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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Managing waste is the responsibility of government. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Waste management is the responsibility of industries, communities, households and individuals.

2. The ______ Government is responsible for national legislation in Sydney.
a) Indian
b) UK
c) US
d) Australian

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The Australian Government is responsible for national legislation, strategies and policy frameworks for waste and has effective role in resource recovery.

3. The first complete domestic approach to waste management was agreed by _____ council.
a) COAG
b) COOG
c) COPA
d) COUS

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] First waste management approach was undertaken in 1992 by National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG).

4. ______policy offers national framework for waste management and resource recovery in Australia.
a) National hazard policy
b) National waste policy
c) Environmental policy
d) Hazardous policy

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] National waste policy address reduction of waste at source, pursues sustainability and offer solutions.

5. ______ are designed to assist environmental management.
a) NEPM
b) NPEM
c) NEOP
d) NOPE

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] National Environment Protection Measures (NEPMs) are made under the National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 for better environment management.

6. Which of the act is addressed for energy production?
a) NGER
b) NEPM
c) NOPE
d) NDGO

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act of 2007 provides information about greenhouse gas emissions, energy production, energy consumption.

7. Which act is responsible for reducing pollution at source?
a) NGER
b) NEPM
c) Pollution prevention act
d) Waste reduction act

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Pollution prevention is reducing waste at source by modifying production processes, encouraging the use of nontoxic substances, implementing resource conservation techniques, and reusing materials.

8. The National pollution prevention policy states waste should be released to environment as quick as possible. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The National pollution prevention policy states release of chemical into the environment should be employed only as a last option and should be conducted in an environmentally safe manner.

9. ______programme is undertaken by UK government to deliver resource efficiency policies.
a) WRAP
b) TARP
c) BUOP
d) PESA

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) is undertaken by UK government for reduction of waste at communities, business sector and local authorities.

Set 2

1. Chemical precipitation makes the hazardous waste _____
a) Soluble
b) Insoluble
c) Volatile
d) Acidic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Chemical precipitation causes soluble hazardous substances to insoluble matter which is separated from the solution.

2. Precipitation by ____ is widely used method for treating hazardous waste.
a) Calcium hydroxide
b) Sodium hydroxide
c) Potassium hydroxide
d) Lead oxide

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Precipitation by calcium hydroxide is widely used method for treating hazardous waste. Addition of reagents cause reactions which precipitate undesired species.

3. Chemical precipitation is used in conjunction with neutralisation. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] By examining the chemistry of the waste composition chemical precipitation is used in conjunction with neutralisation and may require filtration unit.

4. Chemical precipitation treatment is effective in wastewater containing _____
a) Chemicals
b) Chloride
c) Toxic metals
d) Impurities

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Chemical precipitation treatment is effective in wastewater containing toxic metals such as arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, mercury, nickel and zinc.

5. ______treatment is suitable for metal salts bearing wastes.
a) Neutralisation
b) Chemical precipitation
c) Hydrolysis
d) Solvent extraction

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Chemical precipitation treatment is suitable for metal salts bearing wastes, including neutral acidic and alkaline materials.

6. Precipitation of metals varies depending on ___ level
a) Acidic
b) Basic
c) Neutral
d) pH

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Metals precipitate at varying pH levels depending on the metal ion, resulting in formation of insoluble salt.

7. _____ is used for precipitation of heavy metals
a) Calcium hydroxide
b) Lime
c) Potassium hydroxide
d) Lead oxide

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The hydroxides or heavy metals are usually insoluble so lime or caustic soda is commonly used to precipitate them.

8. Chemical precipitation treatment is user economic. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Chemical precipitation treatment is expensive process. Due to the 1 to 1 ratio, a large quantity of reagent is generally needed, which is often very costly.

9. The environmental issue caused by chemical precipitation is _____
a) Chemical silt
b) Salts
c) Liquid matter
d) Degradation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Chemical silt is formed as a by-product of chemical precipitation treatment. Silt from heavy metal precipitation is regarded as dangerous waste.

