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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The different ways a person can come into contact with hazardous chemicals are called _______
a) Exposure pathways
b) Toxic pathways
c) Chemical pathways
d) Hazard pathways

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] There are three basic exposure pathways which are inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Inhalation is breathing or inhaling into the lungs. Ingestion is taking something in by mouth. Skin contact occurs when something comes in direct contact with skin.

2. Ingestion can be called secondary exposure pathway after skin contact happens. True or false
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Ingestion can be a secondary exposure pathway after skin contact happens only if the exposed person put his hands in his mouth and transfer the chemical from his hands to his mouth.

3. Minamata, Japan hazard outbreak had _____ effect on the population.
a) Direct
b) Acute
c) Minimal
d) Chronic

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Hazard outbreak in Minamata, Japan in 1956 caused due to consumption of Methylmercury in fish. It lead to neurological disease which is popularly known as Minamata disease.

4. Exposure to ______ caused environmental hazard in USA in the year 1985.
a) Methylisocyanate
b) Lead in paint
c) Carbamate pesticide
d) Lead

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Consumption of watermelons which had been sprayed with carbamate pesticide in California, in the year 1985 lead to environmental outbreak. It effected gastrointestinal, skeletal, muscle, autonomic and central nervous system.

5. Which of the following chemical is responsible for London smog episode?
a) Sulphur dioxide
b) Sulphur
c) Sulphur trioxide
d) Sulphur oxide

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Severe air-pollution with sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter (SPM) caused London smog episode in 1952. Increase in heart and lung disease manifestations was reported.

6. Environmental disease outbreak in Toyama, Japan was due to ____
a) Lead
b) Cadmium
c) Mercury
d) Zinc

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Cadmium in rice caused kidney and bone disease to wide population in Toyama, Japan in 1950s.

7. Which of the following chemical is responsible for acute lung disease from Bhopal gas tragedy?
a) Methylisocyanate
b) Methylisocyanade
c) Methyl
d) Methylcyanate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Bhopal gas tragedy was an industrial accident which happened at a pesticide plant in the city of Bhopal, India. In 1984, the plant released tonnes of toxic methylisocyanate (MIC) gas, exposing wide range of population to toxic gases.

8. Heavy metals like Arsenic, Cadmium and Cyanide effects ______
a) Immune system
b) Nervous system
c) Skin
d) Respiratory system

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Arsenic from pressure treated wood, cadmium from discarded batteries, carbon monoxide from car exhaust, and cyanide from rat poison causes effect on nervous system.

9. Acute effects may take years to show up. True of False
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Acute effects show up immediately or soon after exposure to the chemical. It may be minor, like nose or throat irritation, or could be serious, like eye damage whereas chronic (long-term) effects may take years to show up and these effects are permanent.

10. What is chronic toxicity?
a) Effects due to long term exposure
b) Effects due to short term exposure
c) Effects due to exposure
d) Benefits due to exposure

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hazardous substances produce toxic effects in humans or the environment after prolonged exposure to the substance, which is called chronic toxicity.

11. What is acute toxicity?
a) Effects due to long term exposure
b) Effects due to short term exposure
c) Effects due to exposure
d) Benefits due to exposure

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Some hazardous substances produce toxic effects in humans or the environment after a single, episodic release. These toxic effects are referred to as the acute toxicity.

Set 2

1. Rate of evaporation of a liquid waste is measured by _____
a) Vapour pressure
b) Pressure
c) Temperature
d) Heat

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Rate of evaporation of a liquid waste is measured by vapour pressure which is a measurement of volatility of liquid.

2. Liquids with high vapour pressure evaporates slowly. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Liquids with high vapour pressure evaporates readily while those with low vapour pressure evaporates slowly.

3. _____separation techniques are used before evaporation process.
a) Physical
b) Chemical
c) Biological
d) Biochemical

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Physical separation techniques are used before evaporation process since it reduces solids formation and maintains high heat transfer efficiencies.

4. The residues produced from evaporation treatment is ____
a) Less
b) More
c) Undetermined
d) No residue

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Evaporation produces concentrated liquor with less residues and the volume of water that must be treated or disposed is reduced.

5. Evaporation of liquids from hazardous waste through multiple evaporator, distillation etc. is dependent on ____
a) Melting point
b) Freezing point
c) Boiling point
d) Vapour pressure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Evaporation of liquids from hazardous waste through single, multiple evaporator, distillation, air stripping evaporators use steel tubes to heat liquid waste to boiling point.

