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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The milk fat differential used in paying for raw milk is?
a) The price to be added or subtracted per 1/10 % of milk fat above or below a set percentage
b) A value established to penalize milk producers who have too much fat in their milk
c) A value set to penalize milk producers who have too little fat in their milk
d) The price to be added or subtracted per 50 percent of milk fat above or below a set percentage

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The milk fat differential is the price to be added or subtracted per 1/10 % of milk fat above or below a set percentage.

2. The form of mastitis that is hidden from sight is known as __________________
a) Infectious
b) Clinical
c) Acute
d) Sub-Clinical

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Mastitis is a cow disease. Sub clinical mastitis is a kind of mastitis which is not visible.

3. Which of the following will best control contagious mastitis?
a) Pre-milking teat dip
b) Barrier type teat dip
c) Antibiotic teat dip
d) Germicidal teat dip

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Contagious mastitis spread from one cattle to another. The best way to control is by Antibiotic teat dip.

4. The Standard Plate Count (SPC) has a prescribed incubation time of _____ hours at _____ ºC
a) 24 hours at 32ºC
b) 48 hours at 45ºC
c) 48 hours at 32ºC
d) 12 hours at 45ºC

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Standard plate count test is carried out for 48 hours at 32ºC. It is also known as aerobic plate count.

5. One type of test for antibiotics, common adulterants of milk, is based upon the principle that the growth of bacteria is __________ by them.
a) Stimulated
b) Enhanced
c) Magnified
d) Inhibited

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Antibiotic inhibits growth of bacteria. This principle is used as a principla to check adulterine of milk by antibiotic.

6. The __________ test is used to detect if milk has been pasteurized properly.
a) Lipase
b) Coliform
c) Standard Plate Count
d) Phosphatase

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Pasteurization is the heat treatment for milk in order to kill pathogenic microorganisms. Phosphatase test us used to check proper pasteurization of milk has been carried out.

7. Milk provides__________ and _____________ in approximately the same ratio as found in bone.
a) Calcium and Magnesium
b) Calcium and Phosphorus
c) Calcium and Iron
d) Phosphorus and Magnesium

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Calcium and phosphorus are provided by milk. They are provided approximately the same ratio as found in bone.

8. Which of the following is not a cause of coliform mastitis?
a) Cracked or split inflations
b) Milking too soon after calving
c) Using excessive water in washing udders
d) Slightly damp, warm bedding

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Coliform mastitis caused by several reasons. Milking too soon after calving is not one of the reasons.

9. About ____________percent of the calcium available in the food supply is provided by milk and milk products.
a) 66%
b) 76%
c) 86%
d) 96%

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Milk is a major source of calcium in body. About 76% off calcium is provided by milk and milk products.

10. Which of the following directly influence(s) the total supply of milk?
a) Prices paid milk producers
b) Manufacturing plants
c) Costs of fat production
d) Foreign exports

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Milk supply is governed by several factors. Prices paid to milk producers have a direct influence on the total supply of the milk.

11. The pasteurized Milk Ordinance regulates what?
a) Grade A milk
b) Manufacturing grade milk
c) Grade B milk
d) Grade C milk

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pasteurized milk ordinance is responsible for regulating Grade A milk.

12. Dairy farmers can buy and sell dairy futures on what exchange?
a) New York Stock Exchange
b) National Dairy Exchange
c) Coffee, Sugar, Coca Exchange
d) Chicago Mercantile Exchange

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Chicago Mercantile Exchange provides a platform to farmers to buy and sell dairy futures there. It is convenient and transparent process.

13. According to the Food & Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, all people need at least _________ milligrams of calcium per day.
a) 100
b) 1000
c) 10,000
d) 100,000

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Calcium is an important component of human diet. Dairy requirement of calcium by huan body is about 1000 milligram per day.

14. The cheese price series is based on 63 U.S. cheese plants that make 80-85 percent of the bulk Cheddar. What is the price series called?
a) NASS Cheese Price Survey
b) NASS Cheddar Cheese Price Survey
c) NASS Swiss cheese Price Survey
d) U.S. Cheddar Cheese Price Survey

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] NASS cheddar cheese price survey determines the price of bulk cheddar. The prices are accepted by all.

