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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. What is the application of any effective method or substance to a clean surface for destruction of pathogen is called?
a) Pasteurization
b) High Temperature Treatment
c) Sanitization
d) Cleaning

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] When items are “sanitized” it means that those surfaces have a reduction of pathogens. Sanitization is Destruction of most microorganisms (whether or not pathogenic) on wounds, clothing, or hard surfaces, through the use of chemicals or heat.

2. In what from Formaldehyde- preservatives used in milk exists?
a) Gas
b) Liquid
c) Solid
d) Semi-Solid

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In personal care products, formaldehyde can be added directly, or more often, it can be released from preservatives. In Milk formaldehyde preservative exists as a gas.

3. Mammary glands complete unit of milk synthesis of is called _________
a) lumen
b) micelles
c) alveolus
d) secretary cells

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A mammary alveolus is a small cavity or sac found in the mammary gland. Mammary alveoli are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland.

4. Fatty acids synthesized in mammary gland are?
a) Higher chain fatty acids
b) Unsaturated fatty acids
c) Lower chain fatty acids
d) Medium and lower chain fatty acids

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Synthesis of lower chain fatty acids in the mammary gland occurs by de novo synthesis. De novo synthesis of fatty acids occurs in the cytoplasm of the mammary epithelial cell.

5 Most variable constituent of milk is?
a) proteins
b) fat
c) lactose
d) minerals

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pelleted, finely ground, or very high concentrate rations may drastically reduce milk fat content, often without a compensatory increase in other components or yield. Characteristic changes in rumen fatty acid concentrations are associated with these milk composition changes.

6. Which of the following has largest particle size in milk?
a) lactose
b) casein micelles
c) fat globule
d) minerals

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] More than 95% of the total milk lipid is in the form of globules ranging in size from0.1 to 15 µm in diameter, with milk fat having size ranging from 1 – 10 µm, depending on cow breed and season.

7. Lactose has water solubility of __________
a) 100%
b) 50%
c) 18%
d) 25%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Lactose is a disaccharide sugar composed of galactose and glucose that is found in milk. Solubility in water is 19.5 g/100 mL.

8. Which enzyme is tested for cream pasteurization?
a) Plasmin
b) Phosphatas
c) Catalase
d) Peroxidase

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Another enzyme, peroxidase is used for checking the pasteurization results for cream. The test must be negative in samples of cream that is properly pasteurized and there should be no detectable peroxidase activity in the product.

9. Which of the following is used for milk storage in dairy farms?
a) Utensils
b) Milk is not stored
c) Silos
d) Machines

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Milk storage tanks and silos are one of the key equipment in the dairy industry. They are used to store milk on dairy farms.

10. The _____________ level indicator measures the static pressure represented by the head of liquid in the tank.
a) Pneumatic
b) Magnetic
c) Float
d) Boat

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The pneumatic level indicator measures the static pressure represented by the head of liquid in the tank. Greater the pressure; higher the level in the tank.

11. Which of the equipment is used for chilling of milk in dairy?
a) Refrigerator
b) Freezer
c) Dry ice
d) Plate heat exchanger

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Normally a temperature increase to slightly above + 4 °C is unavoidable during transportation. The milk is therefore usually cooled to below + 4 °C in a plate heat exchanger before being stored in a silo tank to await processing.

12. What is the recommended temperature for storage of milk?
a) 8℃
b) 9℃
c) 4℃
d) 5℃

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] By law, Grade A milk must be maintained at a temperature of 4 °C or below. Bacteria in milk will grow minimally below 4.5 °C. However, temperatures well below 4°C are necessary to protect the milk’s quality. It is critical that these temperatures be maintained through warehousing, distribution, delivery and storage.

13. What is the recommended temperature for storage of Paneer?
a) 8℃
b) 9℃
c) 4℃
d) 5℃

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Paneer is also known as Indian cottage cheese. It is rich in protein. Recommended storage temperature of paneer is 8℃.

14. What is the reason for presence of agitator in milk silo?
a) Prevent Cream separation from gravity
b) Prevent spoilage
c) Prevent leakage
d) Prevent off-taste

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] These large tanks must have some form of agitation arrangement to prevent cream separation by gravity. The agitation must be very smooth. Too violent agitation causes aeration of the milk and fat globule disintegration.

