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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. EPA ID is required for very small quantity generators. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Very small quantity generators produces ≤100 kg/month, and ≤ kg/month of acute hazardous waste, therefore EPA ID is not required.

2. On-Site Accumulation Quantity of small scale generators is less than ____ kg.
a) 2000
b) 4000
c) 6000
d) 8000

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The amount of hazardous waste generators small scale generators are allowed to accumulate on site with a permit is <6000kg.

3. Accumulation time limit for SQG is less than or equal to ____ days.
a) 170
b) 180
c) 190
d) 160

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Accumulation time limit for SQG is less than or equal to 180 days. It is less than or equal to 200 days if transportation is greater than 200 miles.

4. _____ planning is required for Emergency Procedures while handling SQG waste.
a) Less
b) Basic
c) Full
d) Null

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Basic Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures are to follow during an unplanned major event.

5. A generator must keep a copy of each manifest signed for a period of _____ years.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A generator must keep a copy of each manifest signed for three years or until he receives a signed copy from the designated facility which received the waste for safe disposal.

6. A transporter must keep a copy of each Biennial Report for three years. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A generator must keep a copy of each Biennial Report and Exception Report for a period of at least three years from the due date of the report.

7. The generator must sign the manifest by ____
a) Hand
b) Digitally
c) Placard
d) Electronically

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The generator must sign the manifest certification by hand and obtain the handwritten signature of the initial transporter and date of acceptance on the manifest without fail.

8. For shipments of hazardous waste within the United States only by water ____ copies of manifest must be sent.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] For shipments of hazardous waste within the United States only by water, the generator must send three copies of the manifest dated and signed in accordance with reference to operator of the designated facility.

9. For rejected shipments of hazardous waste the generator must _____
a) Sign item 18c
b) Sign item 20
c) Sign either
d) Sign e-copy

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] For rejected shipments of hazardous waste the generator must sign either item 18c or 20 and provide the transporter a copy of the manifest.

10. Generator is not held responsible for non-submission of ____
a) E-manifest
b) Manifest
c) Manifest to reporter
d) Manifest to transporter

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] No generator may be held liable for the inability to produce an electronic manifest if the generator demonstrate technical errors.

11. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify _____ techniques adopted.
a) Waste minimisation
b) Manifest
c) Analysis
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify economically practicable and effective management process adopted.

Set 2

1. The process used to destroy toxicity of waste by changing oxidation state is _____
a) Reduction process
b) Oxidation process
c) Waste analysis
d) Chemical analysis

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Oxidation process is used to reduce or destroy the toxicity of waste by changing its state of oxidation.

2. Which of the following solutions can be treated by reduction or oxidation process?
a) Cyanide
b) Lead
c) Mercury
d) Zinc

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Solutions containing hexavalent chromium, cyanides, sulphides and many organic wastes such as pesticides and phenols are treated by reduction or oxidation process.

3. Chlorine is a reducing agent. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Chlorine, sodium, calcium hypochloride, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate are common oxidising agents.

4. Electroplating wastes can be treated from _____ process.
a) Hydrolysis
b) Neutralisation
c) Chemical precipitation
d) Oxidation and reduction

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cyanides from electroplating or case-hardening steel are commonly treated from oxidation and reduction process.

5. Which among the following is cheapest oxidizing reagent?
a) Sodium hypochlorite
b) Lead
c) Mercury
d) Zinc

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Electroplating wastes can be treated by sodium or calcium hypochloride which are cheap and easily available.

6. Oxidation avoids harmful side reactions. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Organic compounds such as phenols, mercaptons and benzidines can be oxidisaed. Oxidation avoids harmful side reactions for instance, it prevents formation of cholorophenols.

7. Which among the following is the commonest waste treated by reduction?
a) Sodium hypochlorite
b) Lead
c) Mercury
d) Chromate

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Chromate and chromic acids from chromium and tanning industries are the commonest waste treated by reduction.

8. _____method is more suitable in removing organic species in waste solution.
a) Hydrolysis process
b) Oxidation reduction
c) Waste analysis
d) Chemical analysis

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Oxidation and reduction method is more suitable in removing organic species in waste solution, break down metal complexes, and removes certain metal from solution.

9. The most common applications of chemical reduction is reduction of _____
a) chromium (VI) to chromium (III)
b) chromium (V) to chromium (III)
c) chromium (VI) to chromium (II)
d) chromium (V) to chromium (I)

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The hexavalent chromium ion from tannery and chromium plating waste, is converted to trivalent chromium by applying chemical reduction.

Set 3

1. Which of the following act regulates transportation of hazardous waste?
a) RCRA
b) CERCLA
c) NEPA
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates hazardous waste transporters and transportation.

2. Person engaged in the off-site transportation of the hazardous waste is known as transporter. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A hazardous waste transporter as any person engaged in the off-site transportation of the hazardous waste according to subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

3. When was the first law regarding transportation of hazardous materials passed?
a) 1966
b) 1866
c) 1855
d) 1965

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The first federal law regarding transportation of hazardous materials was passed on 1866 covering shipments of explosives and flammable materials.

4. Which of the following statute made transportation of hazardous materials illegal?
a) 1869
b) 1870
c) 1871
d) 1872

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An 1871 statute made it criminal act to transport specific hazardous materials on passenger materials in US navigable water.

5. When was Interstate Commerce Committee established?
a) 1887
b) 1888
c) 1889
d) 1890

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Interstate Commerce Committee was established in 1887 primarily to regulate interstate rail transport.

6. When was Department of Transportation established?
a) 1962
b) 1963
c) 1965
d) 1966

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Department of Transportation was established in 1966 to regulate transportation of hazardous materials.