15. What marketing tool would be used in the futures market by someone who owns a commodity such as milk and intends to sell it sometime in the future?
a) Basis contract
b) Pooling contract
c) Short Hedge
d) Speculating buyer

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A short hedge is an investment strategy that is focused on mitigating a risk that has already been taken. The “short” portion of the term refers to the act of shorting a security, usually a derivatives contract, which hedges against potential losses in an investment that is held long. It will enable the futures market by someone who owns a commodity such as milk and intends to sell it sometime in the future.

Set 2

1. How many points does dairy character receive on the Dairy Cow Unified Score Card?
a) 10
b) 15
c) 20
d) 30

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Dairy character has 20 points on Dairy Cow Unified Score card. It is one of the important aspects of judging.

2. How can extra colostrum be kept?
a) frozen in container
b) dry
c) powder
d) liquid

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Colostrum is an important source of nutrition to a calf. It can be stored in frozen form in the containers.

3. What is the minimum crude protein a good milk replacer should contain?
a) 10%
b) 24%
c) 15%
d) 35%

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Milk replacers have about 24% of crude protein. Milk replacer meets the nutritional needs of young calves and eliminates the disease and contamination risks of feeding waste milk.

4. When clipping the head and neck of a dairy animal, what two body points are used to clip forward of?
a) Forward of a line formed by the point of the shoulders and the front of the withers
b) Udders and shoulder
c) Back and front
d) Skin and udders

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Forward of a line formed by the point of the shoulders and the front of the withers should be clipped forward.

5. What is a dairy animal called which has parents or ancestors of different breeds?
a) herm
b) calf
c) same bred
d) cross bred

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. In animal breeding, crossbreed describes crosses within a single species, while hybrid refers to crosses between different species.

6. What are two types of dairy foods?
a) juice and cream
b) juice and cheese
c) cheese and yogurt
d) soda and cola

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Among the above categories cola, soda and juice aren’t dairy foods. Cheese and yogurt can be classified as dairy food.

7. On the Dairy Cow Unified Score Card, what is not the part of the four divisions?
a) age
b) general appearance
c) dairy character
d) udder

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Cow is judged on various parameters. Age is not one of the parameter.

8. What is the advantage of blending colostrums from different cows?
a) wider range of antibodies
b) wider flavor range
c) enhanced taste
d) unhealthy

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Colostrum of different cows has different nutritional composition. Blending them provides the advantage of wider range of antibodies to calf.

9. Which vitamin helps to stop bleeding by clotting the blood?
a) vitamin A
b) vitamin K
c) vitamin C
d) vitamin D

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Vitamin K helps in stopping bleeding. It is present in milk.

10. Name a piece of equipment used to fit a dairy animal.
a) clipper
b) towel
c) feather
d) bells

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] clippers are use to fit cows. These highly durable clippers are the latest in ergonomic design with non-slip polyamide finish, reducing operator fatigue and discomfort.

11. What is the reproduction cells from the two parents called?
a) egg and ovule
b) ovule and sperm
c) egg and sperm
d) steroid and egg

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Reproduction is a process of fertilization. Fertilization takes place between egg and sperm.

12. What dairy product is made by heating milk along with substance called rennet?
a) milk
b) curd
c) cheese
d) butter

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Cheese is a dairy product. It is made by heating milk and adding rennet.

13. How many points are given for body capacity on the Dairy Cow Unified Score Card?
a) 15
b) 20
c) 30
d) 10

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cows are judged on several parameters. The body capacity is judged for 10 points.

14. How many points are given for udder on the Dairy Cow Unified Score Card?
a) 35
b) 20
c) 30
d) 10

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Udders are also judged in scoring. They have 35 points in total.

15. How much should a calf gain the first month?
a) 1 pound per day
b) Half pound per day
c) 3 pounds per day
d) 5 pounds per day

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Calf should gain a lot of weight in first month. The weight gain should be around 1 pound every day.