15. Which of the following electrode/s are used in the silo?
a) High Level Electrode
b) Low Level Electrode
c) High Level Electrode and Low Level Electrode
d) Medium Level Electrode

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An electrode is often fitted in the tank wall at the level required for starting the agitator. The agitator stops if the level in the tank drops below the electrode. This electrode is known as the low-level indicator (LL). A high-level electrode (HL) is fitted at the top of the tank to prevent overfilling.

Set 2

1. Maximum size of silo used in dairy is?
a) 150000 litres
b) 100000 litres
c) 10000 litres
d) 100 litres

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Tanks in a dairy are used for a number of purposes. The sizes range from 150000 litres for the silo tanks in the reception department down.

2. Minimum size of silo used in dairy is?
a) 150000 litres
b) 100000 litres
c) 10000 litres
d) 100 litres

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The sizes range from 150000 litres for the silo tanks in the maximum category down to approximately 100 litres for the smallest tanks.

3. Main category of silos is?
a) Storage tank
b) Process tank
c) Storage and process
d) Steel tank

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Tanks can generally be divided into two main categories according to function as storage tanks and process tanks.

4. Tank used for “collection and reception of milk” is called ______
a) Storage tank
b) Process tank
c) Mixing tank
d) Balance tank

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Silo tanks for milk reception belong to the storage category and have been described under “Collection and reception of milk”.

5. Storage tank inner shell is made of which of the following material?
a) Copper
b) Steel
c) Stainless steel
d) Aluminum

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] They vary in size from 25 000 to about 150 000 litres and the wetted surfaces are of stainless steel. They are often placed outdoors to save on building costs. In these cases the tanks are insulated.

6. Storage tank are double shelled. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Storage shell has a double shell with minimum of 70 mm mineral-wool insulation in between. The outer shell can be of stainless steel, but for economic reasons it is usually made of mild steel and coated with anti-corrosion paint.

7. The number and size of silo tanks depend on which of the following?
I) Milk intake per day
II) Number of days per working week
III) Number of hours per working week
IV) Types of product manufactured
a) I) and II)
b) II) and III)
c) III) and IV)
d) I), II), III) and IV)

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The number and size of the silo tanks are determined by such factors as the milk intake per day, the number of days per working week, the number of hours per working day (1, 2 or 3 shifts), the number of different products to be manufactured and the quantities involved.

8. Which of the following tank are used to create buffer storage?
a) Process tank
b) Intermediate storage tank
c) Mixing tank
d) Balance tank

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Intermediate storage tanks are used to store a product for a short time before it continues along the line. These tanks are used for buffer storage, to level out variations in flow. After heat treatment and cooling, the milk is pumped to a buffer tank, and from there to filling.

9. Intermediate storage tank can be used during process halt. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Storage tank, if filling is interrupted, the processed milk is buffered in the tank until operation can be resumed. Similarly, milk from this tank can be used during a temporary processing stoppage.

10. Tank used for mixing an ice cream formulation is?
a) Process tank
b) Mixing tank
c) Balance tank
d) Storage tank

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Mixing tank, as the name implies, these tanks are used for mixing different products and for the admixture of ingredients to the product. The tanks may be of the insulated type or have a single stainless steel shell.

11. What is the use of agitator in tanks?
a) To mix
b) To heat
c) To cleanse
d) To impart flavor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] An agitator is a device or mechanism used to put something into motion by shaking or stirring. There are several types of agitation machines, including washing machine agitators and magnetic agitator .Agitators can come in many sizes and varieties, depending on the application.

12. Role of insulation in tank is?
a) Maintain temperature due to weather fluctuation
b) Chilling
c) Freezing
d) Heating

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Insulation may refer to as thermal insulation, materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer. Hence insulation in silo tank helps to maintain temperature fluctuation due to weather changes.

13. Ripening tanks of butter cream come under which of the following categories?
a) Process tank
b) Mixing tank
c) Balance tank
d) Storage tank

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In process tanks, the product is treated for the purpose of changing its properties. They are widely used in dairies, e.g. ripening tanks for butter cream and for cultured products such as yoghurt, crystallization tanks for whipping cream.

