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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following is the most important variable in the construction of soil liners?
a) Type of compaction
b) Permeability
c) Flammability
d) Ignitability

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Soil water content, type of compaction, compactive effort, size of soil clods are important variables in the construction of soil liners.

2. Excavation of soil in a location for liner is known as ____ pit.
a) Dig
b) Borrow
c) Barrow
d) Excavated

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Excavation of soil in a location for liner is known as borrow pit and excavated soil is referred to as borrow soil.

3. Bentonite is mixed when there is not enough clay available at a site to construct a soil liner. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Bentonite is mixed when there is not enough clay available for liner, dry bentonite is mixed with the soil first, and water is added only after the mixing process is complete.

4. Which among the following is used as clay material for clay liner?
a) Kaolinite
b) Lead
c) Sulphur
d) Bromide

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Clay materials consists of varying proportions of hydrated aluminum silicates such as kaolinite, bentonite and montmorillonite.

5. What is the design permeability of the clay liner?
a) 10-8
b) 10-9
c) 10-10
d) 10-11

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The design permeability of the clay liner is 10-8 metre per second (m/s) and to avoid cracking of clay +4% wet of optimum moisture content is maintained.

6. PVC liners are suitable for landfills. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liners are generally suitable for the landfill since they are flexible.

7. Drainage pipes of leachate collection system is filled with ____
a) Gravel
b) Dust
c) Clay
d) Grass

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The leachate collection system comprises a network of drainage pipes and is covered with a sand/gravel drainage layer.

8. What should be the slope percent between primary and secondary liners?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] 2% slope should be provided between primary and secondary liners with a slotting area of 100 cm2 per running meter of the pipe.

9. What is the formula for quantification of leachate generation from landfill?
a) I = P – P (CR/O) – AET +/- S
b) P = I – P (CR/O) – AET +/- S
c) I = S – P (CR/O) – AET +/- P
d) I = P – S (CR/O) – AET +/- Y

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] I = P – P (CR/O) – AET +/- S where, I is Rate of Infiltration, P is Precipitation, CR/O is Coefficient of Runoff, AET is Actual Evapo-transpiration, S is Soil Moisture Content Retention Capacity.

10. The lateral leachate collection pipes shall slope towards ____ pipe.
a) Sump
b) Drain
c) Main
d) Longitude

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The lateral leachate collection pipes shall slope towards the main collection pipe and the main pipe shall slope towards the sump.

Set 2

1. According to the graph, greater the dose more _____ the response.
hazardous-waste-management-questions-and-answers-dose-response-relationship-q1
a) Severe
b) Less
c) Neutral
d) Adverse

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Greater the dose, the more severe the response is i.e. greater the number of chemical-receptor complex, the more severe response.

2. In the graph, mortality rate is less to certain point because of ______
hazardous-waste-management-questions-and-answers-dose-response-relationship-q2
a) Carcinogens
b) Susceptibility
c) Toxins
d) Mutagens

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The toxic effects depends on dose and susceptibility of the exposed individual.

3. Lethal dose concentration according to the curve is _____
hazardous-waste-management-questions-and-answers-dose-response-relationship-q3
a) 10
b) 50
c) 100
d) 1000

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Peak dose is observed to be 50 and the mortality frequency is more in the concentrated dose.

4. According to the graph, low death is observed at low concentration. True or False.
hazardous-waste-management-questions-and-answers-dose-response-relationship-q4
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The exposed population will experience no deaths at low dose, few deaths as dose increases and more death at higher dose.

5. What is the first step in development of dose-response relationship curve?
a) Toxicological end point
b) End point
c) Start point
d) Intermediate point

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The first step in development of dose-response relationship curve is selecting toxicological end point which is caused by exposure to selected chemical.

6. The toxicological end point for dose-response relationship should be ______
a) Definitive
b) Vague
c) Irrational
d) Less

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The toxicological end point for dose-response relationship should be clear, definitive and directly measurable such as death.