Set 3

1. Two states dominate the total U.S. cheese production. These two states are?
a) Texas and California
b) Texas and Florida
c) New York and Wisconsin
d) Wisconsin and California

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Wisconsin and California has the highest cheese production among all USA states. Cheese a very popular dairy product.

2. Some soft serve frozen dairy products have replaced milk fat with?
a) Peanut butter
b) Honey
c) Fruits
d) Vegetable oil

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Frozen desserts have vegetable oil in it. These frozen yogurts are also a replacement to traditional ice cream. They replace milk fat with vegetable oil.

3. By FDA definition of an imitation product, which of the following is NOT true?
a) Taste like the real product it represents
b) Has the same nutritional value as the real product it represents
c) Looks like the real product it represents
d) Imitation products aren’t regulated by the FDA

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A food that is a substitute for and resembles another food shall not be deemed to be an imitation provided it meets each of the following requirements: (i) It is not nutritionally inferior to the food for which it substitutes and which it resembles.

4. A substitute product by FDA definition meets all of the following statements except?
a) Taste like the real product it represents
b) Has the same nutritional value as the real product in replaces
c) They looks like the real product it represents
d) Imitation products are not regulated by the FDA

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Imitation products are regulated by FDA. Hence the statement is not true.

5. Some dairy food products have a “REAL” seal on the package. This seal cannot be placed on a package that does NOT adhere to the following standards.
a) Produced from U.S. milk
b) Meets federal and state standards
c) Imitation or substitute foods
d) Produced from NON-organic sources

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Products bearing the REAL® Seal are certified as having been made in this country with milk from cows on U.S. dairy farms and without imported, imitation, or substitute ingredients. The REAL® Seal means not only that a product is made with real dairy foods, but that it is made in the USA.

6. Osteoporosis may be reduced by consuming adequate quantities of milk and/or milk products. Osteoporosis is the?
a) Inflammation of the skin cells causing hair loss and scaling of the skin
b) Condition of deterioration of the soft tissue in the retina, leading to blurry vision and poor eye sight
c) Loss of bone mass due to decrease in the bone matrix and minerals
d) Development of a hard calloused layer of skin upon the sole of the foot

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. It may be reduced by the consumption of milk and milk products.

7. Properly processed UHT milk may be stored at room temperature for?
a) 24-28 hours
b) 10-15 days
c) Several weeks
d) 6 months

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An alternative process is HTST pasteurization (high temperature/short time), in which the milk is heated to72 °C (162 °F) for at least 15 seconds. UHT milk packaged in a sterile container, if not opened, has a typical unrefrigerated shelf life of six to nine months.

8. Milk sold through commercial outlets is certified to be from herds free of?
a) B.S.T.
b) Displaced Abomasums
c) Broken Udder Suspensory Ligaments
d) Tuberculosis

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Commercial outlet makes sure that the milk sold by them are from the herds free of tuberculosis. Hence consumer health is not suffered.

9. Humans may contract ______________ from using raw cows’ or goats’ milk, should the animals have brucellosis.
a) Undulant fever
b) Mumps
c) Whooping cough
d) Night blindness

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Undulant fever: An infectious disease due to the bacteria Brucella that characteristically causes rising and falling fevers, sweats, malaise, weakness, anorexia, headache, myalgia (muscle pain) and back pain. In the US, infection occurs more frequently by ingesting contaminated milk and dairy products.

10. Milk is produced from female’s mammary glands. These mammary glands are examples of ________
a) Adrenal gland
b) Excretory gland
c) Absorbatory gland
d) Exocrine gland

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammal’s lactation, the production of enough milk for nursing, occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years.

11. The secretary tissue within the mammary gland is a grapelike structure called?
a) Alveoli
b) Clitoris
c) Glanus cistern
d) Annular ring

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A mammary alveolus is a small cavity or sac found in the mammary gland. Mammary alveoli are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland.

12. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) asks that you used only ___________milk.
a) Colostrum
b) Milk after dry-off
c) The first stream during milking
d) The 2nd stream during milking

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The California mastitis test (CMT) is a simple cow-side indicator of the somatic cell count of milk. It operates by disrupting the cell membrane of any cells present in the milk sample, allowing the DNA in those cells to react with the test reagent, forming a gel.It uses 2nd stream during milking.

13. How many cc’s of milk is required for the CMT?
a) 6 cc
b) 4 cc
c) 2 cc
d) ½ cc

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The California mastitis test (CMT) is a simple cow-side indicator of the somatic cell count of milk. It requires about 2cc of milk.

14. The CMT should be read within _____________
a) 10 sec
b) 20 sec
c) 30 sec
d) 40 sec

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The CMT test should be analyzed within 20 sec. Otherwise the test value change.

15. What is the healthiest range for somatic cell counts?
a) 400,000-1,200,000
b) 200,000-400,000
c) 0-200,000
d) 5,000,000+

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A somatic cell count (SCC) is a cell count of somatic cells in a fluid specimen, usually milk. General agreement rests on a reference range less than 200,000 cells/mL for uninfected cows.

Set 4

1. If the CMT has a somatic cell count of 1,200,000 to 5,000,000 what is the interpretation?
a) Serious mastitis
b) Subclinical mastitis
c) Negative (healthy)
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] 1,200,000 – 5,000,000 count of CMT interprets Serious Mastitis Infection. Such cow milk is not preferred.

2. What does HACCP stand for?
a) High Altitude Computer Control Protocol
b) High Aptitude Critical Consideration and Punctuality
c) Help Animals in Confined Conditions and Preserves
d) Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Hazard analysis and critical control points ( HACCP ) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes .

3. Milk must be held at 191 degrees F for ___________________ to be considered pasteurized.
a) 30 minutes
b) 1 second
c) 2 seconds
d) 5 minutes

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pasteurization is the heat treatment in order to kill pathogenic microorganisms from milk. The milk should be held at 191 F for 1 sec.

4. According to HACCP, what is a receiving station?
a) Where supplies are received
b) Where trucks receive milk
c) Anywhere raw milk is received, handled, stored, etc
d) Where cows enter to be milked

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] HACCP gives a proper definition for receiving station. Receiving station is a place where raw milk is received, handled, stored etc.

5. How often will HACCP inspect each Dairy Farm?
a) A minimum of every 6 months
b) A minimum of once each year
c) A minimum of once each month
d) A minimum of every 2 years

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The implementation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) rule and FSIS’ laboratory testing programs are two areas that help ensure the safety of the meat, poultry, and egg products supply. The inspection is done every six months.

6. When sanitizing milking equipment with water, the temperature must be a minimum of 170 degrees F and the utensils are to be under the flow of water for ____________ minutes.
a) 10
b) 15
c) 1
d) 5

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In general, equipment should be rinsed with lukewarm 100 to 180°F water immediately after milking to prevent drying of milk solids on surfaces. The utensils should be under the flow of water for at least 5 minutes.

7. Milk protein allergies are a form of milk intolerance. This generally occur only in infants and is usually outgrown by?
a) 6 month of age
b) 12 months of age
c) 18 months of age
d) 24 months of age

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Fortunately, most babies outgrow milk allergies by their second year.

8. Low levels of the enzyme lactase may lead to lactose intolerance. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include ALL of the following EXCEPT?
a) Headaches
b) Nausea
c) Diarrhea
d) Abdominal cramps

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The symptoms of lactose intolerance typically occur between 30 minutes and two hours after eating or drinking a milk or dairy product, and may include: abdominal cramps, Bloating, gas, diarrhea and nausea.

9. The maximum moisture content of Cheddar cheese is?
a) 12%
b) 23%
c) 30%
d) 39%

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cheddar cheese is a special variety of cheese. Moisture content of cheese can be a maximum of 39%.