14. Tank which aid in keeping product at same level is called _______
a) Process tank
b) Mixing tank
c) Balance tank
d) Storage tank

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The balance tank keeps the product at a constant level above the pump inlet. In other words, the head on the suction side is kept constant.

15. Process tank has a scraper which aid in which kind of products?
a) Viscous
b) Dry
c) Powder
d) Milk

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Scraper is a tool or device used for scraping matter from a surface. Also Scraper in process tank is used to mix viscous products.

Set 3

1. What role does fiber have in the calf starter ration?
a) digestion
b) metabolism
c) respiration
d) heat tolerance

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Fiber is important part of calf diet. It helps in digestion in body.

2. What is a sign that a heifer is coming into heat?
a) Attempt to go under leaves
b) Calm
c) Itchy
d) Attempts to mount other animals

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Heifer when comes under heat shows certain symptoms. One of the most common symptoms is that they attempt to mount other animals.

3. What is the organ that produces cow’s milk called?
a) limb
b) rumen
c) calf
d) udder

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Udder produces milk. It is one of the most important parts of cow’s body.

4. Oral reasons should not be longer than how many minutes?
a) 4
b) 2
c) 3
d) 5

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Oral reasons should be maximum 2 minutes. Anything longer than that can prove harmful.

5. At what age should a heifer have her first calf?
a) 12 months
b) 8 months
c) 24 months
d) 9 months

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Heifer is expected to have its first calf at 2 years. Heifer is a cow.

6. Urea should not be fed to a calf until it is how old?
a) 3-4 months
b) 2 months
c) 1 months
d) 10days

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Urea is a diet supplement. It shouldn’t be provided to the calf until it is 3-4 months old.

7. How will a heifer act when she is in standing heat?
a) still and permit other animals to mount her
b) agitated
c) rolling
d) lay down

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heifer shows certain distinct symptoms when exposed to heat. It usually stands still and permits other animals to mount her.

8. What is considered nature’s most perfect food?
a) butter
b) milk
c) yogurt
d) wheat

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Milk is nature’s perfect food. It has all the essential nutrients needed by the human body for growth and development.

9. Name a defect when judging a class of dairy cows which is a disqualification?
a) Wetness
b) Black
c) Mastitis
d) Blindness

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] There are several defects on which the cow could be disqualified. In the options above Blindness is the defect which leads to disqualification.

10. How much should a Holstein or Brown Swiss heifer weigh at 2 years of age?
a) 200 pounds
b) 1000- 1100 pounds
c) 500 pounds
d) 600 pounds

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Holstein and Brown Swiss should adhere to certain weight requirements according to their age. They should weigh around 1000-1100 pounds as they turn 2 years old.

11. Each protein is made up of several nitrogen compounds. What are they called?
a) urea
b) benzene
c) coal
d) amino acid

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. They make up the protein structure.

12. How often do most heifers and cows come into heat?
a) every 18- 24 days
b) every 15 days
c) every 4 days
d) everyday

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Heifers come to heat every 18-24 days. They tend to let other animals mount them during this time.

13. What is the average percent protein in cow’s milk?
a) 2.5%
b) 3.5%
c) 5%
d) 6%

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Cow’s milk is rich in protein. It has around 3.5% of protein in it.

14. Name the body parts considered when evaluating dairy character?
a) legs
b) calf
c) udder
d) neck

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] There are several body parts which are taken into account when evaluating dairy character. In the above option neck is one part.

15. What do the letters DHIA stand for?
a) Dairy Herd Improvement Association
b) Diet herd improvement Association
c) Diet herb improvement association
d) Dairy herb improvement Association

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] DHIA stands for Dairy Herd Improvement Association. It helps in grading and scoring a cow for improvement.

Set 4

1. People with high blood pressure or edema are advised to take which of the following?
a) Multivitamin Mineral Milk
b) Low Sodium Milk
c) Sterile Milk
d) Low Lactose Milk

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] People with high blood pressure should refrain from high sodium content food) they are advised to consume low sodium milk.

2. Evaporated milk is concentrated to approximately what times the solid of normal whole milk?
a) 2.25 times
b) 6.25 times
c) 7 times
d) 8.5 times

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In process of preparation of Evaporated milk it is concentrated) The concentration should be 2.25 times the solid of normal whole milk.