Set 3

1. When did US Congress ban use of PCBs?
a) 1980
b) 1978
c) 1982
d) 1983

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Under TSCA, Congress in large part banned the manufacturing, processing, distribution, and use of PCBs after January 1, 1978 due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment.

2. When did Yusho PCBs poisoning occur?
a) 1980
b) 1978
c) 1968
d) 1983

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Yusho PCBs poisoning occurred in 1968 and the patients have been suffering from various symptoms since 35 years.

3. When was PCBs prohibited in Japan?
a) 1980
b) 1978
c) 1972
d) 1983

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Because PCBs were disclosed to be toxic and accumulative in the environment and human, production and usage of PCBs were all prohibited in Japan in 1972.

4. What was the per person intake of PCBs in Japan in 1972?
a) 40–60µg
b) 40–50µg
c) 40–70µg
d) 40–72µg

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Japanese daily intakes of PCBs were estimated to be 40–72µg per person in 1972 and daily intakes of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) were calculated to be 0.5–3.5 pg/kg/day.

5. When did rice of PCBs poisoning occur in Taiwan?
a) 1980
b) 1979
c) 1972
d) 1983

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Rice oil PCBs poisoning called Yucheng occurred in Taiwan in 1979, eleven years after the Yusho PCB poisoning.

6. What is the TDI of TDQ established in 1996?
a) 5 pg/kg/day
b) 10 pg/kg/day
c) 15 pg/kg/day
d) 20 pg/kg/day

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Tolerable daily intake (TDI) of TEQ, 10 pg/kg/day, was established in 1996 by Ministry of Health and Welfare.

7. Which among the following is the Yusho symptoms?
a) Dizziness
b) Ataxia
c) Acneiform eruption
d) Choking

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Yusho symptoms includes acneiform eruption, dermal pigmentation, and increased eye discharge.

8. Pyrolysis of PCBs and chlorinated benzene at high temperatures produced PCDFs. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pyrolysis of PCBs and chlorinated benzene at high temperatures produced polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs).

9. What is the PCB route of exposure for children?
a) Breast milk
b) Air
c) Water
d) Soil

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Route of PCB exposure for children is ingestion of foods containing PCBs, including fish and other foods, and human breast milk.

10. Acute high dose exposure to PCBs resulted in _____
a) Dizziness
b) Ataxia
c) Acneiform eruption
d) Chloracne

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Acute high dose exposure to PCBs resulted in chloracne (distinctive skin lesions) in children and adults, which can be severe and disfiguring lesions and persist from 1 year to permanently.

11. Chronic PCBs exposure has been associated with ____
a) Dizziness
b) Low birth rate
c) Acneiform eruption
d) Chloracne

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In adult males chronic PCB exposure has been associated with decreased sperm integrity or sperm counts and in feamles increased cord blood PCB concentrations were significantly associated with lower birth weight.

12. PCBs are classified by the U.S. EPA as ____ carcinogens.
a) A1
b) A2
c) B1
d) B2

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] PCBs are classified by the U.S. EPA as B2 probable human carcinogens, based on liver tumors in adult rats.

Set 4

1. When did RCRA come into force?
a) 1975
b) 1976
c) 1977
d) 1978

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976, is federal law in the United States majoring the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.

2. What is the aim of RCRA?
a) Management of hazardous waste
b) Management of liquid waste
c) Management of solid waste
d) Management of waste

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] RCRA act provides technical and financial assistance for the development of management plans, the safe disposal of discarded materials. It mainly regulates the management of hazardous waste.

3. What is the goal of RCRA?
a) Protecting ecosystem from hazardous waste disposal
b) Chemical analysis
c) Chemical import
d) Chemical export

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The goals of RCRA are protecting human health and environment from hazards of waste disposal, energy conservation, reducing the amount of waste generated, ensuring the waste management in an environmentally sound manner.

4. Subtitle 4 of RCRA states financial disclosure. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Subtitle A of RCRA states about general provisions, objectives and National policy, Interstate Cooperation, financial disclosure; and Solid Waste Management Information.