10. An example of an extra hard cheese is?
a) Parmesan
b) Muenster
c) Ricotta
d) Brie

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Extra-Hard is a term used to describe a group of various cheeses that are hard and brittle. These cheeses get so hard because they are low-fat and low-moisture. In addition to grating well, they are usually aged up to 3 years to develop a sharp flavour. Parmesan is an example of extra hard cheese.

11. To add the mold to the blue cheese it is mainly?
a) Injected into the cheese
b) Grown on the cheese
c) Mixed in the whey mixture
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Blue or bleu cheese has the mold Penicillium added to it, so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, blue-gray, or blue-green mold. Someblue cheeses are injected with spores before the curds form.

12. What is the average fat content of Brie?
a) 15%
b) 30%
c) 45%
d) 65%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Brie is labeled as 45 percent fat, fat comprises only 30 percent of the entire cheese. In general, Brie is a healthy food choice that is lower in fat than most cheeses and is also naturally low in carbohydrates.

13. Cream cheese is different from cottage cheese because?
a) Cream cheese is an acid curd and cottage cheese is not
b) Cream cheese is made from cows’ milk and cottage cheese is not
c) Cream cheese requires a started culture of bacteria and cottage cheese does not
d) All rest options are true for both Cream cheese and cottage cheese

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Cream cheese, soft, smooth, unripened cheese made either with cream or with a mixture of milk and cream. Cream cheese is similar to cottage cheese but is higher in fat content, cottage cheese being made from skim or nonfat milk. Also Cream cheese requires a started culture of bacteria and cottage cheese does not.

14. Gouda can be described by all of the following except?
a) Semi-hard
b) Yellow colored
c) Rind coating
d) Tart flavor

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Gouda is a Dutch yellow cheese made from cow’s milk. It is a semi-hard cheese with rind coating.

15. Monterey Jack cheese has a maximum moisture content of ___________%
a) 24
b) 36
c) 44
d) 60

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Monterey Jack is a semi-soft to semi-firm cheese due to its intermediate moisture content and its colour can be described as creamy to buttery white. It has the MC of 44%.

Set 5

1. Standardization of milk involved which of the following?
a) Adjustment of fat content
b) Breakdown of protein
c) Whitish appearance of milk
d) Increase in nutritional content of milk

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Standardization of fat content involves adjustment of the fat content of milk, or a milk product, by addition of cream or skim milk as appropriate to obtain a given fat content.

2. Which of the following method is used in standardization of milk?
a) Pearson square method
b) Donald method
c) Jake method
d) Pearson cube method

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] One of these methods, frequently used, is taken from the Dictionary of Dairying by J.G. Davis and is illustrated by Pearson square method. How many kg of cream of A% fat must be mixed with skim milk of B% fat to make a mixture containing C% fat? The answer is obtained from a square, where the given figures for fat contents are placed.

3. The pressure in the skim milk outlet must be kept _______ in order to enable accurate standardization.
a) High
b) Low
c) Constant
d) Steep

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The pressure in the skim milk outlet must be kept constant in order to enable accurate standardization. This pressure must be maintained regardless of variations in flow or pressure drop caused by the equipment after separation, and this is done with a constant-pressure valve located close to the skim milk outlet.

4. Which of factor does not affect the precision in standardization process?
a) Fluctuations in the fat content of the incoming milk
b) Fluctuations in throughput
c) Fluctuations in preheating temperature
d) Fluctuation in protein content

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] For precision in the process it is necessary to measure variable parameters such as fluctuations in the fat content of the incoming milk, fluctuations in throughput, and fluctuations in preheating temperature. Most of the variables are interdependent; any deviation in one stage of the process often results in deviations in all stages.

5. The cream fat content is _______ to the flow rate.
a) Inversely proportional
b) Directly proportional
c) Neither inversely proportional nor directly proportional
d) Increased

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The cream fat content is inversely proportional to the flow rate. Some standardization systems therefore use flow meters to control the fat content.

6. What is the objective of Bactofugation?
a) Separate microorganisms from milk
b) Separate fat from skim milk
c) Standardize milk
d) Separate fat globules

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Bactofugation is a Belgian process for removing bacteria from milk by high speed centrifugation. It aims at separation of microorganisms from milk.