7. Doses are expressed on a _____ basis.
a) Accuracy
b) Precision
c) Body-weight
d) End point

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Reporting on a body size basis allows extrapolation from small test animals to humans.

8. The susceptibility of an individual is a function of ____
a) Age
b) Toxin
c) Carcinogens
d) Mutagens

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The susceptibility of an individual is a function of age, diet, health, status, genetics and exposure to agents.

9. Major application of dose-response curve is to obtain ______
a) Toxin
b) Carcinogens
c) Mutagens
d) Threshold

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Major application of dose-response curve is to obtain threshold level and the relative toxicity of chemicals.

10. The highest dose that has no harmful effect on a population is known as ___
a) NOAEL
b) NOEL
c) NOAL
d) NOPA

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] NOEL is the No observed effect level, which is the highest tested dose of a substance that has reported to have no adverse effect on a population.

11. Which of the following dose is NOAEL according to the curve?
hazardous-waste-management-questions-and-answers-dose-response-relationship-q11
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The dose 15 mg is considered as no observed adverse effect level on a population. The curve peaks after 17mg, where the effect on a population is observed.

12. Which of the following dose is LOAEL according to the curve?
hazardous-waste-management-questions-and-answers-dose-response-relationship-q12
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] At dose 20mg, it is observed that the threshold dose has lowest observed adverse effect level.

Set 3

1. Eco-toxicology is the study of _____
a) Chemical interactions of organism and environment.
b) Physical interactions of organism and environment.
c) Thermal interactions of organism and environment.
d) Biological interactions of organism and environment.

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Eco-toxicology deals with how chemicals interact with organisms as well as the environment and their impacts.

2. Hazard estimation in ecotoxicology is done based on ____
a) Accumulation
b) Bio-accumulation
c) SARA
d) HWL

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Hazard estimation and estimation in ecotoxicology is done based on the concentration of bio-accumulation of a chemical in food chain.

3. Eco-toxicology is based on ______ of chemicals.
a) Chemical
b) Physical
c) Toxicological
d) Biological

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Eco-toxicology is based on toxicological characteristics of chemicals and their susceptibility in the environment.

4. Acute aquatic toxicity is measured in ____
a) EC
b) AS
c) PS
d) CB

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Acute aquatic toxicity is measured with respect to the concentration of effected organism i.e. EC50 or survive treatment LD50.

5. Chronic toxicity is based on ____
a) NOEC
b) AOEC
c) SOEC
d) QEOC

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Chronic toxicity is based on no observed effect concentration (NOEC) or lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of an event.

6. According to TURI which tool is used for determining aquatic toxicity?
a) P2SD
b) P3SFD
c) P2OASys
d) P20FR

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) framework suggests Pollution Prevention Options Assessment System (P2OASys) tool for aquatic toxicity.

7. Toxicity ranking from ToxPi is based on _____
a) Suborganismal tests
b) Organismal test
c) P2SO
d) EC100

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Toxicity ranking from ToxPi is based on suborganismal tests for which the data have been collected for each chemical under consideration.

8. ______models provide ecotoxicity endpoint.
a) QASR
b) QSAR
c) QAWS
d) QSEA

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships models estimates various ecotoxicity end points on the basis of chemical structure.

9. ______species is used as screening of chemicals.
a) Eisinia foetida
b) Folsomia candida
c) Enchytraeus albidus
d) Zebrafish

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The zebrafish which is known as Danio rerio is used in high throughput screening for chemicals.

Set 4

1. What is the hazardous pollutant released from resistors?
a) Arsenic
b) Barium
c) Cobalt
d) Silver

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Capacitors, switches (contacts), batteries, resistors contains silver and is released to environment in case of improper handling.

2. What is the hazardous pollutant released from luminous substances?
a) Arsenic
b) Barium
c) Zinc
d) Silver

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Steel, brass, alloys, disposable and rechargeable batteries, and luminous substances contains zinc and is released to environment in case of improper handling.

