure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] : The main objective of toxicity assessment is the classification and grouping according to toxicological properties of a substance, specifically the dose-response relationship a with a specific route of exposure.

10. What is the third step of risk assessment?
a) Hazard identification
b) Toxicity assessment
c) Exposure assessment
d) Corrosivity assessment

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Risk assessments combine information on the level of exposure to substance and its toxicity to characterize what is likely to happen to humans who may be exposed.

11. LD50 in a toxicity test stands for ______
a) a dose that will kill 50% of an exposed population
b) a dose that would not affect or harm 50% of an exposed population
c) a dose that will kill 25% of an exposed population
d) a dose that would not kill 25% of an exposed population

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the participant of a tested population after a specified test duration and it also depends on the rate of exposure.

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