7. Which of the following device is used in Bactofugation?
a) Decanter
b) Centrifuge
c) Bactofuge
d) Filter

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Bacteria, especially heat resistant spores, have a significantly higher density than the milk. A Bactofuge is therefore a particularly efficient means of ridding milk of bacteria spores. Since these spores are also resistant to heat treatment, the Bactofuge makes a useful complement to thermisation, pasteurization and sterilization.

8. Major Application of Bactofugation is in which of the following processing?
a) Wine processing
b) Juice processing
c) Cheese processing
d) Ice cream processing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridium – anaerobic spore-forming bacteria – are among the most feared by cheese makers, as they can cause late blowing of cheese even if present in small numbers. That is why cheese milk is bactofugated.

9. The amount of bactofugate from the two-phase Bactofuge ______ as compared to one-phase Bactofuge.
a) More
b) Less
c) Constant
d) Variable

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The amount of bactofugate from the two-phase Bactofuge is about 3% of the feed, while the corresponding amount from the one-phase Bactofuge can be as low as 0.15% of the feed.

10. A decanter centrifuge is a machine for continuous sedimentation of suspended solids from a liquid by the action of ________in an elongated, horizontal rotating bowl.
a) Centrifugal force
b) Gravitation force
c) Friction force
d) Force of resistance

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A decanter centrifuge separates solid materials from liquids in slurry by centrifugal force. It plays an important role in wastewater treatment, chemical, oil and food processing industries.

11. How much whole milk with 3.9% fat and skimmed milk with 0.04% fat content will you need to produce 2000 kg of standardized milk with 2.5% fat?
a) 725.4 kg
b) 825.4 kg
c) 925.4 kg
d) 715.4 g

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Using Pearson’s Square method:

dairy-engineering-questions-answers-standardization-q11

Proportion of the whole milk = 2.46/3.86 Amount of whole milk required = (2.46/3.86)*2000 = 1274.6 kg Proportion of skimmed milk = 1.4/3.86 Amount of skimmed milk required = (1.4/3.86)*2000 = 725.4 kg (or 2000 – 1274.6)

12. 500 kg of milk testing 6.5% fat to be standardized to 3.1% fat using skim milk containing 0.05% fat. Therefore, the quantity of skim milk required to be added to 500 kg whole milk will be?
a) 557.38 kg
b) 440 kg
c) 850 kg
d) 500 kg

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:]

dairy-engineering-questions-answers-standardization-q12

Thus mixing of 3.05 kg of 6.5% fat milk with 3.40 kg of the skim milk will yield 6.45 kg of milk containing the desired fat level i.e. 3.1%. Therefore, the quantity of skim milk required to be added to 500 kg whole milk will be (3.4 x 500)/3.05=3.05. Accordingly, 557.38 kg of 0.05% skim milk mixed with 500 kg of 6.5% fat whole milk will yield 1057.38 kg of milk having 3.1% fat.

13. Which of the following standardization is more desirable in large-scale operation?
a) Continuous
b) Batch
c) No standardization
d) Centrifugation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Continuous, on-line blending is much more desirable in a large-scale operation. This can be achieved on the cream separator itself by allowing sufficient cream to remix with the skim milk so that the mixture is milk with the desired fat content; the balance cream flows through the cream line into the cream tank. This requires that the separator is fitted with a standardizing device.

14. How many parts by weight of 40% cream and 3% milk must be mixed to make milk testing 5% fat?
a) 2 and 35
b) 4 and 45
c) 5 and 10
d) 6 and 12

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] 2.0 parts of 40% cream when mixed with 35 parts of 3.0% milk will give 37 parts of 5% milk. Calculated using Pearson square method.

15. Fat is added back to skim milk in the process of standardization. State true or false?
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When standardizing dairy products, the cream and milk are first separated on a dairy line. The two elements are then mixed together again. However, not all of the original fat content is added back; only the exact level required for milk to be classified as skimmed, semi skimmed or whole.