Multiple choice question for engineering
1. By regulation, milk from cows treated with antibiotics usually must be withheld for ____ hours.
a) 48 – 72
b) 30 – 60
c) 48 – 108
d) 72 – 96
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk from cows treated with antibiotic is held as most of the people are sensitive to antibiotic. The milk is withheld for 48-72 hours.
2. Rules developed by the _____ are designed to protect the health and welfare of consumers.
a) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
b) Protein and Lactose Organization (PLO)
c) Future Farmers of America (FFA)
d) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Answer: d [Reason:] The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices; and by ensuring the safety of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.
3. The standard plate count (SPC) estimates the total numbers of ____ microorganisms.
Answer: d [Reason:] The Aerobic Plate Count (APC) is used as an indicator of bacterial populations on a sample. It is also called the aerobic colony count, standard plate count, Mesophilic count or Total Plate Count. It estimates the number of aerobic microorganisms.
4. The predominant bacteria of milk that produces lactic acid, which is responsible for the sour taste of milk are the?
Answer: d [Reason:] Streptococcus are predominant bacteria present in milk which produce lactic acid. They are responsible for the sour taste of milk.
5. The traditional method of pricing milk has used a milk fat differential of one tenth of one percent from a milk fat base of ______ percent.
Answer: c [Reason:] : The milk fat differential is the price to be added or subtracted per 1/10 % of milk fat above or below a set percentage. The fat base is of 3.5%.
6. The United States government purchases surplus ____ from the commercial market under the dairy price support program.
a) Fluid milk products, butter, cheese
b) Cheese, nonfat dry milk, butter
c) Butter, evaporated milk, ice cream
d) Ice milk, yogurt, cottage cheese
Answer: b [Reason:] In order to reduce risk the United state govt. purchases surplus cheese, nonfat dry milk and butter from the commercial market. This is done under Dairy price support program.
7. The feed additive isoacid gives a ______ pound daily milk response, with maximum response in early lactation.
a) 2 to 4
b) 4 to 6
c) 6 to 8
d) 8 to 10
Answer: b [Reason:] Isoacids are the branched ketoacids resulting from the natural rumen degradation of their corresponding amino acids. Their feed results in 4-6 pounds dairy milk response in cattle.
8. Mixture of milk and cream containing not less than 10.5 percent milk fat, but less than 18 percent milk fat, is the definition of?
a) Light whipping cream
b) Light cream
d) Heavy cream
Answer: c [Reason:] Half-and-half, also known as half cream in the United Kingdom, is a simple blend of equal parts whole milk and light cream. It averages 10 to 12% fat, which is more than milk but less than light cream. Due to its lower fat content than cream, it can’t be whipped.
9. One of the mechanisms used by the USDA to remove surplus dairy products from the supply is to subsidize manufacturers who sell overseas at a loss. This is called the?
a) Price Support Program
b) Butter-Powder Formula
c) Dairy Export Incentive Program
d) Commodity Credit Program
Answer: c [Reason:] The Dairy Export Incentive Program (DEIP) is a program that offers subsidies to exporters of U.S. dairy products to help them compete with other nations. USDA pays cash to exporters as bonuses to help them sell certain U.S. dairy products at prices below the exporter’s cost of acquiring them.
10. Under which of the following weather conditions would you expect to observe the greatest decrease in milk yield per cow?
a) Cold and dry
b) Hot and humid
c) Cool and humid
d) Warm and dry
Answer: b [Reason:] Hot and humid weather conditions leads to decrease in milk yield in cows.
11. Although milk from the cow is processed, it is not an engineered or fabricated food and contains about ________ % solids.
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk is approximately 87 percent water and 13 percent solids. As it comes from the cow, the solids portion of milk contains approximately 3.7 percent fat and 9 percent solids-not-fat. Milkfat carries the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
12. Dairy cows need _________ day dry periods for rejuvenation of secretory tissue and restoration of body condition.
Answer: b [Reason:] Dry period, includes the time between halting of milk removal (milk stasis) and the subsequent calving. Generally, 45 to 50 days is recommended. If the period is less than 40 days, then milk yield in the next lactation will be decreased.
13. Due to high leukocyte counts, farmers should not use the CMT before the ________ day after calving or test milk from cows that are being dried off.
Answer: c [Reason:] Farmers should refrain from using CMT before the 3rd day of calving. This is due to the high leukocyte count of milk.