6. Steel tubes used in multiple effect evaporator are placed on surface. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Steel tubes used in multiple effect evaporator are submerged in liquid to maximise heat transfer and promote efficient evaporation.

7. Evaporator must have sufficient disc engaging space to achieve ______
a) Separation
b) Chemicals
c) Boiling
d) Pressure

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Evaporator must have sufficient disc engaging space to achieve separation between the distillate and liquid blown solution.

8. Which of the following waste is not applicable for evaporation?
a) Calcium
b) Iron
c) Copper
d) Methylene chloride

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Wastes containing organic constituents, such as methylene chloride, solvents, oils, petroleum products etc. are not suitable for use in evaporation system.

9. _____wastes can be treated in evaporator.
a) Aqueous inorganic
b) Organic
c) Aqueous organic
d) Dry

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Only aqueous inorganic wastes can be treated in an evaporator such as caustics, rinse waters, metal sludge, and water-based machining coolants.

10. Evaporation units may be operated without obtaining a permit if ____
a) Chemicals are used
b) Resins are associated
c) Unit is enclosed
d) Waste is reused

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Evaporation units may be operated without obtaining a permit if evaporation unit meets the definition of a totally enclosed treatment system in 40 CFR 260.10.

Set 3

1. According to EPA hazardous mixed waste is regulated under ______
a) SARA
b) CERCLA
c) RCRA
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Mixed wastes are hazardous waste that contain radioactive materials, according to EPA HW in mixed waste is regulated under RCRA and Atomic Energy Act.

2. The radiological constituent of the mixed waste is regulated by _____
a) SARA
b) CERCLA
c) RCRA
d) DOE

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The radiological constituent present in the mixed waste is regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

3. As per UNEPA in 1985, waste is considered hazardous if it _____
a) Poses threat to human and environment
b) Specific source
c) Non-specific
d) Substance not under regulation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] As per UNEPA in 1985, waste is considered hazardous if by means of chemical activity or toxicity, explosive or other characters causes danger to health or environment.

4. Radioactive waste is considered hazardous as per UNEPA 1985. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] As per UNEPA in 1985, hazardous waste can be liquid, solid, contaminated gases but other than infectious and radioactive waste.

5. As per USEPA, waste is considered hazardous if it is ____
a) Poses threat to human and environment
b) Specific source
c) Liquid
d) Infectious

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] As per USEPA, waste exhibiting characters of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, toxicity and specific, non-specific source waste and commercial waste is considered hazardous.

6. Chemical waste from manufacturing process is an example of _____ source.
a) Manufacturing
b) SQG
c) Household
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Manufacturing source waste includes chemical from manufacturing industries and other manufactures which use chemical as raw materials.

7. Waste from research laboratories is an example for ____
a) Manufacturing
b) SQG
c) Household
d) NPL

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Small Quantity Generators include waste from service industries, dry cleaners, automobile maintain shop, service station, discarded lead acid batteries, spent solvents, research laboratories and educational institutions.

8. The quantity of waste generated by SQG is less than _____ kg/month.
a) 100
b) 1000
c) 200
d) 2000

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The quantity of waste generated by SQG is less than 1000 kg/month. The waste quantity is small but mismanagement has more harmful effect.

9. Waste from covering boots for durability is an example of SQG. True or False.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Covering boots for durability generates cyanide, solvents, concentrated acid and dyes is example for manufacturing waste.

Set 4

1. What does the term “exposure” to chemical pollutants from hazardous waste management
processes indicate?
a) contact with chemical substances that can potentially cause adverse health effects
b) contamination level
c) spatial distribution of contaminant
d) affected biota

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Exposure to a chemical pollutant indicates the contact with toxin that has the potential to cause health effects, which are modulated by the toxicity of substances, the susceptibility of exposed individuals, and the extent and exposure pattern.

2. The severity of toxic exposure on an individual depends on ________
a) Age and health
b) Genetics
c) Dose and susceptibility
d) Diet

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Dose represents the major determinant of the extent of toxic action and susceptibility of an individual is function of age, genetics, health and exposures to other agents.

3. What is the main objective of exposure assessment?
a) To estimate chemical concentrations
b) To estimate exposure of chemicals by the population at risk
c) To study site history
d) Chemical assessment

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Major objective of exposure assessment is to estimate the risk caused by the exposure of a chemical contaminant to an individual and ecosystem.