5. RCRA holds generator responsible for waste produced under _____ concept.
a) LCA
b) SOM
c) Cradle-to-grave
d) CRAS

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Under the cradle-to-grave concept, the generator of hazardous waste can no longer avoid liability by contracting with third party for waste disposal.

6. Which of the following program impose strict measures on record keeping?
a) CERA
b) SARA
c) Cradle to grave
d) lCA

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Waste treatment, storage and disposal is the responsibility of generator. The overall regulatory system is Cradle to grave program. The program enforces record keeping and reporting on generators, transporters, and operators of TSDF handling hazardous waste.

7. Non-hazardous solid wastes are the hazardous wastes which are excused from ____ regulations.
a) Subtitle A
b) Subtitle B
c) Subtitle D
d) Subtitle C

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Subtitle C regulations includes hazardous wastes from households, small quantity generators, oil and gas exploration and production wastes.

8. What is the main focus of Subtitle E?
a) Application of Federal laws
b) Federal analysis
c) Cooperation with EPA
d) Technology promotion

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Subtitle E is the department of commerce responsibilities. It mainly focus on development of specifications for secondary, recovered materials and technology promotion.

9. ______ concentrates on R&D.
a) Subtitle H
b) Subtitle I
c) Subtitle J
d) Subtitle K

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The main aim of Subtitle H is research, demonstrations, data collection and dissemination of information of hazardous waste.

10. The operation of USTs project became subject to RCRA under ___
a) HSAWA
b) HSWA
c) HAWL
d) HARS

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The act of underground storage tanks project became subject to RCRA under Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA).

11. Medical waste is regulated by RCRA _____ for hazardous wastes.
a) Subtitle A
b) Subtitle B
c) Subtitle C
d) Subtitle D

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] If the expired medical waste is determined as hazardous, it is regulated by RCRA Subtitle C for hazardous wastes.

12. According to RCRA all hazardous waste must obtain _____
a) Identification number
b) Import details
c) Export details
d) Analysis

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] All hazardous waste must obtain an identification number and should be accompanied by a manifest which tracks record of the waste.

13. Under RCRA, hazardous waste can be stored for _____
a) 80
b) 90
c) 100
d) 110

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] If hazardous waste is packed and handled safely, it can be stored for a period of 90 days.

Set 5

1. A waste that is unstable and undergoes rapid changes is a character of _____
a) Ignitable
b) Corrosive
c) Toxic
d) Reactive

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The waste which is normally unstable and undergoes chemical changes rapidly without detonating is said to have reactive character.

2. The waste character responsible for vigorous reaction is ____
a) Ignitable
b) Corrosive
c) Toxic
d) Reactivity

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The reactive characters leads hazardous waste to react violently with water and forms explosive mixtures with water.

3. Zinc waste exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5 can generate toxic gases. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Cyanide or sulphide bearing waste, exposed to pH conditions between 2 and 12.5 generates toxic gases or fumes which has negative effect on human health and environment.

4. If a hazardous material has ____ character, it detonates when heated.
a) Ignitable
b) Corrosive
c) Toxic
d) Reactive

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] If a hazardous material has reactive character it is capable of detonation or explosive reaction if it is subjected to heating.

5. A forbidden explosive is reactive. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A forbidden explosive which reacts vigorously under standard temperature and pressure and which may detonate is called reactive.

6. The main identification of reactive waste is ____
a) Temperature
b) Pressure
c) Instability
d) Volume

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Identifying character of reactive waste is instability, which the waste possess and is explosive at any stage if managed improperly.

7. Which of the following is an example for reactive waste character?
a) Steel smelting
b) Iron manufacturing
c) TNT operations
d) Zinc smelting

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] TNT operations use cyanide for most of the process and cyanide is highly reactive.

8. Toxic gases are produced if the waste holds _____ character.
a) Ignitable
b) Corrosive
c) Toxic
d) Reactive

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] For a waste to be called reactive, it has to produce toxic fumes or gases when in contact with water or certain liquid.

9. Hazardous waste number of material that is not considered reactive is ____
a) D001
b) D000
c) D002
d) D003

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A waste that exhibits corrosivity character but is not listed as hazardous waste in sub-part B of EPA has a number D003.