14. From the mid 1950’s until 2009, the size of the U.S. dairy herd has?
a) Decreased by 50%
b) Remained static
c) Increased by 50%
d) More than doubled mirroring the population growth
Answer: a [Reason:] There has been a sharp decrease in the dairy herd since 1950- 2009. The decrease has been by almost 50%.
15. From the mid 1950’s until 2009, individual production per cow has?
a) Remained static
b) Increased by 50%
c) Increased by100%
d) Increased by 400%
Answer: d [Reason:] There is a huge increase in individual production per cow from 1950-2009. The increase is of almost 400%.
1. Aeration in milk doesn’t occur in which of the following states?
a) Dispersed state
b) Dissolved state
c) Chemically bound state
d) Crystal state
Answer: d [Reason:] Air in milk occurs in three states namely Dispersed; Dissolved; and chemically bound.
2. Milk in udder contains what percentage of gases?
Answer: a [Reason:] The total volume of air in milk in the udder can be some 4.5 – 6 %, of which
O2 constitutes about 0.1%, N2 (nitrogen) about 1% and CO2 3.5 – 4.9%.
3. Dispersed air in milk cause problems. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] It is not unusual for incoming milk to contain 10% air by volume or even more. Finely and coarsely dispersed air predominates at this stage. Dispersed air causes problems.
4. Aeration leads to ______ in volumetric measurement of milk.
Answer: d [Reason:] Inaccuracy in volumetric measurement of milk is observed due to dispersion of air in the milk.
5. Which among the following are problem associated with aeration in milk?
I) Incrustation of heating surfaces in pasteurizers (fouling)
II) Reduced skimming efficiency in separators
III) Loss of precision in automatic in-line standardization
IV) Inaccurate in-line fat standardization
a) I) ,II) and III)
b) I) and II)
c) I), II), III) and IV)
d) I) only
Answer: c [Reason:] The basic problems caused by dispersed air are Inaccuracy in volumetric measurement of milk, incrustation of heating surfaces in pasteurizers (fouling), reduced skimming efficiency in separators, loss of precision in automatic in-line standardization and concentration of air in cream, causing inaccurate in-line fat standardization.
6. In order to make milk pass through air eliminator the inlet of the cylindrical vessel must be located at a ______ level than the outlet pipe of the milk tank on the vehicle.
Answer: b [Reason:] The inlet of the cylindrical vessel must be located at a lower level than the outlet pipe of the milk tank(s) on the vehicle, as the milk should not be pumped into the vessel but transferred to it by gravity.
7. Efficiency of milk deaerator depends on which of the following factor?
a) Fat content
c) Fat globule size
d) Dispersion of air
Answer: d [Reason:] The deaeration system can be manually or automatically operated. In both cases the efficiency of air elimination depends very much on how finely dispersed the air is. The smallest air bubbles cannot be removed.
8. Which law forms the basis of working of deaerator?
a) James law
b) Planck law
c) Law of thermodynamic
d) Henry law
Answer: d [Reason:] According to William Henry in 1803 it state, that gas solubility in a solution decreases as the gas partial pressure above the solution decreases. The solubility of a gas dissolved in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
9. Solubility of gases decrease with ________ in solution temperature.
c) No change
d) Increase and decrease
Answer: a [Reason:] Solubility of gases decrease with increase in solution temperature and or decrease
in pressure. The solubility of gas in a solution decreases as the temperature of the solution rises and approaches saturation temperature.
10. Which of the deaerator have application in dairy industry?
a) Tray type
b) Vacuum type
c) Spray type
d) Bubble type
Answer: b [Reason:] Vacuum deaeration has been used successfully to expel dissolved air and finely dispersed air bubbles from milk. Warm (Preheated) milk is fed into an expansion vessel in which the vacuum level is adjusted to a level equivalent to a boiling point.
11. Components of vacuum deaerator are?
II) Vacuum pump
III) Pump unit
a) I) only
b) II) only
c) III) only
d) I),II) and III)
Answer: d [Reason:] A vacuum deaerator consists of three main components a vacuum deaerator, a vacuum pump unit and a pump unit.
12. What is the oxygen content of commercial mixed raw milk?
Answer: a [Reason:] Commercial mixed raw milk constitutes about 0.47% of oxygen in it. The total volume of air in milk in the udder can be some 4.5 – 6 %, of which oxygen constitutes about 0.1%.