7. Which of the following act improves regulatory and enforcement activities?
a) HMTA
b) DOT
c) ICC
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) was passed to improve regulatory and enforcement activities by providing secretary of transportation board authority to set regulations.

8. When was HMT act passed?
a) 1971
b) 1972
c) 1973
d) 1975

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) was passed in 1975 to protect against risk to life, property and environment with respect to transportation accidents.

9. EPA regulations governing transportation of materials must be consistent with ____ regulations.
a) DOT
b) CERCLA
c) RCRA
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] EPA regulations governing transportation of materials must be consistent with DOT regulations established under HMTA in February 1980.

Set 4

1. Any person by site whose act causes hazardous waste to become subject to regulation is known as ___
a) Generator
b) Transporter
c) Producer
d) Importer

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] As per code 49 regulation of EPA, HW generator is defined as any person by site whose act causes hazardous waste to become subject to regulation.

2. Person who removes hazardous waste residues in a vehicle that have carried raw materials and sludge is a generator. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Person who removes hazardous waste residue and sludge in vehicle or vessel that have carried raw materials or hires party to remove and dispose sludges is considered as HW generator.

3. Under ___ regulations, carried is also considered generator if carrier imports HW.
a) DOT
b) NPL
c) NEPA
d) HLP

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Under DOT regulations, carried is also considered generator if carrier imports HW, mixes HW with different DOT descriptions, or is responsible for discharge of HW.

4. Which of the following DOT regulation is applied to all hazardous material?
a) Identification of waste
b) Coding
c) Analysis
d) Transport

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Identifying and classifying waste according to DOT hazardous materials are the pre-transport or DOT regulation that is applied for all hazardous material.

5. If the waste generated is hazardous, generators should obtain ____
a) Permit
b) Manifest
c) Identification number
d) Chemical analysis

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] If the waste generated is hazardous, generators should obtain EPA identification number by submitting EPA form to agency.

6. Hazardous waste transportation regulations are regulated by ____ and ____
a) EPA, DOT
b) NPL, DOT
c) EPA, NEPA
d) EPA, HPS

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hazardous waste transportation regulations are regulated by EPA and DOT which include notification and manifest requirements.

7. Generators are responsible for providing transportation. True or False.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Generators are responsible for providing transportation such as rail tanks, tankers, highway cargo tanks and certain fright containers.

8. Generators may periodically exceed or fall below their normal generation limits are considered _____ generator.
a) Episodic
b) SQG
c) LQG
d) MQG

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Generators may periodically exceed or fall below their normal generation limits are considered episodic generator and is responsible for complying with all applicable requirements of that category of HW.

Set 5

1. What is the main objective of risk characterisation?
a) Estimation of the potential for adverse health or ecological effects to occur from exposure to a stressor
b) Determination of pathways
c) Estimation of exposure
d) Collection of data

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Risk characterization is the qualitative and quantitative determination of combined risks to receptors from individual chemicals of concern and exposure pathways, and the associated uncertainties.

2. If the MDD from the target population is smaller than the RfD, the exposure is considered relatively ____
a) Safe
b) Unsafe
c) Permissible
d) Accident

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] permissible exposure is defined in the dose-response phase of the risk assessment, comparison with the maximum daily dose (MDD) occurring within the tested population. If MDD is less than RfD it is considered safe.

3. If the MDD from the target population is greater than the RfD, the exposure is considered relatively _____
a) Safe
b) Permissible
c) Unsafe
d) Void

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] If MDD is higher than the RfD and if is approaching within 100 fold of the NOEL according to the toxic studies, then the exposure is considered unsafe.

4. What should be the MOE after extrapolation to humans to be considered as
low risk?
a) Over 20
b) Over 30
c) Over 40
d) Over 10

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The Risk of exposure for non-oncogenic effects is expressed as a Margin of Exposure (MOE). If it’s over 10, No Effects Level is a lot higher than the actual exposure occurring among the most exposed individuals within the target population.

5. Which of the following is not a component of risk characterisation?
a) Study of exposure duration, frequency, and magnitude
b) Study of pathways and receptors
c) Study of toxicity values
d) Chemical analysis

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The components of risk characterization focus on gather, review, compare, and organize the outputs of the exposure and toxicity assessment.

6. The sum of risk of each individual chemical is __________
a) Total pathway risk
b) Simple pathway risk
c) Negative pathway risk
d) Complex pathway risk

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Total pathway risk is the determination cumulative risk of each exposure pathway by adding risk from each individual chemical in that pathway.

7. What is the final stage of risk assessment?
a) Hazard identification
b) Risk characterisation
c) Exposure assessment
d) Toxicity assessment

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The final stage of risk assessment is to calculate risks. Risks consists of calculating quantitative estimates of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to receptors.

8. Which of the following does not come under elements of risk characterisation?
a) Qualitative description of uncertainty
b) Presentation of the risk estimate
c) Communication of the results of risk analysis
d) Chemical analysis

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Analysis of chemicals does not belongs to risk characterization. Generation of a quantitative estimate of risk is the first step to be considered.

9. _________ document provides guidance to EPA and other government employees for clean-up of hazardous site.
a) Superfund Risk-Assessment Guidance
b) RCRA Risk-Assessment Guidance
c) NPL Risk-Assessment Guidance
d) HRS Risk-Assessment Guidance

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Superfund document provides guidance to EPA and other government employees and contractors who might be risk-assessment reviewers, risk assessor, remedial project managers, or risk managers involved in clean-up of superfund-site.

10. ______ provides information important for interpreting the risk results.
a) Risk estimation
b) Risk description
c) Risk analysis
d) Risk output

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Risk description provides information important for interpreting the risk results and identifies a level for harmful effects on the plants and animals of concern.