4. What is the first step evaluation in exposure assessment?
a) Models based on generic scenarios and conservative assumptions
b) On-site waste handling techniques
c) Study of pathways
d) Chemical analysis

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In a first step evaluation, models based on generic scenarios and conservative assumptions can be used to perform a preliminary indirect exposure assessment.

5. What is the second stage of quantitative risk assessment?
a) Hazard identification
b) Exposure assessment
c) Toxicity assessment
d) Risk characterisation

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Exposure assessment deals with the study of exposure of chemicals to population which may pose a threat.

6. Exposure assessment follows hazard characterization. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] To know the rate of exposure on a population a hazard have to be characterized.

7. Exposure is a state in which a person can potentially be influenced by a
force or situation but not necessarily affected. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Vulnerability is the state where a person can be influenced by situation but not necessarily affected. Exposure indicates contact with contaminant.

8. Estimation of short-term and long term exposure are usually in terms of ________
a) Doses by exposure rate
b) Susceptibility
c) Population
d) Genetics

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The period of exposure is estimated in terms of doses by calculating the rate of exposure along with exposure pathways.

9. Which of the following risk assessment tool is used for the determination of spatial distribution of contaminants at the site?
a) Hazard identification
b) Exposure assessment
c) Toxicity assessment
d) Risk characterisation

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The first step of exposure assessment is the determination of the sources and the possible pathways.

10. Why does the environmental pathways of chemicals has to be found in exposure assessment?
a) To predict the source of discharge
b) To estimate chemicals
c) Chemical analysis
d) To determine affected biota

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] By determining the environmental pathway of chemicals, the probable source of discharge could be found and severity of the exposure can be minimized.

Set 5

1. Which of the following is not a modelling approach for prediction of exposure in ecological risk assessment?
a) Static representation of the environment
b) Chemical discharge
c) Simplified dynamic approach
d) Site history

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Evaluating organism exposure in ecosystems is a difficult and can be carried out measuring or predicting concentrations in the environment. Current regulatory approaches favour modelling approach, they either use a static representation of the environment and of the chemical discharge or a simplified dynamic approach.

2. Exposure prediction depends upon _______ of exposure.
a) Frequency and intensity
b) Data collection
c) Genetics
d) Agents

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Measurement or estimation of the exposure depends upon the intensity, frequency, and duration of human exposures to agents.

3. Exposure prediction is difficult and complex. True of False
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The dimensions of the dose-response relationship usually prove particularly troublesome, primarily because estimates of dose are poor in most collections of epidemiological evidence. Even the quantification of exposure can be difficult.

4. ______ represents a contact between a chemical agent and an object.
a) Dose
b) Response
c) Exposure
d) Concentration

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Exposure represents a contact between a chemical agent and an object which can lead to acute and chronic diseases depending on the rate of exposure.

5. What do the below hazard pictograph stands for?
hazardous-waste-management-questions-answers-exposure-prediction-q5
a) Skin sensitizer
b) Flammable
c) Explosive
d) Dangerous

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) require pictographs on labels to alert users of the chemical hazards to which they may be exposed. Explanation marks stands for irritant (skin and eye), skin sensitizer, acute toxicity (harmful), narcotic effects, respiratory tract irritant, hazardous to Ozone layer.

6. What does the below hazard pictograph represent?
hazardous-waste-management-questions-answers-exposure-prediction-q6
a) Toxicity
b) Acute toxicity
c) Oxidisers
d) Chronic toxicity

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Flame over circle symbol on a chemical label means that the substance is an oxidizer. Oxidizers may cause a fire by increasing the concentration of oxygen in the air.

7. What do the below hazard pictograph indicate?
hazardous-waste-management-questions-answers-exposure-prediction-q7
a) Explosives
b) Flammable
c) Toxic
d) Dangerous

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Indicates explosives with very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard and the asterisk is replaced by the compatibility code.

8. Which of the following is not a function of hazard pictogram?
a) Identification of the product
b) Analysis
c) Danger or warning
d) Hazard statements

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Precautionary statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with an identification of the product, a signal word – either danger or warning hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product and the identity of the supplier.

9. ________ identifies and quantifies pathway of exposure.
a) Exposure assessment
b) Risk assessment
c) Toxicity assessment
d) Risk assessment

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Exposure assessment includes three steps which are characterization of the exposure setting (e.g., point source), identification of exposure pathways (e.g., groundwater) and quantification of the exposure (e.g., microgram/L water).

10. Exposure effect is more in adults than that of children. True or False
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sensitivity rate is more in infants, elderly, pregnant women, and those with chronic illness.

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