13. What is the nitrogen content of commercial mixed raw milk?
Answer: b [Reason:] Commercial mixed raw milk constitutes about 1.29% of nitrogen in it. The total volume of air in milk in the udder can be some 4.5 – 6 %, of which nitrogen constitutes about 1%.
14. What is the carbon dioxide content of commercial mixed raw milk?
Answer: c [Reason:] Commercial mixed raw milk constitutes about 4.45% of carbon dioxide in it. The total volume of air in milk in the udder can be some 4.5 – 6 %, of which carbon dioxide constitutes about 3.5- 4.9%.
15. Factors that lead to excess air in milk are?
a) Gravity and temperature
b) Temperature and atmospheric pressure
c) Temperature and volume
d) Volume and pressure
Answer: b [Reason:] The equilibrium that prevails between three states of aggregation is determined by temperature and atmospheric pressure. The rise in temperature during pasteurization for instance, dissolved air goes from solution to dispersion causing problem.
1. Why is it necessary to study flow behavior in dairy?
a) To design food processing plant
b) To prevent spoilage
c) To design food processing plant and prevent spoilage
d) For nutrition
Answer: c [Reason:] Study of flow behavior is important for the designing of food processing plant. In the dairy industry; in particular, there are cream and cultured milk products whose characteristics can be partially or completely spoiled if their flow behavior is not understood.
2. The science of deformation and flow of matter is called _____
Answer: d [Reason:] Rheology is defined as the science of deformation and flow of matter. Bending is one of the flow behaviors.
3. Consistency can be described as :
d) Viscosity and elasticity
Answer: d [Reason:] Rheologically the consistency is described by two components, the viscosity (“thickness”, lack of slipperiness) and the elasticity (“stickiness”, structure). Breakability is the quality of being easily damaged or destroyed.
4. Rheology stands for viscosity measurements, characterisation of flow behavior and determination of material structure. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] Rheology involves viscosity measurements; it involves characterization of flow behavior and determination of material structure. Basic knowledge of these subjects is essential in process design and product quality evaluation.
5. The time required to reduce a stress in the material by flow is called __________
a) Peak time
b) Relaxation time
c) Stress time
d) No time
Answer: b [Reason:] One way of characterizing a material is by its relaxation time, i.e. the time required to reduce a stress in the material by flow. It is important to study flow behavior of the milk.
6. Milk is a ______ fluid.
Answer: a [Reason:] Gases and liquids are normally described as viscous fluids. An ideal viscous fluid is unable to store any deformation energy.
7. Which fluids are having a constant viscosity dependent on temperature but independent of the applied shear rate?
a) Non- Newtonian
Answer: b [Reason:] Newtonian fluids are those having a constant viscosity dependent on temperature but independent of the applied shear rate. Dry and wet are irrelevant.
8. A Newtonian fluid is defined as the fluid which?
a) Obeys hook’s law
b) Is compressible
c) Obey Newton’s law of viscosity
d) Is incompressible
Answer: c [Reason:] Newtonian fluid is defined as the fluid which obeys Newton’s law of viscosity for a Newtonian fluid. The viscosity curve, which is a plot of viscosity versus shear rate, will show a straight line at a constant value equal to h.
9. Property of fluid that describes its internal resistance is known as:
d) Internal energy
Answer: a [Reason:] Property of fluid that describes its internal resistance is called viscosity. Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of fluid layers.
10. Stress strain relationship for Newtonian fluid is :
d) Inverse type
Answer: c [Reason:] Newtonian fluid has a linear stress strain relationship. The increase in stress directly corresponds to increase in strain.
11. For non-Newtonian fluids, apparent viscosity is a function of :
a) shear rate
b) flow rate
c) viscous rate
d) specific rate
Answer: a [Reason:] Non Newtonian fluid apart from being shear rate dependent .The viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids may also be time dependent.
12. The diagram below is a graph of change in shear stress with respect to velocity gradient in a fluid. What is a type of the fluid?
b) Non Newtonian
Answer: a [Reason:] The above diagram represents the relationship between Shear stress and velocity gradient of Non- Newtonian fluid. It is non-linear.
13. Which of the following are now Newtonian material which are time independent?
Answer: d [Reason:] Non-Newtonian materials that are time independent are defined as shear thinning. They can also be shear thickening or plastic.
14. Which of the following are now Newtonian materials which are time dependent?
a) Shear thickening
c) Shear thinning
Answer: b [Reason:] Non-Newtonian materials that are time dependent are defined as thixotropic. They can also be rheopectic or anti-thixotropic.