3. Which of the following metal affects mental development in children?
a) Lead
b) Barium
c) Zinc
d) Silver

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Lead has a neurotoxin that affects the kidneys and the reproductive system. It affects mental development in children. Mechanical breaking of CRT (cathode ray tubes) and removing solder from microchips release lead as powder and fumes.

4. Which of the following give out carcinogenic brominated dioxins and furans?
a) Lead
b) Barium
c) Zinc
d) Plastic

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] BFRs or brominated flame retardants give out carcinogenic brominated dioxins and furans. Dioxins can harm reproductive and immune systems. Burning PVC a component of plastics, also produces dioxins.

5. Which of the following metal causes bronchial maladies?
a) Lead
b) Barium
c) Chromium
d) Plastic

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Inhaling hexavalent chromium or chromium 6 can damage liver and kidneys and cause bronchial maladies including asthmatic bronchitis and lung cancer.

6. Which of the following metal impairs foetus growth?
a) Lead
b) Barium
c) Chromium
d) Mercury

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Mercury affects the central nervous system, kidneys and immune system. It impairs foetus growth and harms infants through mother’s milk.

7. Which of the following causes lung disease?
a) Lead
b) Barium
c) Chromium
d) Beryllium

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Beryllium is found in switch boards and printed circuit boards. It is carcinogenic and causes lung diseases.

8. Long term exposure to which of the following metal causes Itai-itai disease?
a) Lead
b) Barium
c) Cadmium
d) Beryllium

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Long-term exposure of cadmium causes Itai-itai disease, which causes severe pain in the joints and spine and affects the kidneys and softens bones.

9. Which of the following health impact is observed by dumping cathode tubes?
a) Silicosis
b) Lung disease
c) Kidney inflammation
d) Throat infection

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Breaking, removal of copper yoke and dumping Cathode ray tubes causes silicosis, cuts from CRT glass and respiratory problems.

10. Open burning to recover copper wires causes ____
a) Silicosis
b) Lung disease
c) Kidney inflammation
d) PAH exposure

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Open burning to recover copper wires causes brominated and chlorinated dioxin and PAH exposure to workers living in the burning works area.

Set 5

1. Energy can be recovered from all types of wastes. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] To enable energy recovery, the waste must have sufficient heating value to reach appropriate combustion temperatures without need for additional fuel.

2. Energy recovery is typically via production of ____
a) Gas
b) Heat
c) Light
d) Steam

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Energy recovery is typically via production of steam which is driven through a turbine to produce electricity.

3. What is the maximum percent of energy recovered if the steam is condensed before reintroduced to system?
a) 25
b) 35
c) 45
d) 55

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The maximum percent of energy recovered if the steam is condensed before reintroduced to system is 35, because of condensing losses.

4. Energy recovery percentage depends on the type of waste. True or False.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Energy recovery percentage will not depend on waste or method of combustion but on opportunities to sell low grade heat as well as energy.

5. Which of the following industrial process uses waste as a fuel?
a) Cement kilns
b) Lead manufacturing
c) Acid manufacturing
d) Sulphur manufacturing

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heat and power plants, glass furnaces, steel manufacturing, lime and cement kilns uses wastes as a fuel or as a constituent part of the product.

6. What is the combustion temperature range in cement kiln incineration?
a) 1300-1600
b) 1350-1650
c) 1250-1450
d) 1235-1600

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The combustion temperature range in cement kiln incineration is 1350-1650 degree Celsius with long phase residence time up to 10 seconds.

7. Non-volatile heavy metals in kiln are fixed into ____
a) Clinker’s crystalline structure
b) Fumes
c) Solid lump
d) Slag

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The alkaline environment in the kiln absorbs and neutralizes acid gases and metals, non-volatile heavy metals in kiln are fixed into clinker’s crystalline structure.

8. Which of the following waste types are not suitable for co-combustion in cement kilns?
a) Chlorine
b) Hydrogen
c) Calcium
d) Carbonate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Highly contaminated wastes, wastes with high water, chlorine, heavy metals or sulphur content waste types are not suitable for co-combustion in cement kilns.