3. 10-15 % more milk is produced with which growth hormones, if injected to lactating cows?
a) Auxin
b) Bovine Growth Hormone
c) Ethylene
d) Trypsin

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Growth hormones aid in increased milk production in lactating cows. Approximately 18% increased milk production is noticed by injecting Bovine Growth Harmone.

4. The process to increase in volume caused by whipping air into the ice cream mix during freezing is called?
a) Homogenization
b) Aging
c) Overrun
d) Hardening

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Ice cream overrun refers to the amount of air pushed into the ice cream while it is being made. Standard of 50%overrun means that the ice cream is made with one part air to every two parts cream.

5. Semisolid ice cream is placed in a hardening room at a temperature of about?
a) -15 °C
b) -20 °C
c) -34 °C
d) -44 °C

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Ice cream is a dairy dessert. -34℃ is the temperature preferred to toughen the semisolid ice cream.

6. The “eyes” in swiss cheese are formed by the growth of which of the following microorganism?
a) Leuconostoc
b) Propionibacterium
c) Streptococcus
d) Lactobacillus

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In Swiss-type cheeses, the eyes form as a result of the activity of propionic acid bacteria (propionibacteria), notably Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. These bacteria transform lactic acid into propionic acid and carbon dioxide.

7. Yogurt contains mixed lactic acid culture containing which of the following?
a) Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
b) Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Propionibacterium
c) Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Leuconostoc
d) Leuconostoc and Propionibacterium

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as “yogurt cultures”. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are two strains used in yogurt preparation.

8. The melting point of milk fat varies normally between _______
a) 32-36 °C
b) 40-45 °C
c) 20-25 °C
d) 26-30 °C

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Milk is a mix of butter fat and water so it is slightly heavier than water. Milk Fat melts at 32-36 °C.

9. The specific gravity of milk fat at 21°C is?
a) 0.70
b) 0.82
c) 0.93
d) 0.98

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The specific gravity depends on the protein and fat content. Milk has the specific gravity of 0.93 at 21℃.

10. The iodine number measures the amount of what?
a) Free Fatty Acids
b) Saturated Fatty Acids
c) Chain Length of Fatty Acids
d) Unsaturated Glycerides

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The iodine value in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. Iodine numbers are often used to determine the amount of unsaturation in fatty acids.

11. Milk fat differs from other common fats in having a larger percentage of ______
a) Free Fatty Acids
b) Saturated Fatty Acids
c) Volatile Fatty Acids
d) Unsaturated Fatty acid

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The fat content of milk is the proportion of milk, by weight, made up by butterfat. Milk fat has higher amount of volatile fatty acids as compared to common fat.

12. Sponification number of butter fat is:-
a) 190
b) 195
c) 210
d) 231

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The saponification number is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the fatty acids resulting from the complete hydrolysis of 1g of fat. Butter fat has the Sponification number of 231.

13. Energy value of milk having 3.5% fat according to Sharp’s Formula will be?
a) 60
b) 60.5
c) 62.5
d) 65.5

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The energy value of a food is calculated based on the calories provided by the amount of protein (4 kcal/gram), carbohydrate (4 kcal/gram), and fat (9 kcal/gram) that is present. According to this the milk has an energy value of 60.5.

14. Lactose reduces copper salt to?
a) Cupric Oxide
b) Cuprous Oxide
c) Copper Oxide
d) Cupric dioxide

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Lactose is the primary milk carbohydrate. It reduces copper salt to cuprous oxide.

15. Yellow color of milk fat is due to presence of?
a) Vitamin D
b) Carotinoids
c) Calcium
d) Folic Acid

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Carotenoids are plant pigments responsible for bright red, yellow and orange hues in many fruits and vegetables. They are also responsible for yellow color in milk fat.

Set 5

1. Curd is the _______________during the cheese making process.
a) A region which supplies substantial components required
b) Material found in the stomach of young calves necessary
c) Liquid portion at the bottom on the container that is hard to dispose of
d) From Custard-like substance formed at the top of the container

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] When during the fermentation the cheese maker has gauged that sufficient lactic acid has been developed; rennet is added to cause the casein to precipitate. As the curd is formed, milk fat is trapped in a casein matrix. After adding the rennet, the cheese milk is left to form curds over a period of time. It has custard like texture.