15. Which among the following is not the example of thixotropic fluid?
b) Ice cream
Answer: d [Reason:] Typical examples of thixotropic fluids are yoghurt. Mayonnaise, margarine, ice cream and brush paint also come in the same category.
1. What does NSC stand for?
a) Nonstructural Carbons
b) Nitrogen Standard Calculation
c) Nonstructural Carbohydrates
d) Nitrogen Substitute Calories
Answer: c [Reason:] NSC is Nonstructural Carbohydrate. Generally, feedstuff that is high in fiber is low in nonstructural carbohydrates and low in energy. For example, grass hay is high fiber and low in nonstructural carbohydrates and energy.
2. What do nonstructural carbohydrates consist of?
b) Plant proteins, pectin, and sugar
c) Plant sugars
d) Plant starch, pectin, and sugar
Answer: d [Reason:] Carbohydrates can be divided into two general categories: nonstructural and structural carbohydrates. Starches, pectin and sugars are known as nonstructural carbohydrates and are digested by enzymes and absorbed in the foregut.
3. What acid is formed when nonstructural carbohydrates are digested in the rumen?
a) Lactic acid
b) Citric acid
c) Propyl-hydro chloride
d) Propionic acid
Answer: d [Reason:] Starches and sugars are known as nonstructural carbohydrates and are digested by enzymes and absorbed in the foregut. They form Propionic acid when digested in rumen.
4. What fat-soluble vitamins do fats provide?
a) Vitamins A, D, E, and K
b) Vitamins A, B, E, and K
c) Vitamins A, C, E, and K
d) Vitamins A, C, D, E, and K
Answer: a [Reason:] The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess than water-soluble vitamins. Eating a normal, well-balanced diet will not lead to toxicity in otherwise healthy individuals.
5. How much more energy do fats contain per unit than carbohydrates and proteins?
Answer: b [Reason:] Fats require more oxidation to become CO2 and H2O than do carbohydrates. Generally, fats provide about 9 kilocalories per gram and carbohydrates provide about 4 kilocalories per gram.
6. Which cows have higher protein requirements?
a) High-producing and open cows
b) Low-producing and pregnant cows
c) High-producing and pregnant cows
d) Low-producing and open cows
Answer: c [Reason:] Ruminants need a daily supply of all nutrients required for maintenance and production: milk, meat, growth and pregnancy. Quantitatively any of the type of nutrient can limit performance levels, but the most likely to be in short supply are energy and protein; this is especially true for high and average yielding cows.
7. Where are degradable proteins broken down?
Answer: d [Reason:] Degradable Protein (RDP) is the fraction of Crude Protein (CP) consumed which is broken down by rumen microbes. A much simpler bench top was proposed in which feed samples are incubated with a mixture of protein- degrading enzymes extracted from the rumen.
8. Where are undegradable proteins absorbed?
a) Large intestine
c) Small Intestine
Answer: c [Reason:] Undegradable protein (RUP) is defined as that portion of dietary protein that escapes degradation by ruminal microorganisms and is passed into the small intestine for digestion and absorption. Metabolizable protein (MP) is defined as the true protein absorbed in the small intestine.
9. What is the average mature weight for a Jersey cow?
a) 1000 lb
b) 1400 lb
c) 800 lb
d) 500 lb
Answer: a [Reason:] The average mature size for Jerseys is approximately 1,000 pounds and the range in weight and height of mature Jersey cows is narrower compared to ranges described for larger dairy breeds.
10. If there are large numbers of flies around the dairy barn, what should be the first thing to be examined in an attempt to solve the fly problem?
a) Cow feeding procedures
b) Milking procedures
c) Manure handling procedures
d) Calf feeding procedures
Answer: c [Reason:] Fly problems are quiet common in dairy farms. In order to handle such problems the first step is to check into the manure handling procedures.
11. When referring to rations, what do the letters NFC stand for?
a) Not for Consumption
b) Non-fungus Community
c) National Football Camp
d) Nonforage Carbohydrates
Answer: d [Reason:] Some laboratories distinguish between NFC (non-fiber carbohydrate) and NSC (nonstructural carbohydrate). They define NFC by the above equation [100-(%NDF + %CP + %Fat + Ash)]. They define NSC as only the starches and sugars in the feed or forage. Starches and sugars can be determined directly by enzymatic analysis.
12. Where is the National Cheese Exchange Located?
a) Chicago, Illinois
b) Green Bay, Wisconsin
c) Madison Wisconsin
d) Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Answer: b [Reason:] The National Cheese Exchange (NCE) was a private non-profit corporation that operated in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Each Friday morning for one-half hour, members of the NCE met to buy or sell cheddar cheese in 40-pound blocks and 500-pound barrels on the exchange.
13. In a cow, where would you find an alveolus?
Answer: b [Reason:] The interior of each quarter of the udder is composed of a teat cistern, a gland cistern, milk ducts, and glandular tissue. The glandular tissue placed deep within the udder contains millions of microscopic sacs called alveoli; each alveolus is lined with milk-producing epithelial cells.
14. When discussing lactation records, what does the term “fat corrected milk” mean?
a) Fat has been added to the milk to the correct level
b) Fat has been extracted from the milk to the correct level
c) Lactation records are being adjusted to the same milk fat percentage
d) The lactation record have a average amount of milk fat
Answer: c [Reason:] Fat-corrected milk (FCM) is a means of adjusting the milk yield for the amount of fat in the milk to reflect the relative energy concentration in the milk, thus if reflects the amount of energy required to produce the given amount of milk. It means Lactation records have been adjusted to the same milk fat percentage.
15. What percent non-fiber carbohydrate should a ration contain for high producing cows?
a) 35 to 40 percent
b) 10 to 20 percent
c) 56 to 61 percent
d) 22 to 27 percent
Answer: a [Reason:] Non fiber carbohydrate is an important component of the cow’s milk. 35-40%non fiber carbohydrate should be present in the ration of high producing cow.
1. Corn silage stored in sealed uprights should be ensiled at what moisture?
a) No less than 40 percent moisture
b) No less than 50 percent moisture
c) No less than 60 percent moisture
d) No less than 30 percent moisture
Answer: c [Reason:] Corn silage is a safe feed. It works well for starting cattle on feed. Corn silage stored in sealed uprights should be ensiled at no less than 60 percent moisture.
2. What percent moisture should corn silage be chopped at when stored in horizontal silos-bunkers or bags?
a) 10 percent moisture
b) 20 percent moisture
c) 30 percent moisture
d) 70 percent moisture
Answer: d [Reason:] Corn silage is a popular feed with Missouri cattle feeders. Harvesting corn as silage furnishes 50 to 60 percent more nutrients per acre for beef cattle. 70% moisture corn silage be chopped at when stored in horizontal silos-bunkers or bags.
3. What do the letters FSA stand for?
a) Farm Service Agency
b) Farm Study Agency
c) Farm Sales Agency
d) Farm Safety Administration
Answer: a [Reason:] The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is the United States Department of Agriculture agency into which were merged several predecessor agencies, including the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service.
4. What does BVD stand for?
a) Boring Viral Distress
b) Bovine Viral Disease
c) Bovine Viral Dumbness
d) Bovine Viral Diarrhea
Answer: d [Reason:] Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) is a significant economic disease of cattle which is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. BVD is a viral disease of cattle that can cause many problems in a herd.
5. Neospora caninum is a major cause of what in pregnant cows?
c) Nutrition deficiency
d) Chronic diarrhea
Answer: a [Reason:] Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that is emerging as an important infectious cause of weak calves and abortion in cattle.
6. When referring to vaccinations, what do the letters MLV stand for?
a) Milking Line Vaccination
b) Modified Live Virus
c) Milker’s Logical Vaccination
d) Modified Loving Virus
Answer: b [Reason:] Live vaccines contain bacteria or a virus that has been modified (MLV). This means they’ve lost their disease-causing ability (attenuated) or are administered by a route that prevents them from causing clinical disease.
7. Where is the Dairy Shrine located?
a) El Paso, Illinois
b) Dayton, Ohio
c) Madison, Wisconsin
d) Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin
Answer: d [Reason:] The National Dairy Shrine is an American dairying group founded in 1949 and based in Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. The shrine promotes the dairy industry and records its history. As of 2007, the organization had over 18,000 members from most facets of dairying.
8. When the environmental temperature falls below 30°F, the normal diet of a young calf should be supplemented with _______________
c) Vitamin A
d) None of the above
Answer: b [Reason:] In case of temperature dripping below 30°F it is recommended that the normal young calf diet should be supplemented with Energy. This energy helps the calf to tackle temperature drip.
9. When did the World Dairy Expo start sponsoring a collegiate judging contest?
Answer: c [Reason:] National dairy cattle judging contests are one of the highlights at World Dairy Expo. They were sponsored since the year 1968.