2. Butter is made from the milk and/or cream and must contain a minimum of?
a) 5% fat
b) 20% fat
c) 50% fat
d) 80% fat

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.

3. Cottage cheese is a soft, unripened cheese with approximately _____________moisture content.
a) 20%
b) 50%
c) 80%
d) 100%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] All cottage cheeses are soft and contain a lot of water – their moisture content is up to almost 80%. The remaining one fifth consists of dry matter.

4. Parmesan and/or Romano cheese are very hard grated/shaken cheese with __________moisture content.
a) 20%
b) 30%
c) 50%
d) 70%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Parmesan is considered to be a dry cheese because its maximum moisture content is 50%. Its minimum milk fat content is 22%.

5. Rennet is used in many milk products to produce a thicker bodied product. Natural rennet comes from?
a) Mines in Eastern China
b) Microscopic plants growing the ocean
c) Inside the stomach of young claves
d) Composted cow manure treated with UV rays

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme that curdles the casein in milk. This helps young mammals digest their mothers’ milk.

6. Cultured sour cream is required by Federal standards to have a minimum of ___________
a) 3.25% fat
b) 5% fat
c) 10% fat
d) 18% fat

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Sour cream is a cultured cream product that contains about 20% butterfat and has a sour flavor.

7. Sour Cream frequently develops a bitter flavor due to continued bacterial proteolytic enzyme activity when stored for more than?
a) 1 week
b) 3-4 weeks
c) 6-8 weeks
d) 10-12 weeks

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Bitter off flavors are often indicators of excess proteolytic activity. Sour cream must remain highly viscous when in contact with warm food. Processing companies develop starter cultures that cause optimum bitter flavor development when stored more than 3-4 weeks.

8. Yogurt is manufactured from fresh, whole, low fat or skim milk that is heated before fermentation. However, Federal standards require yogurt to have a minimum of _____ fat.
a) .5%
b) 1%
c) 2%
d) 3.25%

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The fat content in yogurt is required to be 3.3% or more in full-fat yogurt . The majority of fat in yogurt is saturated (70%), but it also contains a fair amount of monounsaturated fat.

9. Low-fat yogurt must have a minimum of _______ fat and a maximum of ________fat.
a) 1%, 4%
b) .5%, 2.5%
c) .5%, 2%
d) 1%, 3.25%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The fat content can range from 0.4% – 2% in non-fat yogurt to 3.3% or more in full-fat yogurt . The majority of fat in yogurt is saturated (70%), but it also contains a fair amount of monounsaturated fat.

10. Non-fat yogurt must have a maximum of ______ fat prior to the addition of bulky flavors.
a) .5%
b) 1%
c) 2%
d) 3.25%

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The fat content can range from 0.4% – 2% in non-fat yogurt to 3.3% or more in full-fat yogurt . It should be the minimum of 0.4% prior to addition of bulky flavors.

11. Cream is a liquid milk product separated from the fluid milk that must contain a minimum of?
a) 4% fat
b) 10% fat
c) 14% fat
d) 18% fat

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cream should contain minimum of 18% fat. It can be different for different variety in the same category.

12. Heavy cream (whipping cream) contains a minimum milk fat of?
a) 10%
b) 18%
c) 30%
d) 36%

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Heavy cream has 18% milk fat. It is rich dairy product.

13. Dry cream is produced by removing the water from pasteurized milk and/or cream. Dry cream should contain a minimum of?
a) 18% fat
b) 30% fat
c) 40% fat
d) 75% fat

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] There are differences in milk-fat content. All cream contains at least 18 percent milk fat: “whipping cream” is made up of 30 percent, while cartons labeled “heavy cream” or “heavy whipping cream” must contain 36 percent or more.

14. Dry cream is produced by removing the water from pasteurized milk and/or cream. Dry cream will have a maximum milk fat of _______ for economic factors.
a) 18%
b) 30%
c) 40%
d) 75%

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Naturally rich 75%-fat powder with a naturally high fat content, Cream Powder is the perfect way to add that rich, creamy, dairy taste to products.

15. Buttermilk is the product resulting from?
a) An addition of extra fat to raw fluid milk
b) Removal of the butter (fat particles) form raw fluid milk
c) Heating of both butter and milk to facilitate the blending of them together
d) Artificial product produced using non-saturated vegetable oils

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk.